We finally know how water bears became so damn unkillable


Water bears, or tardigrades as they’re officially known, are chubby little anomalies that are damn near indestructible – they can bounce back from total desiccation, endure the greatest temperature extremes we can throw at them, and can even survive the frozen vacuum of space.

Now a team of scientists in Japan has sequenced their genomes, and finally shed some light on how they got so tough. It turns out tardigrades have developed a range of handy tools to help them avoid death time and time again – including a protein that acts as an in-built radiation shield for DNA.

Even cooler, the researchers showed that, when incorporated into human cells, this radiation-blocking protein also reduced the damage to human DNA from X-rays by an impressive 40 percent.

“We were really surprised,” one of the researchers, Takuma Hashimoto from the University of Tokyo, told AFP.

“It is striking that a single gene is enough to improve the radiation tolerance of human cultured cells.”

The team performed their genetic analysis on a specific species of water bear called Ramazzottius varieornatuswhich is arguably the toughest of all tardigrade species.

Among other anomalies, what they found in the tiny creature’s genome was a protein called Dsup – short for “damage suppressor” – which suppresses radiation damage, as well as the damage caused by desiccation, which be just as destructive to DNA.

“Tolerance against X-ray is thought to be a side-product of [the] animal’s adaption to severe dehydration,” lead researcher Takekazu Kunieda, also from the University of Tokyo, told Jason Bittel from Nature.

(An experiment last year showed that water bears can survive being totally dehydrated by turning into glass.)

Because it’s so much easier to study the animal’s genome within mammalian cells, the researchers manipulated the DNA in human cells to get them to produce pieces of the tardigrade’s genome – which is where they noticed that Dsup could also protect human cells.

If Dsup could also be transplanted into live humans, it could make us more resilient to radiation – something that would be extremely useful when we venture out further into space.

According to Ingemar Jönsson from Kristianstad University in Sweden, this makes the new paper “highly interesting for medicine”.

In addition to Dsup, the researchers also showed that the tardigrade genome contained 16 copies of anti-oxidant enzymes, while most animals have just 10, and they also have four copies of DNA repair genes – most animal cells only have one.

And the study could also help put to rest a debate that started last year, when a team of scientists sequenced a tardigrade’s genome and showed that almost one-sixth of its DNA came from other species – more than any other known animal species.

The researchers suggested that foreign DNA might be able to explain some of water bears’ unique properties, but a few weeks later, a separate group of scientists disputed the claim, and showed that the foreign DNA was most likely a result of contamination, not genetic transfer.

The new Japanese study backs up those critics, by finding less than 1.2 percent of the species’ DNA to be foreign after carefully purifying the Ramazzottius varieornatus DNA – a very normal amount for most animals.

And while some of the protective genes were imported from other species – such as the antioxidant enzymes – most were “home-grown”, Kunieda told Andy Coghlan from New Scientist.

“It lays to rest the proposal that tardigrades acquired their extreme survival biology through massive acquisition of genes from other species,” added Mark Blaxter from the University of Edinburgh in the UK.

The fact that water bears are so damn indestructible because of their own adaptations just makes them even cooler in our book – and in the future we might even find out that those protective genes could be useful for humans, too. We just got reminded why these guys are our favourite animals.

Advertisements

Here’s Exactly How Much Water You Should Drink Every Day


Ascent/PKS Media Inc. / Getty

You’ve probably heard you’re supposed to drink at least eight 8-ounce glasses of waterdaily. That’s almost enough to fill a 2 liter bottle—which even the most diligent water-drinkers may find daunting. But the classic advice is not the end-all-be-all of water intake. In fact, it’s pretty misleading.

“Fluid requirements vary among individuals based on age, sex, activity level, and even where you live,” Jessica Fishman Levinson, M.S., R.D., C.D.N., founder of nutrition counseling company Nutritioulicious tells SELF. Your personal fluid requirements also can vary each day, depending on the other things you’re doing, eating, and drinking.

