HAPPY THANKSGIVING


 

Happy THANKSGIVING to all my blog readers, subscribers and followers.

Thanks for making my blog rocking.

 

 

10 Tips for Lowering Your Cholesterol


We all want to be heart-healthy, and ensuring healthy levels of cholesterol — a fat, or lipid, carried through the bloodstream — is the first step.

Low-density lipoprotein or LDL (bad) cholesterol contributes to plaque buildup along with triglycerides, another lipid. High-density lipoprotein or HDL (good) cholesterol discourages plaque buildup. Plaque can threaten the blood supply to the heart, brain, legs or kidneys, leading to heart attack, stroke or even death.

The preventive cardiology team in Cleveland Clinic’s Sydell and Arnold Miller Family Heart & Vascular Institute is dedicated to making sure these medical emergencies never occur.

Registered dietitian Kate Patton, MEd, RD, CCSD, LD, and exercise physiologist Michael Crawford, MS, cardiac rehabilitation supervisor, share these ten tips — five for lowering cholesterol through diet and five for making the most of exercise:

  • Chicken in fryer

  • 1. Cut back on animal fats
  • Forgo fatty meats, like processed meats such as bologna, salami, pepperoni and hot dogs; and fatty red meats, such as ribs and prime cuts of beef, pork, veal or lamb. Also, skip skin on chicken or turkey. Avoid full-fat dairy products such as whole milk, cheese, cream, sour cream, cream cheese and butter. These foods contain saturated fat as well as cholesterol — both associated with higher blood cholesterol and plaque buildup.
  • Oats

  • 2. Make friends with fiber

    Specifically, get friendly with foods high in soluble fiber. In the gut, soluble fiber can bind to bile (which is made up of cholesterol) and remove it. Look for soluble fiber in oats, oat bran, ground flaxseed, psyllium,  barley, dried beans and legumes, fruits and root vegetables, as well as some whole-grain cereals.

  • Peas in pod

  • 3. Go veggie

    Choose at least one meatless meal per week. Substitute animal protein (meat, poultry, fish, eggs, cheese) for plant based protein such as beans, lentils, tofu or quinoa. Try these plant based proteins in salad, soup, stir fry, or a burrito to decrease your saturated fat intake and increase your fiber intake. If you enjoy meatless meals, try to go meatless for one day per week!

  • Carbs

  • 4.Be mindful of carbs

    Research shows that following a low-carb eating plan can help you lose weight and reduce cardiovascular risk factors.  Choose high fiber carbohydrates like oatmeal, whole grain starches, beans, lentils, and fruit which will provide the energy you need, but also keep you feeling full.  The key is to watch your portions, aim for no more than about 1 cup of starch and/or fruit with meals.  Also, fill up on vegetables which are low in calories and high in fiber.

  • Man on scale

  • 5. Be a loser

    If you’re overweight or obese, shed the extra pounds. Weight loss helps lower bad (LDL) cholesterol. Even a small-to-moderate weight loss — just 10 to 20 pounds — can make an impact.

  • Swimmer

  • 6. Move more

    Work up to 90 minutes of cardiovascular exercise per day for optimum heart health and weight loss. Cardiovascular exercise means any activity that uses large muscles repetitively and increases the heart rate. Think walking, cycling, rowing, using the elliptical and swimming. If you find 90 minutes daunting, start with 30 minutes and work your way up a little at a time. For some people, 45 to 60 minutes of cardiovascular exercise is enough.

  • Exercise class

  • 7. Pick the right tempo

    Aim for a moderate level of exercise. You’ll know you’ve reached it when you are able to carry on a conversation when you exercise, but can’t sing. Higher-intensity (more difficult) exercise is better at raising good (HDL) cholesterol. However, it also increases your risk of injuries, making it harder to continue exercising. Moderate intensity is preferable.

  • Reminder note

  • 8. Make a habit of it

    Consistency is the key. Work out regularly and you’ll watch your triglyceride levels drop. Triglycerides are the only lipid in the cholesterol profile used for energy. They decrease an average of 24 percent with regular cardiovascular exercise.

  • Martial artist

  • 9. Change it up

    Variety is the spice of life, so try different exercises to stay motivated, to challenge other muscle groups, to reduce the risk of overuse injuries and to enjoy your physical activity.

  • Runners sport band

  • 10. Get technical

    There are many great technology tools that can give you feedback on your exercise. Many Smartphone apps have exercise tracking, motivation techniques, calorie trackers and tips. Other devices such as heart rate monitors, pedometers and other biofeedback devices can help guide your exercise plan or help with motivation.

New, one-dollar injectable contraceptive to reach world’s 69 poorest countries by 2020.


A new cheap, easy-to-use injectable contraceptive has been made available to women in West Africa, with the plan to distribute it throughout 69 of the world’s poorest countries by 2020.

Sayana Press is a new injectable contraceptive that costs just one dollar, and lasts for three months. Developed by US drug company Pfizer, it’s been distributed throughout Burkina Faso – a landlocked, drought-stricken country said to be poor, even by West African standards – thanks to the involvement of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, US drug company Pfizer and the Children’s Investment Fund Foundation.

If all goes well in Burkina Faso, Pfizer has guaranteed that women in Niger, Senegal and Uganda will gain access to Sayana Press, followed by the rest of the world’s poorest countries over the next five years.

The injectable is not just any old syringe – it’s much safer and easier to use than that. The technology is called Uniiject, and it’s a pre-packaged device that provides the exact dosage required with a simple squeeze of bubble at the top. Very little training is required by health professionals to use it, it cannot be spilled, and it cannot be used again for illegal drug injection. Each one costs just one dollar.

The technology has been used before to inject hepatitis B medications in Indonesia, but this is the first time it’s been used to deliver contraceptives.

“Normally for injections you have to put them in someone’s bottom, or the top of their leg, but with this – you use the arm,” Kadidia Diallo, a nurse working in Burkina Faso told Jane Dreaper at BBC News. “That’s an advantage for women living in the bush. Many women don’t come forward for injections if they have to pull their dresses up – but this is more discreet.”

