Snail study reveals that stress is bad for memory.


New research on pond snails has revealed that high levels of stress can block memory processes. Researchers from the University of Exeter and the University of Calgary trained snails and found that when they were exposed to multiple stressful events they were unable remember what they had learned. Previous research has shown that stress also affects human ability to remember. This study, published in the journal PLOS ONE, found that experiencing multiple simultaneously has a cumulative detrimental effect on .

Dr Sarah Dalesman, a Leverhulme Trust Early Career Fellow, from the University of Exeter, formally at the University of Calgary, said: “It’s really important to study how different forms of stress interact as this is what animals, including people, frequently experience in real life. By training snails, and then observing their behaviour and brain activity following exposure to , we found that a single stressful event resulted in some impairment of memory but multiple stressful events prevented any memories from being formed.”

The pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, has easily observable behaviours linked to memory and large neurons in the brain, both useful benefits when studying . They also respond to stressful events in a similar way to mammals, making them a useful model species to study learning and memory.

In the study, the pond snails were trained to reduce how often they breathed outside water. Usually pond snails breathe underwater and absorb oxygen through their skin. In water with low oxygen levels the snails emerge and inhale air using a basic lung opened to the air via a breathing hole.

To train the snails not to breathe air they were placed in poorly oxygenated water and their breathing holes were gently poked every time they emerged to breathe. Snail memory was tested by observing how many times the snails attempted to breathe air after they had received their training. Memory was considered to be present if there was a reduction in the number of times they opened their breathing holes. The researchers also assessed memory by monitoring neural activity in the brain.

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Immediately before training, the snails were exposed to two different stressful experiences, low calcium – which is stressful as calcium is necessary for healthy shells – and overcrowding by other pond snails.

When faced with the stressors individually, the pond snails had reduced ability to form long term memory, but were still able to learn and form short and intermediate term memory lasting from a few minutes to hours. However, when both stressors were experienced at the same time, results showed that they had additive effects on the ‘ ability to form memory and all learning and memory processes were blocked.

The synergestic miracles of chlorella and its ability to reduce high blood pressure and cerebral stroke lesions.


Attacked at every angle, today’s healthy human experience is burdened, ever so silently, by a host of toxins and chemicals. With nutrient-void genetically modified food filling grocery shelves, vast amounts of pesticide chemicals running off into groundwater and heavy metal pollution billowing into the air we breathe, there are dangers at every turn.

Our cells are under constant attack by outside sources, including arsenals of heavy-metal-laden vaccinations, mercury-filled fish and fluoride-infused water.

It’s easy to lose all care and just take the beating. Cancers, disease and high blood pressure reign supreme in a population that fails to believe that there are miracles growing all around. How might a simple algae communicate with the human body in such a way as to relieve vascular problems and stroke?

A shift in mindset for treating vascular problems

Many people are beginning to reach out in search of natural healing answers. Simple plants are being rediscovered for their cellular rejuvenating properties. With cancers and heart disease on the rise in the West and around the world, it is no wonder why many are abandoning current pharmaceutical drug philosophy and returning to the Earth for answers.

While some are attached to their doctor’s comforting advice and drug regimen, many are beginning to think outside the industry’s box, looking for preventative, alternative answers.

Medical intervention like blood pressure medication is often sought too early, too often, before a dietary lifestyle change can be encouraged and implemented. This hasty medical intervention leaves many people mentally addicted to a prescription drug regimen, as all care is lost in dealing with the root causes of conditions like high blood pressure.

In this time of toxicity and change, a clean, single-celled algae called chlorella is becoming a go-to health powerhouse, a miracle supplement. In a study from Tokyo’s Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, chlorella was examined for its vascular benefits, including its ability to reduce blood pressure and incidences of cerebral stroke lesions.

Dietary chlorella tested on hypertensive rats

In the study, chlorella was provided as a dietary supplement on a transgenic mice species prone to stroke and spontaneous hypertension. A control group was fed a commercial, balanced diet, and another group was fed chlorella supplements in addition to the standard diet plan.

After 21 weeks of feeding, both groups’ cholesterol levels were measured. The cholesterol was significantly lower in the chlorella-fed mice. Furthermore, the control group showed cerebral vascular accidents when their brains were histopathologically examined. This led to more cerebral stroke lesions and a shorter life span in the control group.

The miracles of chlorella converge for synergistic healing

To break the study down further, chlorella was administered in three different forms, including lipid soluble, hot water soluble and residual fractions.

The 10 percent lipid soluble and residual fraction chlorella diets showed similar results, significantly lowering blood pressure in the mice. Both forms also decreased the amount of cerebral vessel lesions, when compared to the control group. The lipid soluble fraction, which contained large quantities of antioxidants like lutein and phospholipids, supported healthy aorta collagen and elastin metabolism in the mice vascular system. The residual fraction contained large amounts of arginine, which is proven to improve blood vessel function.

The study’s authors confirmed that high levels of arginine, phospholipids and antioxidants like lutein all work together synergistically to enhance vascular function. These substances, which are packed into chlorella, may communicate a vascular medical benefit to those struggling with high blood pressure and stroke.

It blows the mind, learning about microscopic substances deep inside an algae plant, and the relationship these pieces of the puzzle have with the human body.

Miracles are always alive and at work – invisible within the leaf, the root, the flower, the algae. The miracles are there for people to accept, to be alive, strong and abundant, and chlorella is just one of many miracles waiting to happen.