Assessment of knowledge of Organ Donation and Transplantation


SURVEY BY: HANSEL MISQUITTA & DR. ANMOL SHARMA
Kindly select the correct options and fill in the blanks wherever necessary.
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Email address *
Your email
Name *
Your answer
Sex *
Male
Female
Other:
Age *
Your answer
Religion *
Your answer
Occupation ( If studying, please mention ‘student’) *
Your answer
Number of family Members *
Your answer
Medico/Non-medico? *
Medico
Non- Medico
If Medico,
MBBS
BPth
BUMS
BAMS
BOth
BDS
Other:
Have you heard about Organ Donation? *
NO
YES
If YES, what is the source of your knowledge?
Your answer
Who can donate their organs? *
LIVING
DEAD
BOTH
Which organs can be donated? *
Your answer
Upto what time can the organs be donated after death?
Your answer
What is the minimum age of donation of organs in India?
Your answer
Can someone with HIV donate their organs? *
Yes
No
Maybe
Which organisation/s is/are responsible for organ collection/organ donation?
Your answer
Do you think our country has a law for Organ Donation? *
Yes
No
Maybe
If YES, what is/are they?
Your answer
If anyone in your family has an illness, would you donate? *
Yes
No
Maybe
If YES, to whom?
STRANGER
FRIEND
FAMILY MEMBER
If NO, why?
Your answer
Would you donate your organs when you die? *
YES
NO
Would you donate a family members’ organ/organs after their demise? *
Yes
No
Maybe
LIVE DONATION
Most organ and tissue donations occur after the donor has died. But some organs and tissues can be donated while the donor is alive. Nearly 6,000 living donations take place each year. That’s about 4 out of every 10 donations.Most living donations happen among family members or between close friends. Some people become altruistic living donors by choosing to donate to someone they don’t know.Live Donation is from a healthy and living person. This can only be done in the case of a liver or a kidney (because the liver can grow back to its normal size, and a donor can survive on one kidney). So if a near relative of yours needs a liver or a kidney, anyone in the immediate family can donate to them.
Are you aware of complications of living/live donation?. *
YES
NO
IF YES, Describe
Your answer
Which organs can be donated?
Your answer
Do you know what is consent? *
Yes
No
Do you know what is ‘cross- matching’? *
Yes
No
IF YES, write something about pre-donation check up?
Your answer
CADAVERIC DONATION.
When we talk about pledging your organs or about organ donation, we are talking about Deceased organ donation or cadaver organ donation. This is organ donation from a person who has been declared brain dead by a team of authorized doctors at a hospital. A person is said to be brain dead when there is an irreversible loss of consciousness, absence of brain stem reflexes and no spontaneous respiration.
Would you/family member receive organ from a deceased person? *
Yes
No
Maybe
Which organs can be donated?
Your answer
PROGNOSIS
Do you know the life-span of donated organs? *
Yes
No
IF YES, describe
Your answer
What are the associated complications?
Your answer
ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION
What do you understand by the term ‘Brain dead’?
Your answer
Do you know the steps for organ donation before the actual transplant occurs? *
Yes
No
IF YES, describe
Your answer
Which Act states provisions for Organ donation in India?
Your answer
What is the current situation of Organ donation and transplantation in India?
Your answer
Would your like to have more knowledge about Organ donation? *
Yes
No
Maybe
If you have knowledge about OD, would you help create awareness among the masses? *
Yes
No
Maybe

Brown Fat Injections Reverse Weight Gain in Obese Mice


Transplantation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) from donor animals appeared to reduce weight gain in leptin-deficient Ob/Ob mice, presumably by enhancing the activity of endogenous brown fat, researchers reported.

In a series of studies in obesity and predisposed transgenic mice, BAT transplantation led to significant reductions in weight gain and decreased total body fat, lead researcherWanzhu Jin, PhD, of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and colleagues, wrote in the journal Endocrinology.

 In earlier research conducted by these researchers and others, BAT transplantation was shown to reduce body weight in high-fat diet-induced obesity mouse models. The newly published research is the first to show the same outcome in mice genetically predisposed to become obese and it is also the first to link BAT transplantation with endogenous brown fat activity, Jin and colleagues wrote.