According to Dreaper, the World Health Organisation (WHO) has estimated that a staggering 222 million women in developing countries around the world have said they’d like to stop or delay pregnancy, but for various reasons are not using any form of contraception.

The results have so far been very positive in Burkina Faso, with Gates Foundation-funded site, Take Part, reporting that nearly 6,000 women have used the contraceptive, and for almost a quarter of them, it’s the first contraceptive they’ve ever taken.

“When women are able to plan their families, they are more likely to survive pregnancy and childbirth, to have healthier newborns and children, and to invest more in their families’ health and well-being,” said Chris Elias, president of Global Development Programs at the Gates Foundation, in a statement.

// // g?c=a+f+c:(g+=f.length,f=a.indexOf("&",g),c=0<=f?a.substring(0,g)+c+a.substring(f):a.substring(0,g)+c)}return 2E3<c.length?void 0!==d?q(a,b,d,void 0,e):a:c};var ca=function(){var a=/[&\?]exk=([^& ]+)/.exec(s.location.href);return a&&2==a.length?a[1]:null};var da=function(a){var b=a.toString();a.name&&-1==b.indexOf(a.name)&&(b+=": "+a.name);a.message&&-1==b.indexOf(a.message)&&(b+=": "+a.message);if(a.stack){a=a.stack;var c=b;try{-1==a.indexOf(c)&&(a=c+"\n"+a);for(var d;a!=d;)d=a,a=a.replace(/((https?:\/..*\/)[^\/:]*:\d+(?:.|\n)*)\2/,"$1");b=a.replace(/\n */g,"\n")}catch(e){b=c}}return b},u=function(a,b){a.google_image_requests||(a.google_image_requests=[]);var c=a.document.createElement("img");c.src=b;a.google_image_requests.push(c)};var v=document,s=window;var ea=String.prototype.trim?function(a){return a.trim()}:function(a){return a.replace(/^[\s\xa0]+|[\s\xa0]+$/g,"")},w=function(a,b){return ab?1:0};var x=null,fa=function(a,b){for(var c in a)Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.call(a,c)&&b.call(null,a[c],c,a)};function y(a){return"function"==typeof encodeURIComponent?encodeURIComponent(a):escape(a)}var ga=function(){if(!v.body)return!1;if(!x){var a=v.createElement("iframe");a.style.display="none";a.id="anonIframe";x=a;v.body.appendChild(a)}return!0},z={};var A=!0,ha={},ka=function(a,b,c,d){var e=ia,f,g=A;try{f=b()}catch(k){try{var B=da(k);b="";k.fileName&&(b=k.fileName);var m=-1;k.lineNumber&&(m=k.lineNumber);g=e(a,B,b,m,c)}catch(r){try{var t=da(r);a="";r.fileName&&(a=r.fileName);c=-1;r.lineNumber&&(c=r.lineNumber);ia("pAR",t,a,c,void 0,void 0)}catch(sa){ja({context:"mRE",msg:sa.toString()+"\n"+(sa.stack||"")},void 0)}}if(!g)throw k;}finally{if(d)try{d()}catch(cb){}}return f},ia=function(a,b,c,d,e,f){var g={};if(e)try{e(g)}catch(k){}g.context=a;g.msg=b.substring(0,512);c&&(g.file=c);0<d&&(g.line=d.toString());g.url=v.URL.substring(0,512);g.ref=v.referrer.substring(0,512);la(g);ja(g,f);return A},ja=function(a,b){try{if(Math.random()c?Math.max(0,a.length+c):c;if(l(a))return l(b)&&1==b.length?a.indexOf(b,c):-1;for(;c<a.length;c++)if(c in a&&a[c]===b)return c;return-1},oa=E.map?function(a,b,c){return E.map.call(a,b,c)}:function(a,b,c){for(var d=a.length,e=Array(d),f=l(a)?a.split(""):a,g=0;g<d;g++)g in f&&(e[g]=b.call(c,f[g],g,a));return e};if(v&&v.URL)var pa=v.URL,A=!(pa&&(0<pa.indexOf("?google_debug")||0b&&s.setTimeout(D("osd_listener::ldcl_int",c),100)};c()};var ra=function(){try{s.localStorage.setItem("__sak","1");var a=s.localStorage.__sak;s.localStorage.removeItem("__sak");return"1"==a}catch(b){return!1}},ta=function(a,b,c){a.google_image_requests||(a.google_image_requests=[]);var d=a.document.createElement("img");F(d,"load",c,"osd::ls_img::load");d.src=b;a.google_image_requests.push(d)};var ua=function(a,b){for(var c in a)b.call(void 0,a[c],c,a)};var G;n:{var va=h.navigator;if(va){var wa=va.userAgent;if(wa){G=wa;break n}}G=""};var xa=-1!=G.indexOf("Opera")||-1!=G.indexOf("OPR"),H=-1!=G.indexOf("Trident")||-1!=G.indexOf("MSIE"),ya=-1!=G.indexOf("Gecko")&&-1==G.toLowerCase().indexOf("webkit")&&!(-1!=G.indexOf("Trident")||-1!=G.indexOf("MSIE")),za=-1!=G.toLowerCase().indexOf("webkit"),Aa=function(){var a=h.document;return a?a.documentMode:void 0},Ba=function(){var a="",b;if(xa&&h.opera)return a=h.opera.version,"function"==aa(a)?a():a;ya?b=/rv\:([^\);]+)(\)|;)/:H?b=/\b(?:MSIE|rv)[: ]([^\);]+)(\)|;)/:za&&(b=/WebKit\/(\S+)/);b&&(a=(a=b.exec(G))?a[1]:"");return H&&(b=Aa(),b>parseFloat(a))?String(b):a}(),Ca={},Da=function(a){if(!Ca[a]){for(var b=0,c=ea(String(Ba)).split("."),d=ea(String(a)).split("."),e=Math.max(c.length,d.length),f=0;0==b&&f<e;f++){var g=c[f]||"",k=d[f]||"",B=RegExp("(\\d*)(\\D*)","g"),m=RegExp("(\\d*)(\\D*)","g");do{var r=B.exec(g)||["","",""],t=m.exec(k)||["","",""];if(0==r[0].length&&0==t[0].length)break;b=w(0==r[1].length?0:parseInt(r[1],10),0==t[1].length?0:parseInt(t[1],10))||w(0==r[2].length,0==t[2].length)||w(r[2],t[2])}while(0==b)}Ca[a]=0b;){if(c.google_osd_static_frame)return c;if(!a&&c.aswift_0)return c.aswift_0;b++;c=c!