Polio Gone but Vaccines Will Continue

India was taken off the list of polio-endemic countries by the World Health Organization (WHO) two months ago, but the polio eradication campaign will have to be continued in some format forever.



“The long promised   monetary benefits from ceasing to vaccinate against poliovirus will never be achieved,”  Neetu Vashisht and  Jacob Puliyel of the Department of Pediatrics at St. Stephens Hospital in Delhi report in the April issue of Indian Journal of Medical Ethics.

The doctors note that it was long known to the scientific community that eradication of polio was impossible because scientists had synthesized poliovirus in a test-tube as early as in 2002.

“The sequence of its genome is known and modern biotechnology allows it to be resurrected at any time in the lab,” they report.  “Man can thus never let down his guard against poliovirus.”

According to the authors it was unethical for WHO and Bill Gates to flog this programme when they knew 10 years back that it was never to succeed.  “Getting poor countries to expend their scarce resources on an impossible dream over the last 10 years was unethical.”

They say that another major ethical issue raised by the campaign is the failure to thoroughly investigate the   increase in the incidence of non-polio acute flaccid paralysis (NPAFP) in areas were many doses of vaccine were used.  NPAFP is clinically indistinguishable from polio paralysis but twice as deadly.

The authors note that while India was polio-free in 2011, in the same year, there were 47500 cases of NPAFP.  While data from India’s National Polio Surveillance Project showed NPAFP rate increased in proportion to the number of polio vaccine doses received, independent studies showed that children identified with NPAFP “were at more than twice the risk of dying than those with wild polio infection.”

According to their report, nationally, the NPAFP rate is now twelve times higher than expected.  In the states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar — which have pulse polio rounds nearly every month — the NPAFP rate is 25 and 35 fold higher than the international norms.

The authors point out that while the anti-polio campaign in India was mostly self-financed it started with a token donation of two million dollars from abroad.  “The Indian government finally had to fund this hugely expensive programme, which cost the country 100 times more than the value of the initial grant.”

“This is a startling reminder of how initial funding and grants from abroad distort local priorities,” the authors note.  “From India’s perspective the exercise has been an extremely costly both in terms of human suffering and in monetary terms. It is tempting to speculate what could have been achieved if the $ 2.5 billion spent on attempting to eradicate polio, were spent on water and sanitation and routine immunization.”

In conclusion they say that “the polio eradication programme epitomizes nearly everything that is wrong with donor funded ‘disease specific’ vertical projects at the cost of investments in community-oriented primary health care (horizontal programs).”

The WHO’s current policy calls for stopping oral polio vaccine (OPV) vaccination  three  years after the last case of poliovirus-caused poliomyelitis.  Injectable polio vaccine (IPV), which is expensive, will replace OPV in countries which can afford it.

“The risks inherent in this strategy are immense,” Puliyel and Vashisht warn. “Herd immunity against poliomyelitis will rapidly decline as new children are born and not vaccinated. Thus, any outbreak of poliomyelitis will be disastrous, whether it is caused by residual samples of virus stored in laboratories, by vaccine-derived polioviruses or by poliovirus that is chemically synthesized with malignant intent.”

They argue that the huge costs of repeated rounds of OPV in terms of money and NPAFP shows that monthly administration of OPV must cease.  “Our resources are perhaps better spent on controlling poliomyelitis to a locally acceptable level  rather than trying to eradicate the disease.”

The Polio Vaccine Doesn’t Stop Polio

While we’re on the topic of Vaccines in the CDC Schedule that Don’t Stop Transmission of the Disease They’re Named After, now would be a good time to stop saying “because polio” as justification for mandating every vaccine that comes to market.

I hate to burst your bubble (not really– I love it so much that I write this ish for free) but the Enhanced-Potency Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) that replaced the Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) in 1999 doesn’t prevent transmitting polio.  It’s been 17 years since we’ve used a polio-transmission-reduction vaccine in the US so if your kid is in high school or younger, they didn’t get a real polio vaccine, and they’re not protected from contracting polio.

In 1999 the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices voted to completely replace OPV with IPV in order to “eliminate the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis.” That’s a fancy way of admitting that the oral vaccine was the only cause of polio in America.  See, the OPV was pretty good at preventing polio infection except when it caused polio in the person who received the vaccine, and then that person gave polio to a bunch of other people.

As far as the vaccine vs. improved sanitation argument goes, even the CDC admits that before the vaccine was available, improved sanitation was to thank for reduced exposure to the virus.  Clean water and indoor plumbing were great for reducing initial polio infections but just like with chickenpox/shingles, the eradication of the “booster” that previously-infected people were getting from natural re-exposure was causing epidemics.

Even the Polio Global Eradication Initiative admits that the IPV “does not stop transmission of the virus.”  They go on to say that “when a person immunized with IPV is infected with wild poliovirus, the virus can still multiply inside the intestines and be shed in the feces, risking continued circulation.”  Get your polio vaccine, still catch polio, still give polio to the community.

So what’s it good for then?  The current polio vaccine claims to be good at preventing the vaccinated person from developing severe polio symptoms.  That’s it.  You’re  allegedly spared an iron lung but you aren’t contributing to any “community immunity” by vaccinating your child for polio grown in (you can trust them this time, it’s perfectly safe) monkey kidney cells.