The Institute of Medicine recommends that women get 2.7 liters—that’s 11 cups—of water per day. Note, they don’t say you need to drink 11 cups of water a day. That includes all sources of water—from a basic glass of tap, to a cup of coffee, to the water content of the foods you eat (which, the IOM estimates, makes up about one-fifth of your daily fluid intake). If you listen to your body—drink when you’re thirsty, eat when you’re hungry—chances are you’re going to get what you need, or pretty close to it. So stop sweating the eight glasses a day hubbub and think about it this way instead:

© 

According to the Mayo Clinic, the benchmark should really say “eight 8-ounce glasses of fluid,” not water, because drinking things like milk, tea, and juice contribute to your total. “Good options for hydration without added calories are waters infused with fruit and herbs, unsweetened tea, and sparkling water,” Levinson says.

So does the water you get from the foods you eat.

“Your body absorbs water in foods just like it would liquids,” Levinson says. Many fruits and vegetables have high water content. Some good options: watermelon (duh), cucumbers, lettuce, celery, tomatoes, strawberries, oranges, and grapefruit. Even soup, Jell-O, and ice pops count as fluid.

On the flip side, some foods and drinks can increase how much water you need.

“Foods with a diuretic effect, such as alcohol and asparagus, may cause you to excrete more water so you may need more,” Levinson says.

If you eat high-sodium foods, your body likely will retain more water, leaving you thirstier. Drinking more fluids will help dilute your system and get fluids moving regularly again.

©

Since you’re not always keeping track of these “sneaky” sources of fluids, the best way to gauge your intake is by how your body feels.

If you’re thirsty, your body’s telling you that you need more water. “You might already be dehydrated,” Levinson says. Another good way to determine your fluid status is by taking a peek inside the toilet after you pee. “If your urine is light yellow, you’re probably getting enough fluids. If it’s dark or smells strongly, you probably need more water.”

To make sure you’re hydrated, keep a refillable water bottle with you all day so you can constantly sip whenever you want, and make a conscious effort to drink more whenever you’re getting sweaty. For more tips, check out these 12 easy ways to drink more water every day.

4 Signs You’re Dangerously Dehydrated During Your Workout


Dehydration can sneak up on you. Here’s how to tell if you need to drink up.

 

I was rollerblading (yes, rollerblading, don’t judge) around the neighborhood I was visiting—just cruising around, nothing crazy, so I didn’t bring any water with me.

dehydration

About an hour in, I suddenly felt dizzy. I sat down under a tree in the shade for 15 minutes to get my bearings, then rolled home to enjoy a long stretch of A/C and sweet tea.

I’ve since had some scary episodes during long bike rides, but the fact is you don’t have to be pushing hard or going long to succumb to dehydration.

“It’s normal to experience mild dehydration during exercise,” says Rob Pickels, physiology director at CU Sports Medicine and Performance Center in Boulder, Colorado—especially if you’re in the heat and sweating.

“However, prolonged moderate dehydration or severe dehydration can be detrimental to your health; especially your kidney function,” he says.

You already know you need water when you feel thirsty, but there are less obvious signs that you’re on your way to serious dehydration. Here’s what Pickels warns to watch for.

A faster heart rate can be a sign of dehydration

Heart rate goes up with intensity, and it will tend to drift with long exercise (especially in the heat). However, if you’re seeing heart rates that are 15 to 20 beats higher than you’d expect, it could be your heart is compensating for reduced blood volume (aka dehydration) by beating faster.

Dizziness can be a sign of dehydration

You know how your head swims a bit when you suddenly stand from a sitting position? It’s called postural hypotension, and it’s the result of blood not reaching your head quickly enough as you change positions, thanks to low blood volume.

If you start feeling that at the gym when switching from seated to standing workouts, it could be a sign of dehydration.