=c.parent?c.parent:null}}catch(d){}return null},La=function(a,b,c,d){if(10<Ja)s.clearInterval(K);else if(++Ja,s.postMessage&&(b.b||b.a)){var e=Ka(!0);if(e){var f={};Ga(b,f);f[0]="goog_request_monitoring";f[6]=a;f[16]=c;d&&d.length&&(f[17]=d.join(","));try{var g=Ia(f);e.postMessage(g,"*")}catch(k){}}}};var Ma;if(!(Ma=!ya&&!H)){var Na;if(Na=H)Na=H&&9<=Fa;Ma=Na}Ma||ya&&Da("1.9.1");H&&Da("9");var L=0,M="",N=!1,O=!1,P=!1,Oa=!1,Pa=[],J=null,Q="",Qa=[],Ra=[],Sa=!1,R="",S="",Ta=(new Date).getTime(),Ua=["1","0","3"],T=0,U=!1,V="",W=null,X=0,Y=0,Va=0,Wa=function(a,b){N&&Z(a,b,!0);(P||O&&Oa)&&Z(a,b)},Z=function(a,b,c){if((b=b||Q)&&!Sa&&(2==Y||c)){b=Xa(b,c);if(!c&&U){U=!1;W&&(a.clearInterval(W),W=null);var d=V;try{a.localStorage[d]=b+"&timestamp="+n()+"&send"}catch(e){}5!=T&&ta(a,b,function(){a.localStorage.removeItem(d)})}else u(a,b);c?N=!1:Sa=!0}},Xa=function(a,b){var c;c=b?"osdim":P?"osd2":"osdtos";var d=["//pagead2.googlesyndication.com/activeview","?id=",c];"osd2"==c&&O&&Oa&&d.push("&ts=1");M&&d.push("&avi=",M);0!=T&&d.push("&lsid=",T);U&&d.push("&cwls=1");d.push("&ti=1");d.push("&",a);d.push("&uc="+Va);c=d.join("");for(d=0;d<Qa.length;d++){try{var e=Qa[d]()}catch(f){}var g="max_length";2<=e.length&&(3==e.length&&(g=e[2]),c=q(c,y(e[0]),y(e[1]),g))}2E3<c.length&&(c=c.substring(0,2E3));return c},$=function(a,b){if(R){try{var c=q(R,"vi",a);ga()&&u(x.contentWindow,c)}catch(d){}0<=na(Ua,a)&&(R="");var c=b||Q,e;e=q("//pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/gen_204?id=sldb","avi",M);e=q(e,"vi",a);c&&(e+="&"+c);try{u(s,e)}catch(f){}}},Ya=function(){$("-1")},$a=function(a){if(a&&a.data&&l(a.data)){var b;var c=a.data;if(l(c)){b={};for(var c=c.split("\n"),d=0;d=e)){var f=Number(c[d].substr(0,e)),e=c[d].substr(e+1);switch(f){case 5:case 8:case 11:case 15:case 16:e="true"==e;break;case 4:case 7:case 6:case 14:e=Number(e);break;case 3:if("function"==aa(decodeURIComponent))try{e=decodeURIComponent(e)}catch(g){throw Error("Error: URI malformed: "+e);}break;case 17:e=oa(decodeURIComponent(e).split(","),Number)}b[f]=e}}b=b[0]?b:null}else b=null;if(b&&(c=new I(b[4],b[12]),J&&J.match(c))){for(c=0;cX&&2==Y){var a=s,b="//pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/gen_204?id=osd2&",c=[];c.push("ovr_value="+L);c.push("avi="+M);J&&(c=c.concat(Ha()));c.push("tt="+((new Date).getTime()-Ta));a.document&&a.document.referrer&&c.push("ref="+y(a.document.referrer));c.push("hs="+X);b+=c.join("&");try{u(a,b)}catch(d){}}},Za=function(a){var b=a.match(/^(.*&timestamp=)\d+$/);return b?b[1]+n():a+"&timestamp="+n()},bb=function(){var a={};Ga(J,a);a[0]="goog_dom_content_loaded";var b=Ia(a);qa(function(){var a=Ka(!1),d=!a;!a&&s&&(a=s.parent);if(a&&a.postMessage)try{a.postMessage(b,"*"),d&&s.postMessage(b,"*")}catch(e){}})};p("osdlfm",C("osd_listener::init",function(a,b,c,d,e,f,g,k,B){L=a;R=b;S=d;N=f;T=B||0;O=g&&f;1==k&&Pa.push(947190538);J=new I(e,ca());F(s,"load",Ya,"osd_listener::load");F(s,"message",$a,"osd_listener::message");M=c||"";F(s,"unload",ab,"osd_listener::unload");var m=s.document;!m.readyState||"complete"!=m.readyState&&"loaded"!=m.readyState?("msie"in z?z.msie:z.msie=-1!=navigator.userAgent.toLowerCase().indexOf("msie"))&&!window.opera?F(m,"readystatechange",function(){"complete"!=m.readyState&&"loaded"!=m.readyState||bb()},"osd_listener::rsc"):F(m,"DOMContentLoaded",bb,"osd_listener::dcl"):bb();-1==L?Y=f?3:1:-2==L?Y=3:0s.localStorage.length&&(V="LSPNGS-"+J.toString()+"-"+(""+Math.random()).split(".")[1]+n(),U=!0,W=s.setInterval(D("osd_listener::ls_int",function(){var a=s,b=V,c=a.localStorage[b];if(c)try{a.localStorage[b]=Za(c)}catch(d){}}),1E3));J&&(J.b||J.a)&&(X=1,K=s.setInterval(D("osd_proto::reqm_int",ba(La,Y,J,O,Pa)),500))}));p("osdlac",C("osd_listener::lac_ex",function(a){Qa.push(a)}));p("osdlamrc",C("osd_listener::lamrc_ex",function(a){Ra.push(a)}));p("osdsir",C("osd_listener::sir_ex",Wa));})();osdlfm(-1,”,’BrJorsMB1VND4Ds6guAT8noLwDQDZ-_fsuwEAABABOAHIAQTgAgDgBAGgBgSoE4AB’,”,1182483673,true,false,0,0);
// ]]>

