Objective To determine the association between self reported job insecurity and incident coronary heart disease.
Design A meta-analysis combining individual level data from a collaborative consortium and published studies identified by a systematic review.
Data sources We obtained individual level data from 13 cohort studies participating in the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations Consortium. Four published prospective cohort studies were identified by searches of Medline (to August 2012) and Embase databases (to October 2012), supplemented by manual searches.
Review methods Prospective cohort studies that reported risk estimates for clinically verified incident coronary heart disease by the level of self reported job insecurity. Two independent reviewers extracted published data. Summary estimates of association were obtained using random effects models.
Results The literature search yielded four cohort studies. Together with 13 cohort studies with individual participant data, the meta-analysis comprised up to 174 438 participants with a mean follow-up of 9.7 years and 1892 incident cases of coronary heart disease. Age adjusted relative risk of high versus low job insecurity was 1.32 (95% confidence interval 1.09 to 1.59). The relative risk of job insecurity adjusted for sociodemographic and risk factors was 1.19 (1.00 to 1.42). There was no evidence of significant differences in this association by sex, age (<50 v ≥50 years), national unemployment rate, welfare regime, or job insecurity measure.
Conclusions The modest association between perceived job insecurity and incident coronary heart disease is partly attributable to poorer socioeconomic circumstances and less favourable risk factor profiles among people with job insecurity.
Researchers followed roughly 2100 people aged 65 and older who were free of dementia at baseline. Over a median follow-up of 6.8 years, patients had at least five measurements of glucose or glycated hemoglobin taken. About a quarter of patients developed dementia.
For all participants, the risk for dementia increased with increasing glucose readings. For patients without diabetes, an average glucose level of 115 mg/dL was associated with an 18% higher risk for dementia, compared with a level of 100 mg/dL. For those with diabetes, 190 mg/dL was associated with a 40% increased risk, relative to 160 mg/dL.
Experimental data convincingly propose the toxic metal cadmium as a prostate carcinogen. Cadmium is widely dispersed into the environment and, consequently, food is contaminated.
A population-based cohort of 41 089 Swedish men aged 45–79 years was followed prospectively from 1998 through 2009 to assess the association between food frequency questionnaire-based estimates of dietary cadmium exposure (at baseline, 1998) and incidence of prostate cancer (3085 cases, of which 894 were localised and 794 advanced) and through 2008 for prostate cancer mortality (326 fatal cases).
Mean dietary cadmium exposure was 19 μg per day±s.d. 3.7. Multivariable-adjusted dietary cadmium exposure was positively associated with overall prostate cancer, comparing extreme tertiles; rate ratio (RR) 1.13 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–1.24). For subtypes of prostate cancer, the RR was 1.29 (95% CI: 1.08–1.53) for localised, 1.05 (95% CI: 0.87–1.25) for advanced, and 1.14 (95% CI: 0.86–1.51) for fatal cases. No statistically significant difference was observed in the multivariable-adjusted risk estimates between tumour subtypes (Pheterogeneity=0.27). For localised prostate cancer, RR was 1.55 (1.16–2.08) among men with a small waist circumference and RR 1.45 (1.15, 1.83) among ever smokers.
Our findings provide support that dietary cadmium exposure may have a role in prostate cancer development.
Source: British journal of oncology
dietary cadmium; epidemiology; prospective cohort; prostate cancer; subtypes