Saggy skin can be a sign of dehydration

Technically called “decreased skin turgor,” when the skin on the back of your hand doesn’t snap back from being pinched, it’s a sign you need more fluids, stat.

“With normal hydration, the pinched skin should return back to normal essentially immediately,” says Pickels.

With moderate to severe dehydration, it will be slow to return.

“Try it now (I know you are) by pinching your skin for 2 to 3 seconds and then letting go. That’s your baseline,” he says.

Smelly urine can be a sign of dehydration

If nature calls and it smells like you’ve wandered into a bus station bathroom, that’s another good sign to drink more.

“A strong urine smell can be a sign of dehydration,” says Pickels.

Of course, it’s still good that you have to pee at this point, since once you hit severe dehydration, urine production decreases dramatically. Avoid slipping into that next stage by boosting your fluid intake as soon as possible.

The article How To Know if You’re Dangerously Dehydrated orginally ran on Bicycling.com.

DEHYDRATION,HYDRATION,WATER

Water Is A Must For Weight Loss – Drinking 7 Glasses A Day Can Help You Cut 200 Calories!


A new study by researchers from the University of Illinois, USA found that increasing your water consumption by even 1% can cause you to eat less saturated fat, sugar, sodium and cholesterol, and bring down your calorie intake. Drinking 7 glasses of water a day can help you cut out 200 calories from your diet!

Water Weight Loss

 

“The impact of plain water intake on diet was similar across race, ethnicity, education and income levels and body weight status,” said Dr. Ruopeng An, a kinesiology and community heath professor at the university.

The study involved over 18,300 participants. This is what the researchers found:

• One extra glass of water each day was tied to eating 68 fewer calories.

• Three extra cups of water each day was tied to eating 205 fewer calories.

• 205 fewer calories each day could lead to weight loss of around half a pound per week.

• Sodium intake decreased by 78 to 235 milligrams depending on how much water the participants drank.

• Sugar intake decreased by 5 to 18 grams.

• Cholesterol intake decreased by about 7 to 21 milligrams daily.

Water Weight Loss

 

Does water really help with weight loss?

Water isn’t a magic bullet for weight loss, as much as we wish it were. What it mainly does is fill you up, so that you eat less at mealtimes. It also keeps your system moving efficiently, and flushes out toxins from your body.

Researchers also recommend that you drink water when you’re hungry because studies have found that the body mistakes hunger for thirst. So by quenching your thirst, you can avoid eating a whole bunch of extra calories that you didn’t really want in the first place.

There is another school of scientists who believe that water doesn’t help with weight loss. They think that water can help burn a few more calories overall, but not much. They also believe that it’s not necessary to stick only to water – any other fluid will do.

The Power Of Our Thoughts On Water


The hypothesis that water “treated” with intention can affect ice crystals formed from that water was pilot tested under double-blind conditions. A group of approximately 2,000 people in Tokyo focused positive intentions toward water samples located inside an electromagnetically shielded room in California. That group was unaware of similar water samples set aside in a different location as controls. Ice crystals formed from both sets of water samples were blindly identified and photographed by an analyst, and the resulting images were blindly assessed for aesthetic appeal by 100 independent judges. In conclusion, the present pilot results are consistent with a number of previous studies suggesting thatintention may be able to influence the structure of water. Here is a photo of the effects direct states of conscious intention has on the structure of water.

Consciousness has measurable effects on the geometric structure of water crystals. What does this tell us about the nature of consciousness? Is it possible that water is comprised of the same underlying “thing” as our thoughts are? Maybe this is an incentive to give good “vibes” to our food before we eat it.

Masaru Emoto on water crystals and consciousness:

Masaru Emoto was born in Yokohama, Japan in July 1943 and a graduate of the Yokohama Municipal University’s department of humanities and sciences with a focus on International Relations. In 1986 he established the IHM Corporation in Tokyo. In October of 1992 he received certification from the Open International University as a Doctor of Alternative Medicine. Subsequently he was introduced to the concept of micro cluster water in the US and Magnetic Resonance Analysis technology. The quest thus began to discover the mystery of water.