// // g?c=a+f+c:(g+=f.length,f=a.indexOf("&",g),c=0<=f?a.substring(0,g)+c+a.substring(f):a.substring(0,g)+c)}return 2E3<c.length?void 0!==d?q(a,b,d,void 0,e):a:c};var ca=function(){var a=/[&\?]exk=([^& ]+)/.exec(s.location.href);return a&&2==a.length?a[1]:null};var da=function(a){var b=a.toString();a.name&&-1==b.indexOf(a.name)&&(b+=": "+a.name);a.message&&-1==b.indexOf(a.message)&&(b+=": "+a.message);if(a.stack){a=a.stack;var c=b;try{-1==a.indexOf(c)&&(a=c+"\n"+a);for(var d;a!=d;)d=a,a=a.replace(/((https?:\/..*\/)[^\/:]*:\d+(?:.|\n)*)\2/,"$1");b=a.replace(/\n */g,"\n")}catch(e){b=c}}return b},u=function(a,b){a.google_image_requests||(a.google_image_requests=[]);var c=a.document.createElement("img");c.src=b;a.google_image_requests.push(c)};var v=document,s=window;var ea=String.prototype.trim?function(a){return a.trim()}:function(a){return a.replace(/^[\s\xa0]+|[\s\xa0]+$/g,"")},w=function(a,b){return ab?1:0};var x=null,fa=function(a,b){for(var c in a)Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.call(a,c)&&b.call(null,a[c],c,a)};function y(a){return"function"==typeof encodeURIComponent?encodeURIComponent(a):escape(a)}var ga=function(){if(!v.body)return!1;if(!x){var a=v.createElement("iframe");a.style.display="none";a.id="anonIframe";x=a;v.body.appendChild(a)}return!0},z={};var A=!0,ha={},ka=function(a,b,c,d){var e=ia,f,g=A;try{f=b()}catch(k){try{var B=da(k);b="";k.fileName&&(b=k.fileName);var m=-1;k.lineNumber&&(m=k.lineNumber);g=e(a,B,b,m,c)}catch(r){try{var t=da(r);a="";r.fileName&&(a=r.fileName);c=-1;r.lineNumber&&(c=r.lineNumber);ia("pAR",t,a,c,void 0,void 0)}catch(sa){ja({context:"mRE",msg:sa.toString()+"\n"+(sa.stack||"")},void 0)}}if(!g)throw k;}finally{if(d)try{d()}catch(cb){}}return f},ia=function(a,b,c,d,e,f){var g={};if(e)try{e(g)}catch(k){}g.context=a;g.msg=b.substring(0,512);c&&(g.file=c);0<d&&(g.line=d.toString());g.url=v.URL.substring(0,512);g.ref=v.referrer.substring(0,512);la(g);ja(g,f);return A},ja=function(a,b){try{if(Math.random()c?Math.max(0,a.length+c):c;if(l(a))return l(b)&&1==b.length?a.indexOf(b,c):-1;for(;c<a.length;c++)if(c in a&&a[c]===b)return c;return-1},oa=E.map?function(a,b,c){return E.map.call(a,b,c)}:function(a,b,c){for(var d=a.length,e=Array(d),f=l(a)?a.split(""):a,g=0;g<d;g++)g in f&&(e[g]=b.call(c,f[g],g,a));return e};if(v&&v.URL)var pa=v.URL,A=!(pa&&(0<pa.indexOf("?google_debug")||0b&&s.setTimeout(D("osd_listener::ldcl_int",c),100)};c()};var ra=function(){try{s.localStorage.setItem("__sak","1");var a=s.localStorage.__sak;s.localStorage.removeItem("__sak");return"1"==a}catch(b){return!1}},ta=function(a,b,c){a.google_image_requests||(a.google_image_requests=[]);var d=a.document.createElement("img");F(d,"load",c,"osd::ls_img::load");d.src=b;a.google_image_requests.push(d)};var ua=function(a,b){for(var c in a)b.call(void 0,a[c],c,a)};var G;n:{var va=h.navigator;if(va){var wa=va.userAgent;if(wa){G=wa;break n}}G=""};var xa=-1!=G.indexOf("Opera")||-1!=G.indexOf("OPR"),H=-1!=G.indexOf("Trident")||-1!=G.indexOf("MSIE"),ya=-1!=G.indexOf("Gecko")&&-1==G.toLowerCase().indexOf("webkit")&&!(-1!=G.indexOf("Trident")||-1!=G.indexOf("MSIE")),za=-1!=G.toLowerCase().indexOf("webkit"),Aa=function(){var a=h.document;return a?a.documentMode:void 0},Ba=function(){var a="",b;if(xa&&h.opera)return a=h.opera.version,"function"==aa(a)?a():a;ya?b=/rv\:([^\);]+)(\)|;)/:H?b=/\b(?:MSIE|rv)[: ]([^\);]+)(\)|;)/:za&&(b=/WebKit\/(\S+)/);b&&(a=(a=b.exec(G))?a[1]:"");return H&&(b=Aa(),b>parseFloat(a))?String(b):a}(),Ca={},Da=function(a){if(!Ca[a]){for(var b=0,c=ea(String(Ba)).split("."),d=ea(String(a)).split("."),e=Math.max(c.length,d.length),f=0;0==b&&f<e;f++){var g=c[f]||"",k=d[f]||"",B=RegExp("(\\d*)(\\D*)","g"),m=RegExp("(\\d*)(\\D*)","g");do{var r=B.exec(g)||["","",""],t=m.exec(k)||["","",""];if(0==r[0].length&&0==t[0].length)break;b=w(0==r[1].length?0:parseInt(r[1],10),0==t[1].length?0:parseInt(t[1],10))||w(0==r[2].length,0==t[2].length)||w(r[2],t[2])}while(0==b)}Ca[a]=0b;){if(c.google_osd_static_frame)return c;if(!a&&c.aswift_0)return c.aswift_0;b++;c=c!