“The results of the current study show that transplantation of BAT reduced adiposity and improved glucose homeostasis in the Ob/Ob mouse by significantly increasing energy expenditure,” the researchers wrote. “These beneficial effects were most likely mediated by the enhancement of endogenous BAT activity. These results may open new avenues to develop a novel treatment option to target obesity and its related diseases such as diabetes.”

BAT Transplant Mice Had Less Body Fat

Leptin deficient Ob/Ob mice, which are widely used for the study of obesity-induced diabetes, have a lower metabolic rate and hypothermia due to a defect in BAT function, the researchers wrote.

To determine whether BAT transplantation could reverse these traits, they transplanted brown fat from 6 week old C57B/L6 mice into the dorsal subcutaneous region of age and sex matched Ob/Ob mice.

The BAT transplantation mice were found to gain less weight than sham-operated control Ob/Ob mice and this difference was seen as early as 3 weeks after transplantation (47.8 ±2.2 g vs. 50.6±3.1 g, P<0.03). This trend persisted through 12 weeks post transplantation.

When the researchers measured body composition using computerized tomography, they found an 11% decrease in total body fat percentage in the BAT transplant mice compared with the control mice.

“Compared with control mice, there was a significant reduction of adipocyte size in subcutaneous fat but not in epididymal fat after BAT transplantation,” the researchers wrote.

There was no change in circulating IL-6 levels or IL-6 mRNA in epididymal fat, however, suggesting that BAT transplantation disrupted adipose tissue hypertrophy without altering inflammation.

BAT transplantation was also found to reverse hepatic steatosis, improve insulin sensitivity, and increase energy expenditures.

BAT transplantation into streptozotocin (STZ) induced type 1 diabetic mice resulted in complete reversal of most diabetic symptoms without exogenous insulin treatment and it reversed diet-induced obesity in another mouse model.

Adiponectin May Activate Endogenous BAT

In a series of experiments, the researchers showed that transplantation also enhanced the activity of endogenous BAT.

“Serum adiponectin levels and beta 3 adrenergic receptor expression levels in both subcutaneous and epididymal fat were significantly increased after BAT transplantation,” Jin and colleagues wrote. “Increase of plasma adiponectin after BAT transplantation might enhance activity of endogenous BAT to consume more triglyceride as consistent with previous reports.”

The findings suggest that activation of endogenous BAT, and not transplanted BAT, was primarily responsible for the improved metabolic profile seen in the transplanted mice, the researchers noted.

No difference in energy intake and no change in circulating leptin levels were detected following BAT transplantation, suggesting that the improved metabolic profile was not due to circulating leptin alone.

“Increasing evidence suggests that BAT might serve as a secretory organ,” the researchers wrote. “Similar to white adipose tissue, BAT could synthesize and secrete numerous hormones, such as FGF21, to regulate the whole body energy metabolism.”

The BAT transplant mice in the study showed significant reductions in circulating FGF21. In addition, circulating IL-6 was not altered following BAT transplantation, suggesting that additional inflammatory factors or other factors might be involved in energy metabolism, the researchers noted.

The finding that BAT transplantation reversed diabetes in type 1 and diet-induced obesity mouse models suggest that BAT secretes adipokines that work through insulin-independent pathways.

“As an endocrine organ, BAT could serve as a fascinating new potential therapeutic target for obesity and its related diseases,” the researchers wrote … “In the present study, we demonstrated that BAT transplantation ameliorated the body weight and body fat gain in Ob/Ob mice. This is the first study showing that BAT transplantation enhances the activity of endogenous BAT, eventually leading to the improvement of whole body energy metabolism and glucose homeostasis.”

Everything you want to know about poop transplants.


Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) also known as a stool transplant is the process of transplantation of fecal bacteria from a healthy individual into a recipient. It has been proven to be a highly effective treatment for patients suffering from Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), which produces effects ranging from diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis.

 

http://www.sciencedump.com/content/everything-you-want-know-about-poop-transplant