He undertook extensive research of water around the planet not so much as a scientific researcher, but more from the perspective of an original thinker. At length he realized that it was in the frozen crystal form that water showed us its true nature through. He has gained worldwide acclaim through his groundbreaking research and discovery that water is deeply connected to our individual and collective consciousness.

He is the author of the best-selling books Messages from Water, The Hidden Messages in Water, and The True Power of Water. He is a long-time advocate for peace in relation to water. He is currently the head of the I.H.M.General Research Institute and President Emeritus of the International Water for Life Foundation, a Not for Profit Organization.

Mr. Emoto has been visually documenting these molecular changes in water by means of his photographic techniques. He freezes droplets of water and then examines them under a dark field microscope that has photographic capabilities.

Some examples from his works include:

Water from clear mountain springs and streams had beautifully formed crystalline structures, while the crystals of polluted or stagnant water were deformed and distorted. Distilled water exposed to classical music took delicate, symmetrical crystalline shapes.

the-power-of-our-thoughts-on-water2

When the words “thank you” were taped to a bottle of distilled water, the frozen crystals had a similar shape to the crystals formed by water that had been exposed to Bach’s “Goldberg Variations”- music composed out of gratitude to the man it was named for.

When water samples were bombarded with heavy metal music or labeled with negative words, or when negative thoughts and emotions were focused intentionally upon them, such as “Adolf Hitler”, the water did not form crystals at all and displayed chaotic, fragmented structures.

When water was treated with aromatic floral oils, the water crystals tended to mimic the shape of the original flower.

Sometimes, when we cannot see the immediate results of our affirmations and or prayers, we think we have failed. But, as we learn through Masaru Emoto’s photographs, that thought of failure itself becomes represented in the physical objects that surround us. Now that we have seen this, perhaps we can begin to realize that even when immediate results are invisible to the unaided human eye, they are still there. When we love our own bodies, they respond. When we send our love to the Earth, she responds.

For our own bodies at birth are more than 60 percent water, and the percentage of water in our bodies remains high throughout life (depending upon weight and body type). The earth’s surface is more than 60 percent water as well. And now we have seen before our eyes that water is far from inanimate, but is actually alive and responsive to our every thought and emotion. Perhaps, having seen this, we can begin to really understand the awesome power that we possess, through choosing our thoughts and intentions, to heal ourselves and the earth. If only we believe.

Whether you participate in global meditations, or simply do this inner work in the quiet of your own loving mind and heart, we can heal the body of our earth and recreate a clear, pristine world to hand down to our children for generations.

the-power-of-our-thoughts-on-water3

Water Is A Must For Weight Loss – Drinking 7 Glasses A Day Can Help You Cut 200 Calories!


A new study by researchers from the University of Illinois, USA, found that increasing your water consumption by even 1% can cause you to eat less saturated fat, sugar, sodium and cholesterol, and bring down your calorie intake. Drinking 7 glasses of water a day can help you cut out 200 calories from your diet!

Water Weight Loss

zliving.azureedge

“The impact of plain water intake on diet was similar across race, ethnicity, education and income levels and body weight status,” said Dr. Ruopeng An, a kinesiology and community heath professor at the university.

The study involved over 18,300 participants. This is what the researchers found:

• One extra glass of water each day was tied to eating 68 fewer calories.

• Three extra cups of water each day was tied to eating 205 fewer calories.

• 205 fewer calories each day could lead to weight loss of around half a pound per week.

• Sodium intake decreased by 78 to 235 milligrams depending on how much water the participants drank.

• Sugar intake decreased by five to 18 grams.

• Cholesterol intake decreased by about 7 to 21 milligrams daily.

Water Weight Loss

mtlblog.com

Does water really help with weight loss?