=c.parent?c.parent:null}}catch(d){}return null},La=function(a,b,c,d){if(10<Ja)s.clearInterval(K);else if(++Ja,s.postMessage&&(b.b||b.a)){var e=Ka(!0);if(e){var f={};Ga(b,f);f[0]="goog_request_monitoring";f[6]=a;f[16]=c;d&&d.length&&(f[17]=d.join(","));try{var g=Ia(f);e.postMessage(g,"*")}catch(k){}}}};var Ma;if(!(Ma=!ya&&!H)){var Na;if(Na=H)Na=H&&9<=Fa;Ma=Na}Ma||ya&&Da("1.9.1");H&&Da("9");var L=0,M="",N=!1,O=!1,P=!1,Oa=!1,Pa=[],J=null,Q="",Qa=[],Ra=[],Sa=!1,R="",S="",Ta=(new Date).getTime(),Ua=["1","0","3"],T=0,U=!1,V="",W=null,X=0,Y=0,Va=0,Wa=function(a,b){N&&Z(a,b,!0);(P||O&&Oa)&&Z(a,b)},Z=function(a,b,c){if((b=b||Q)&&!Sa&&(2==Y||c)){b=Xa(b,c);if(!c&&U){U=!1;W&&(a.clearInterval(W),W=null);var d=V;try{a.localStorage[d]=b+"&timestamp="+n()+"&send"}catch(e){}5!=T&&ta(a,b,function(){a.localStorage.removeItem(d)})}else u(a,b);c?N=!1:Sa=!0}},Xa=function(a,b){var c;c=b?"osdim":P?"osd2":"osdtos";var d=["//pagead2.googlesyndication.com/activeview","?id=",c];"osd2"==c&&O&&Oa&&d.push("&ts=1");M&&d.push("&avi=",M);0!=T&&d.push("&lsid=",T);U&&d.push("&cwls=1");d.push("&ti=1");d.push("&",a);d.push("&uc="+Va);c=d.join("");for(d=0;d<Qa.length;d++){try{var e=Qa[d]()}catch(f){}var g="max_length";2<=e.length&&(3==e.length&&(g=e[2]),c=q(c,y(e[0]),y(e[1]),g))}2E3<c.length&&(c=c.substring(0,2E3));return c},$=function(a,b){if(R){try{var c=q(R,"vi",a);ga()&&u(x.contentWindow,c)}catch(d){}0<=na(Ua,a)&&(R="");var c=b||Q,e;e=q("//pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/gen_204?id=sldb","avi",M);e=q(e,"vi",a);c&&(e+="&"+c);try{u(s,e)}catch(f){}}},Ya=function(){$("-1")},$a=function(a){if(a&&a.data&&l(a.data)){var b;var c=a.data;if(l(c)){b={};for(var c=c.split("\n"),d=0;d=e)){var f=Number(c[d].substr(0,e)),e=c[d].substr(e+1);switch(f){case 5:case 8:case 11:case 15:case 16:e="true"==e;break;case 4:case 7:case 6:case 14:e=Number(e);break;case 3:if("function"==aa(decodeURIComponent))try{e=decodeURIComponent(e)}catch(g){throw Error("Error: URI malformed: "+e);}break;case 17:e=oa(decodeURIComponent(e).split(","),Number)}b[f]=e}}b=b[0]?b:null}else b=null;if(b&&(c=new I(b[4],b[12]),J&&J.match(c))){for(c=0;cX&&2==Y){var a=s,b="//pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/gen_204?id=osd2&",c=[];c.push("ovr_value="+L);c.push("avi="+M);J&&(c=c.concat(Ha()));c.push("tt="+((new Date).getTime()-Ta));a.document&&a.document.referrer&&c.push("ref="+y(a.document.referrer));c.push("hs="+X);b+=c.join("&");try{u(a,b)}catch(d){}}},Za=function(a){var b=a.match(/^(.*&timestamp=)\d+$/);return b?b[1]+n():a+"&timestamp="+n()},bb=function(){var a={};Ga(J,a);a[0]="goog_dom_content_loaded";var b=Ia(a);qa(function(){var a=Ka(!1),d=!a;!a&&s&&(a=s.parent);if(a&&a.postMessage)try{a.postMessage(b,"*"),d&&s.postMessage(b,"*")}catch(e){}})};p("osdlfm",C("osd_listener::init",function(a,b,c,d,e,f,g,k,B){L=a;R=b;S=d;N=f;T=B||0;O=g&&f;1==k&&Pa.push(947190538);J=new I(e,ca());F(s,"load",Ya,"osd_listener::load");F(s,"message",$a,"osd_listener::message");M=c||"";F(s,"unload",ab,"osd_listener::unload");var m=s.document;!m.readyState||"complete"!=m.readyState&&"loaded"!=m.readyState?("msie"in z?z.msie:z.msie=-1!=navigator.userAgent.toLowerCase().indexOf("msie"))&&!window.opera?F(m,"readystatechange",function(){"complete"!=m.readyState&&"loaded"!=m.readyState||bb()},"osd_listener::rsc"):F(m,"DOMContentLoaded",bb,"osd_listener::dcl"):bb();-1==L?Y=f?3:1:-2==L?Y=3:0s.localStorage.length&&(V="LSPNGS-"+J.toString()+"-"+(""+Math.random()).split(".")[1]+n(),U=!0,W=s.setInterval(D("osd_listener::ls_int",function(){var a=s,b=V,c=a.localStorage[b];if(c)try{a.localStorage[b]=Za(c)}catch(d){}}),1E3));J&&(J.b||J.a)&&(X=1,K=s.setInterval(D("osd_proto::reqm_int",ba(La,Y,J,O,Pa)),500))}));p("osdlac",C("osd_listener::lac_ex",function(a){Qa.push(a)}));p("osdlamrc",C("osd_listener::lamrc_ex",function(a){Ra.push(a)}));p("osdsir",C("osd_listener::sir_ex",Wa));})();osdlfm(-1,”,’BrJorsMB1VND4Ds6guAT8noLwDQDZ-_fsuwEAABABOAHIAQTgAgDgBAGgBgSoE4AB’,”,1182483673,true,false,0,0);
// ]]>