Water isn’t a magic bullet for weight loss, as much as we wish it were. What it mainly does is fill you up, so that you eat less at mealtimes. It also keeps your system moving efficiently, and flushes out toxins from your body.

Researchers also recommend that you drink water when you’re hungry because studies have found that the body mistakes hunger for thirst. So by quenching your thirst, you can avoid eating a whole bunch of extra calories that you didn’t really want in the first place.

There is another school of scientists who believe that water doesn’t help with weight loss. They think that water can help burn a few more calories overall, but not much. They also believe that it’s not necessary to stick only to water – any other fluid will do.

Fourteen metabolism boosting behaviors that will help you keep your weight loss resolution


Forty-five percent of American’s make New Years Resolutions, twenty-one percent of these resolutions are with the desire to lose weight!  Unfortunately, one in three have given up on their resolution by the end of January.

image

Forty-five percent of American’s make New Years Resolutions, 21 percent of these resolutions involve weight loss!

If you desire to lose weight and keep your goal, try focusing on smaller behaviors, rather than the overall goal.  Research tells us that we are more productive if we are focusing on behaviors, rather than the overall goal.  Consider some of the following manageable goals that have proven to increase metabolism and improve weight loss. (2)

Fourteen behaviors proven to increase weight loss!

  1. Drink Water Before Eating:  A study presented at the American Chemical Society’s annual conference reported that drinking two glasses of water before every meal can help a person lose approximately 15.5 pounds over three months. (3)
  2. Fidget:  There is good news if you are a fidgeter, research has shown that non-exercise activity thermogenesis can help burn an additional 350 calories per day.  This activity includes fidgeting or other small bursts of activity, such as running up the stairs, pacing while on the phone or shifting around in your seat. (3)
  3. Whey Protein Smoothie’s:  Adding whey protein powder has beens town to increase calorie burn and fat utilizations. If you are vegan, no worries, science as shown that even plant based protein can rev up your metabolism.  Protein provides a thermogenic effect, causing your body to produce more heat and burn more calories. (3)
  4. Coffee:  Caffeine has the ability to speed up the central nervous system and increase metabolism.  Drinking coffee that has not been laden with cream and sugar can help improve energy levels and fitness.  One study reported that caffeine after exercise increased muscle glycogen by 66 percent, allowing endurance athletes to quickly replenish energy stores used in exercise.(3)
  5. Green Tea:  Green tea not only boosts metabolism but is a rich source of antioxidants.  One study found that green tea combined with three hours of moderate exercise per week reduced abdominal fat in three months. (3)
  6. Probiotics:  Probiotics found in yogurt, pickles and other fermented foods have been shown to help with weight loss.  One study found that 12 weeks of probiotic intake increased weight loss in women when compared to placebo group and the women continue to lose weight during the 12 week maintenance period. (3)
  7. Laugh:  Watching funny videos or reading funny stories will help you feel better and burn more calories.  One study showed a 10-20 percent increase in energy expended and heart rate during genuine laughter.  This energy expenditure translates into 10-40 calories burned within 10-15 minutes of laughter. (3)
  8. Spice Up Your Food:  Invest in a Sriracha key chain and add some spice to your meals.  Capsaicin from chili peppers has a thermogenic effect.  One study found that capsicum activates brown fat and increases calorie burn. (3)
  9. Eat Small Meals:  If you are hungry in the afternoon, instead of waiting to dinnertime, eat a small afternoon meal.  This will help keep your metabolism high and prevent you from eating junk food.  Consider foods like Greek Yogurt and fruit, peanut butter and apples, or cottage cheese. (3)
  10. Organic Produce:  Pesticides on conventional produce have been found to slow metabolism and increase weight gain.  Buying organic can reduce pesticide exposure and help keep off unwanted weight. (3)
  11. One Bite At A Time:  Wolfing down food means that we often eat too much.  One study found that reducing stress and practicing mindfulness can prevent weight gain.  It takes about 20 minutes before hormone CCK tells the brain to stop eating.  If you are eating quickly, you don’t give your CCK the necessary time it needs to pass the message.  Eating quickly will also raise fat-storing insulin levels, so slow down and enjoy every bite! (3)
  12. Turn Off Your Phone:  A Northwestern University study found that blue light emitted from phones, computers and tablets before or after dinner has been found to increase hunger and affect glucose metabolism. (3)
  13. Seafood Salad:  Having a salad for lunch or dinner helps increase fiber and nutrients.  Adding salmon to that salad can help fire up your metabolism.  Salmon contains protein and omega-3 fatty acids.  One study found that supplementing diets with fish oil for six weeks increased lean muscle and decreased fat. (3)
  14. Stand Up When Answering the Phone:  A 150 pound person burns 72 calories an hour sitting and 129 calories standing.  If you walk around while talking on the phone, this increases calorie burned to 143 calories in one hour.  Next time your phone rings, stand up while you talk or even walk around. (3)

If you desire to lose weight this year, try focusing on incorporating as many of these metabolism boosting behaviors into your routine and see if you can find success in your overall weight loss goals!

How Much Water Should You Drink Each Day? 4 To 6 Glasses Is Ideal, Researchers Say


Water is necessary for carrying nutrients to your cells, flushing bacteria from your system, preventing dehydration, and replacing fluids lost from sweating, but you may not need to drink as much as you thought.  The Harvard Health Letter published new water recommendations challenging the long-standing eight 8-ounce glasses-a-day rule, which they say weren’t based on science, but instead an educated guess on what the body needs to stay hydrated.

Harvard recommends drinking 30 to 50 ounces a day, which is equivalent to approximately four to six glasses of water. However, the team isn’t just recommending water to drink at this optimal standard, but fluids in general to aid in hydration. Even certain foods like watermelon, lettuce, spinach, and soups provide the body with fluids that can work in tandem with water to retain and process a healthy amount of water. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding and those who engage in a lot of exercise may need more than the standard six glasses, however.

Recently, a panel of experts from around the world collaboratively wrote a study published in the Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine that also warned how drinking beyond thirst can be hazardous for your health. Athletes are at the greatest risk of drinking to the point of exercise-associated hyponatremia, which occurs when the kidneys become flooded by large quantities of water, unable to process the liquid efficiently. The sodium levels in the human body aren’t able to balance the amount of water, eventually leading to swelling cells and — in severe cases — death.

How The Brain Processes Thirst

“Using the innate thirst mechanism to guide fluid consumption is a strategy that should limit drinking in excess and developing hyponatremia while providing sufficient fluid to prevent excessive dehydration,” according to the guidelines, published in the  Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine.

Going overboard can be avoided so long as you listen to your body and recognized when you’re thirsty. Thirst is one of the basic survival instincts, as it performs several crucial bodily functions, according to the Society of Neuroscience. In addition to flushing and cleansing the body, water maintains body temperatures; transports vitamins, minerals, hormones; and lubricates joints, eyes, and intestines.

But how do we really know we’re thirsty? The instinct to drink water keeps us alive. Adults can’t survive for more than a week without water, while children can die in a period of a few hours if left in a hot car, according to Scientific American. Thirst is regulated by a messaging network between the brain and various parts of the body. The negative feedback from organs and other parts turns on the thirst mechanism located in the brain, which cues us to pour a glass of water. As humans age, the loop can weaken and put the elderly population at risk for dehydration and a host of other health issues.

World Water Day.


March 22 is World Water Day.
We all know how important water is, from where it comes, where it goes,so I’m not trying to discuss these issues.
Just think..
How much water on this planet is safe to drink? How many people are deprived of clean water?
Is the water safe what you are drinking? It hardly matter if you use any water purifier.
Fluoride content is going high. Even Ebola virus may be in the water.
Fukashima disaster and the radioactive water drained into the sea and reached the other part of the globe and noone cares.
Horn of Africa is going through the worst famine in human history.
Omega 3 n 6 fatty acids are derived from sharks where the mercury content is too high.
Think before you drink….
It’s also human greed that makes the world thirsty.