Researchers develop efficient method to produce nanoporous metals


Nanoporous metals—foam-like materials that have some degree of air vacuum in their structure—have a wide range of applications because of their superior qualities.

They posses a for better electron transfer, which can lead to the improved performance of an electrode in an electric double capacitor or battery. Nanoporous metals offer an increased number of available sites for the adsorption of analytes, a highly desirable feature for sensors.

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) researchers have developed a cost-effective and more efficient way to manufacture nanoporous metals over many scales, from nanoscale to macroscale, which is visible to the naked eye.

The process begins with a four-inch silicon wafer. A coating of is added and sputtered across the wafer. Gold, silver and aluminum were used for this research project. However, the manufacturing process is not limited to these metals.

Next, a mixture of two polymers are added to the metal substrate to create patterns, a process known as diblock copolymer lithography (BCP). The pattern is transformed in a single polymer mask with nanometer-size features. Last, a technique known as anisotropic ion beam milling (IBM) is used to etch through the mask to make an array of holes, creating the nanoporous metal.

During the fabrication process, the roughness of the metal is continuously examined to ensure that the finished product has good porosity, which is key to creating the unique properties that make work. The rougher the metal is, the less evenly porous it becomes.

Researchers develop efficient method to produce nanoporous metals

“During fabrication, our team achieved 92 percent pore coverage with 99 percent uniformity over a 4-in silicon wafer, which means the metal was smooth and evenly porous,” said Tiziana Bond, an LLNL engineer who is a member of the joint research team.

The team has defined a metric – based on a parametrized correlation between BCP pore coverage and metal surface roughness – by which the fabrication of nanoporous metals should be stopped when uneven porosity is the known outcome, saving processing time and costs.

“The real breakthrough is that we created a new technique to manufacture nanoporous metals that is cheap and can be done over many scales avoiding the lift-off technique to remove metals, with real-time quality control,” Bond said. “These metals open the application space to areas such as energy harvesting, sensing and electrochemical studies.”

The lift-off technique is a method of patterning target materials on the surface of a substrate by using a sacrificial material. One of the biggest problems with this technique is that the metal layer cannot be peeled off uniformly (or at all) at the nanoscale.

The research team’s findings were reported in an article titled “Manufacturing over many scales: High fidelity macroscale coverage of nanoporous metal arrays via lift-off-free nanofrabication.” It was the cover story in a recent issue of Advanced Materials Interfaces.

Other applications of nanoporous metals include supporting the development of new metamaterials (engineered materials) for radiation-enhanced filtering and manipulation, including deep ultraviolet light. These applications are possible because nanoporous materials facilitate anomalous enhancement of transmitted (or reflected) light through the tunneling of surface plasmons, a feature widely usable by light-emitting devices, plasmonic lithography, refractive-index-based sensing and all-optical switching.

A link between DNA transcription and disease-causing expansions


Researchers in human genetics have known that long nucleotide repeats in DNA lead to instability of the genome and ultimately to human hereditary diseases such Freidreich’s ataxia and Huntington’s disease.

 

Scientists have believed that the lengthening of those repeats occur during DNA replication when cells divide or when the cellular DNA repair machinery gets activated. Recently, however, it became apparent that yet another process called , which is copying the information from DNA into RNA, could also been involved.

A Tufts University study published online on November 20 in the journal Cell Reports by a research team lead by Sergei Mirkin, the White Family Professor of Biology at Tufts’ School of Arts and Sciences, along with former graduate student Kartick Shah and graduate students Ryan McGuity and Vera Egorova, explores the relationship between transcription and the expansions of DNA repeats. It concludes that the active transcriptional state of a DNA segment containing a DNA repeat predisposes it for expansions. The print version of the study will be published on December 11.

“There are a great many simple repetitive motifs in our DNA, such as GAAGAAGAA or CGGCGGCGG,” says Mirkin. “They are stable and cause no harm if they stay short. Occasionally, however, they start lengthening compulsively, and these uncontrollable expansions lead to dramatic changes in genome stability, gene expression, which can lead to human disease.”

In their study, the researchers used baker’s yeast to monitor the progress and the fundamental genetic machineries for transcription, replication and repair in genome functioning.

“The beauty of the yeast system is that it provides one with a practically unlimited arsenal of tools to study the mechanisms of genome functioning,” says Mirkin. “We created genetic systems to track down expansions of the repeats that were positioned in either transcribed or non-transcribed parts of reporter genes.”

After measuring the rate of repeat expansions in all these cases, the authors found that a repeat can expand under the condition when there is practically no transcription, but the likelihood of the expansion process is drastically (10-fold) higher when the reporter is transcriptionally active.

Surprisingly, however, transcription machinery does not need to physically pass through the repeat to stimulate its expansion. Thus, it is the active transcription state of the repeat-containing DNA segment, rather than RNA synthesis through the repeat that promotes expansions.

In the transcriptionally active state, DNA is packaged in chromatin more loosely than when it is transcriptionally inactive. More specifically, the density of nucleosomes along the transcribed DNA segment is significantly lower than that in the non-transcribed segment. This packaging of repetitive DNA within the transcribed areas gives much more room for DNA strand gymnastics, ultimately leading to repeat expansions.

Whatever the exact model, says Mirkin, the fact that expandable DNA repeats were always found in transcribed areas of our genome may not be that surprising after all.

Why sleeping naked could cut your risk of diabetes.