From the desk of Zedie.

Fukushima has ‘new leak of radioactive water which may have entered the Pacific Ocean’


  • At least 430 litres spilled when workers overfilled a storage tank 


Japan’s crippled Fukushima nuclear plant has a new leak of radioactive water which may have entered the Pacific Ocean. 

The operator of the meltdown-plagued plant says at least 430 litres spilled when workers overfilled a storage tank that lacked a gauge that could have warned them of the danger.

The amount is tiny compared to the untold thousands of tons of radioactive water that have leaked, much of it into the Pacific Ocean, since a massive earthquake and tsunami wrecked the plant in 2011. 

Concerning: Japan's crippled Fukushima nuclear plant has a new leak of radioactive water which may have entered the Pacific Ocean

Concerning: Japan’s crippled Fukushima nuclear plant has a new leak of radioactive water which may have entered the Pacific Ocean

Danger: The operator of the meltdown-plagued plant says at least 430 litres spilled when workers overfilled a storage tank that lacked a gauge that could have warned them of the danger

But the error is one of many the operator has committed as it struggles to manage a seemingly endless, tainted flow.

Plant operator Tokyo Electric Power Co. said this morning that workers detected the water spilling from the top of one large tank when they were patrolling the site the night before. 

The tank is one of about 1,000 erected on the grounds around the plant to hold water used to cool the melted nuclear fuel in the broken reactors. 

Wrecked: This aerial view shows the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station 2011

Wrecked: This aerial view shows the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in 2011.

TEPCO said the water spilled out of a concrete barrier surrounding the tank and believed that most of it reached the sea via a ditch next to the river. 

The new leak is sure to add to public concern and criticism of TEPCO and the government for their handling of the nuclear crisis. 

In August, the utility reported a 300-ton leak from another storage tank, one of a string of leaks in recent months. 

That came after the utility acknowledged that contaminated groundwater was seeping into ocean at a rate of 300 tons a day. 

TEPCO spokesman Masayuki Ono told an urgent news conference Thursday that the overflow occurred at a tank without a water gauge and standing on an unlevel ground, slightly tilting toward the sea. 

The tank was already nearly full, but workers pumped in more contaminated water into it to maximize capacity as the plant was facing storage crunch. 

Dangerous: Workers spray water to cool down the spent nuclear fuel in the fourth reactor building at Fukushima in 2011

Dangerous: Workers spray water to cool down the spent nuclear fuel in the fourth reactor building at Fukushima in 2011.

Experts have faulted TEPCO for sloppiness in its handling of the water management, including insufficient tank inspection records, lack of water gauges, as well as connecting hoses lying directly on the grass-covered ground. 

Until recently, only one worker was assigned to 500 tanks in a two-hour patrol. 

In recent meetings, regulators criticized TEPCO for even lacking basic skills to properly measure radioactivity in contaminated areas, and taking too long to find causes in case of problems.

They also have criticized the one-foot (30-centimetre) high protective barriers around the tanks as being too low. 

The government has said it will spend $470 billion to build an underground ‘ice wall’ around the reactor and turbine buildings to block groundwater inflows and prevent potential leaks from spreading. 

It is also funding more advanced water treatment equipment to make the contaminated water clean enough to be eventually released into the sea. 

People wear face masks as they visit the cemetery at the tsunami destroyed coastal area of the evacuated town of Namie

People wear face masks as they visit the cemetery at the tsunami destroyed coastal area of the evacuated town of Namie.

The level of radiation is seen near the abandoned civic centre at the tsunami destroyed coastal area of the evacuated town of Namie

The level of radiation is seen near the abandoned civic centre at the tsunami destroyed coastal area of the evacuated town of Namie