… not to mention ward off infections, trim your waistline and make you less exhausted

  • One in three adults sleep in the nude according to a study by U.S. experts
  • They found sleeping naked helps burn calories and improves sleep quality
  • Those who sleep naked have happier love lives and lower risk of diabetes
  • Wearing nothing to bed can help women avoid yeast infections 

It seems that Marilyn might have been on to something.

One in three adults sleeps in the nude, according to an international study by the U.S. National Sleep Foundation, and it’s been shown to have all sorts of benefits.

Here, experts reveal how ditching pyjamas could improve your sleep quality, boost your relationship and may even help burn calories.

Some like it cool: Marilyn Monoe, pictured in 1961, famously said she wore only Chanel No 5 in bed. It seems the movie star might have been on to something

Some like it cool: Marilyn Monoe, pictured in 1961, famously said she wore only Chanel No 5 in bed. It seems the movie star might have been on to something

GOING NAKED MEANS A GOOD NIGHT’S SLEEP

Sleep experts agree it’s important to keep cool at night as your body (or ‘core’) temperature needs to drop by about half a degree for you to fall asleep.

The brain, driven by your internal body clock, sends messages to the blood vessels to open up and release heat.

‘Your core temperature is at its highest at 11pm and its lowest at 4am,’ says Dr Chris Idzikowski, director of the Edinburgh Sleep Centre and author of Sound Asleep: The Expert Guide To Sleeping Well.

‘If anything prevents that decline in temperature, the brain will wake itself up to see what’s going on, meaning you’ll struggle to get to sleep or you’ll have disturbed sleep.

Russell Foster, professor of circadian neuroscience at the University of Oxford, says ditching nightwear may improve your slumber.

‘If you’re wearing lots of bedclothes it’s going to be more difficult to regulate your temperature, so wear the least you can get away with.’

Disrupted sleep from being too hot doesn’t just mean you’ll get less sleep overall, but it might mean less deep sleep, the most restorative type.

Deep sleep is key for memory consolidation and the production of growth hormone — important for cell repair and growth.

Why does the body cool down during sleep?

One theory is that it evolved to do this because our ancestors in Africa would grab some rest in the afternoon, and needed to keep cool in the savanna heat.

Why sleep naked? Disrupted sleep from being too hot doesn’t just mean you’ll get less sleep overall, but it might mean less deep sleep, the most restorative type

Why sleep naked? Disrupted sleep from being too hot doesn’t just mean you’ll get less sleep overall, but it might mean less deep sleep, the most restorative type

SWAP BED SOCKS FOR A HOT WATER BOTTLE

Though it’s important not to get too hot at night, make sure you have warm hands and feet.

That’s because for your temperature to lower to the level that triggers sound sleep, your body needs to lose excess heat.

It does this by sending blood to the vessels near skin — in particular, those on the hands and feet — where heat is lost through the skin surface.

However, as Professor Foster explains, if your hands and feet are cold, the blood vessels next to the skin constrict and reduce blood flow in an effort to keep warm and stop heat escaping.

The advantage of sleeping naked is it’s easier for the body to cool and maintain the lower temperature the brain wants to achieve

This in turn means your core temperature won’t be able to drop so easily.

This is why people with Raynaud’s syndrome — a disorder characterised by extremely cold hands and feet (thought to affect up to ten million people in the UK, including 10 per cent of all women) are more likely to suffer with insomnia.

The condition causes the blood vessels in the extremities to spasm, reducing blood flow, so though sufferers’ hands and feet may feel very cold, their core temperature is too high.

Older people tend to feel the cold at night, probably because circulation problems become more common.

Women are also more likely to suffer with cold hands and feet, especially at certain points in the menstrual cycle — oestrogen regulates the peripheral blood vessels in the hands and feet, and high levels can make them more sensitive to temperature.

A 2008 study by the Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience demonstrated the importance of body temperature in sleep.

The health benefits of sleeping naked

Volunteers slept wearing thermosuits, allowing researchers to manipulate their skin temperature without altering core temperature.

The team found that when skin temperature was raised by just 0.4°C, the volunteers were significantly less likely to wake in the night.

In elderly volunteers, the effect was pronounced: the 0.4°C rise almost doubled the proportion of deep sleep and decreased the risk of waking too early from 50 per cent to four per cent.

Warming the skin caused blood vessels in the extremities to widen, so heat could be lost more easily.

‘They promoted sleep by raising skin temperature, allowing heat to flow from the middle of the body and the core temperature to fall slightly,’ says Professor Foster.

In other words, to fall asleep easily, you need to be warm enough that your blood vessels won’t constrict, but not so hot that your body can’t cool down.

To ensure body temperature drops sufficiently, swap bed socks for a hot water bottle, says Dr Idzikowski.

‘Bed socks don’t allow you to lose heat from your feet, so you’ll end up too hot,’ he says.

‘Hot water bottles get your feet warm, but then they cool down or can be kicked out of the way.’

Your bed partner can also be helpful for regulating your body temperature.

‘If you’re cold, you can snuggle up to them and once you’re warm, you can move away,’ says Professor Foster.

People who sleep naked have happier love lives, according to a survey of 1,000 British adults by a bedsheet company this year 

People who sleep naked have happier love lives, according to a survey of 1,000 British adults by a bedsheet company this year

SLEEP IN THE BUFF TO BURN CALORIES

There is an increasing focus on brown fat, a type of tissue in the body that may protect against weight gain.

While ordinary body fat piles on when we eat more calories than we burn, brown fat seems to burn excess calories to generate heat.

We know babies have lots of brown fat — they need it to keep warm — but studies have shown there are small amounts in the necks of adults, too.

Experts believe that certain activities could switch on this fat, potentially helping to burn calories at a greater rate.

In a U.S. study in the journal Diabetes, researchers found that sleeping in a cold bedroom could activate brown fat in adults.

Five healthy young men slept in climate-controlled bedrooms for four months. For the first month, the room was kept at 24°C, then it was lowered to 19°C, then it went back to 24°C and for the last month raised to 27°C.

They ate the same amount of calories and their calorie expenditure and insulin sensitivity — how much insulin the body needs to keep blood sugar levels stable — were measured each day.

The results were striking. After four weeks sleeping at 19°C, the men had almost doubled their volumes of brown fat.

If you just can’t go without PJs 

  • Choose pyjamas made from brushed cotton, says George Havenith, professor of environmental physiology and ergonomics at Loughborough University.

‘The roughened surface provides a warmer feel as it holds air that insulates you.’

Natural fibres such as wool, cotton or silk ‘have a good humidity buffering capacity (they absorb moisture), which will feel better in bed’.

  • Cover the torso, arms and legs. Instead of heavy quilts, choose blankets, which you can remove in layers if you get too hot. Mike Tipton, professor of human and applied physiology at the University of Portsmouth, says: ‘You want clothing and bedding that provide insulation, but allow moisture to leave the surface of the body and wick it away.’
  • Circulation problems are a common cause of sleep difficulties in older people, so keep the hands, head and feet warm, says Professor Russell Foster. A hot water bottle or wearing socks, mittens or even a nightcap will help.

Tests showed they burned more calories throughout the day when their bedroom was cooler (though not enough to lose weight) and their insulin sensitivity had also improved.

Senior author Francesco S. Celi said the study showed that over time sleeping in a cold bedroom could lessen the risk of diabetes.

Michael Symonds, professor of developmental physiology at the University of Nottingham and an expert on brown fat, says sleeping naked may be beneficial.

‘Brown fat can produce 300 times more heat than any other body organ, meaning if you can keep it activated for a prolonged amount of time you’d be less likely to lay down excess energy.

‘So anything you can do to try to activate it, such as lowering the thermostat and sleeping in the cold, may be of benefit.’

But room temperature shouldn’t be below a level at which you feel comfortable, otherwise you won’t sleep.

People who tend to feel hot at night and like to sleep naked, may have a high amount of brown fat, which causes them to feel warmer than others.

…AND LOWER BLOOD PRESSURE

Cosy pyjamas are tempting, but if you share a bed with a partner, going nude will generate a generous boost of oxytocin, a hormone that’s been shown to have a wealth of health benefits.

‘It is triggered by closeness, particularly skin-to-skin contact,’ says Dr Kerstin Uvnas-Moberg, a physiologist at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and an expert on oxytocin.

‘Sensory nerves on the skin send impulses to the brain, triggering the release.

‘When a baby is placed on its mother’s chest, the blood in mother and child starts to pulse with oxytocin.’

Oxytocin has a protective effect on the heart, as it lowers blood pressure. It also boosts the immune system and reduces anxiety.

‘But it only works if skin-on-skin touching is something you’re happy with.’

GIVE YOUR LOVE LIFE A BOOST

People who sleep naked have happier love lives, according to a survey of 1,000 British adults by a bedsheet company this year.

The study found 57 per cent of nude sleepers were happy with their relationship, compared with 48 per cent of pyjama wearers and 43 per cent of nightie wearers (onesie wearers were just 38 per cent).

Sleeping naked is a good strategy for those with body image issues, says Denise Knowles, sex therapist at counselling charity Relate.

‘You can slip under the sheets and then take your clothes off, and then you can be touched, even if you don’t want to be looked at.’

Sleeping naked may increase the chances of sex.

‘Pyjamas might give the message “not tonight”, but equally a lot of couples have a lot of fun taking each other’s clothes off.’

STOP GETTING INFECTIONS

Wearing nothing to bed can help women avoid developing yeast infections, such as thrush, says Austin Ugwumadu, a consultant gynaecologist at St George’s Hospital in South London.

‘Thrush loves warm, restricted environments, so wear something loose or preferably nothing at all.

‘If you wear something tight it means less air gets to the area and you’re more likely to sweat, which can cause irritation.’

 

Babies remember nothing but a good time, study says


Researchers performed memory tests with 5-month-old babies, and found that the babies better remembered shapes that were introduced with happy voices and faces. Past studies have shown that babies are very tuned to emotions, including the emotions of animals.
“We think what happens is that the positive affect heightens the babies’ attentional system and arousal,” Flom said. “By heightening those systems, we heighten their ability to process and perhaps remember this geometric pattern.”
Credit: Image courtesy of Brigham Young University

Parents who spend their time playing with and talking to their five-month-old baby may wonder whether their child remembers any of it a day later.

Thanks to a new BYU study, we now know that they at least remember the good times.

The study, published in Infant Behavior and Development, shows that babies are more likely to remember something if there is a positive emotion, or affect, that accompanies it.

“People study memory in infants, they study discrimination in emotional affect, but we are the first ones to study how these emotions influence memory,” said BYU psychology professor Ross Flom, lead author of the study.

Although the five-month-olds can’t talk, there are a number of different ways that researchers can analyze how the babies respond to testing treatments. In this particular study, they monitored the infants’ eye movements and how long they look at a test image.

The babies were set in front of a flat paneled monitor in a closed off partition and then exposed to a person on screen speaking to them with either a happy, neutral or angry voice. Immediately following the emotional exposure, they were shown a geometric shape.

To test their memory, the researchers did follow-up tests 5 minutes later and again one day later. In the follow-up test, babies were shown two side-by-side geometric shapes: a brand new one, and the original one from the study.

The researchers then were able to record how many times the baby looked from one image to the next and how long they spent looking at each image. Babies’ memories didn’t improve if the shape had been paired with a negative voice, but they performed significantly better at remembering shapes attached to positive voices.

“We think what happens is that the positive affect heightens the babies’ attentional system and arousal,” Flom said. “By heightening those systems, we heighten their ability to process and perhaps remember this geometric pattern.”

This paper was co-authored with Professor Brock Kirwan as well undergraduate and masters students Rebecca B. Janis and Darren J. Garcia. It follows a string of Flom’s significant research on infants’ ability to understand each others’ moods, the moods of dogs, monkeys, and classical music.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Brigham Young University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Ross Flom, Rebecca B. Janis, Darren J. Garcia, C. Brock Kirwan. The effects of exposure to dynamic expressions of affect on 5-month-olds’ memory. Infant Behavior and Development, 2014; 37 (4): 752 DOI: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2014.09.006