Again, it’s their own personal seat belt in the event of an accident.  Infants and toddlers can contract polio, grow a polio infection in their intestines, shed it in their bowel movements, and expose everyone who comes into contact with their diapers to wild polio. Which, thankfully we don’t have much of in this country and if we do, we make sure we call it by a different name.

I haven’t actually found any studies that show the efficacy of the post-1978 Enhanced-Potency IPV in preventing paralysis but feel free to leave a link in the comments if you know of one.  The CDC’s pink book doesn’t claim any studies— it only says that the presence of antibodies correlates with protection against paralysis.

Wait, what was that saying about correlation and causation?  Or is that expression only valid when used against parents of the vaccine injured?

The CDC also says they don’t know how long this supposed immunity lasts, but it’s “probably” a lifetime.  Thanks for being so thorough, CDC.

Maybe you’re thinking that protecting your child from polio paralysis is the only reason you need to get the IPV and I totally understand your thinking. But you should know that 95% of all polio is symptom-free while paralytic polio happens less than 1% of the time.

By no means am I arguing for the return of the use of OPV in American children. India has been making headlines in recent years with its skyrocketing rate of “non-polio acute flaccid paralysis” that is strongly associated with the oral polio vaccine administered during their polio elimination campaign.  India was declared polio-free in January 2011 while over 137,000 of her people suffered post-vaccine paralysis as collateral damage in just 2 1/2 years.  Plus there’s the added bonus that people vaccinated with the OPV will shed polio in their bowel movements, which in developing countries are often deposited alongside the road, which then give polio to people who come in contact with it.

Sanitation is everything, isn’t it?  Maybe we should give a little less gratitude to pharmaceutical companies and a lot more thanks to plumbers.

7 Trivia Facts About Polio

It’s called the “Gold Standard of Medicine.”

I’m referring to the current vaccine schedule. But is there an apparent hidden catch? Can justification for the aggressive vaccine schedule arguably be traced back to the polio vaccine that is trotted out as proof vaccines work?

If you don’t believe me, question any parent on vaccines. The knee-jerk question in almost every case is, “What about polio?”

Well, what about it? Here I discuss 7 trivia facts for VacTruth.com readers to investigate further about polio and question the motives of those who would profit from vaccines and disease.


Trivia Fact #1 – Chemicals Used in Pesticides Increased Your Chance for Viral Infections

During World War II and into the 1950s, massive amounts of pesticides, such as DDT, heptachlor, dieldrin, TEPP, malathion, were sprayed on crops eaten by humans and livestock.

Any connection to the chemicals used in spraying the pesticide formulations and polio epidemic are regularly denied. However, the chemicals used in spraying pesticides were found to increase viral infections in hosts.[1,2]

Researcher Janis Gabliks noted in the study titled, Studies of Biologically Active Agents in Cells and Tissue Cultures, that,

“As it is recognized that residues of some agricultural insecticides persist in the body and that cells are continuously exposed to their metabolites, we investigated the possibility that these chemicals may alter certain physiological activities of cells and subsequently influence the susceptibility of hosts to virus infections.”  [1]

Parents should also know some of the same chemicals used to spray pesticides (Tween 20, Tween 80, Triton X-100, Nonoxyenol-9) are still present in childhood vaccines. [3,4]


*Note the close correlation to the spraying of pesticides and the worst polio epidemic in US History. “…Before 1940, relatively small amounts of such chemicals as nicotine, rotenone, pyrethrum, and the aresenicals (sic) were used for insect control. During and following World War II a rapid changeover to DDT, heptachlor, dieldrin, TEPP, malathion, and related compounds occurred.” [5]

Source: Jim West – http://www.harvoa.org/


Trivia Fact #2 – Milk Was Heavily Contaminated with Pesticides; Quietly Taken Off Shelves While Farmers Paid

By 1959, the total wholesale value in pesticide products had reached $290 million. The massive pesticide campaign was not without cost. [5]

According to congressional reports, many dairy farmers were devastated from pesticides contaminating milk.

Senate Report 1363 shockingly states,

“The problem which our dairy farmers are facing has been brought about by the use of chemicals approved by the Federal Government to dust crops. Some of these chemicals have been found to contaminate feeds. The contamination passes on into the milk and when the residues of pesticides is found to be of too high a level, the farmers are forced to dump their milk, taking it out of commercial channels. The result has been disastrous to the dairy farmers involved, some of which have had to go into bankruptcy.”

“There had been at that time, reasonable prospect that the problem would have diminished to a point that further extension of the authority would not have been necessary. However, as the Department testified then, several large producers had their milk removed from the market because of DDT residue. The problem had in fact not been solved. The local dairymen, the State governments involved, dairy and cotton associations, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture have been cooperating in an effort to rid us of this problem. The problem, however, still continues and it it appears that it will continue for the forseeable (sic) years to come.” [6]

When it was obvious pesticide residue levels weren’t dropping as hoped, the Dairy Indemnity Payment Program, or DIPP, officially was created through public law in 1968 to reimburse farmers whose milk was contaminated with pesticides. [6, 7]


Trivia Fact #3 – Polio Is/Was Transmitted Through Contaminated Milk

One of the major ways polio is transmitted is through contaminated milk. [8-14] Even one of the inventors of the polio vaccine, Albert Sabin, investigated the connection, [15] he was not naïve to this information.

Expert on microbiological safety of food and water, Dean O. Cliver, commented on the polio/milk connection in the book Foodborne Diseases,

“Poliomyelitis was the first reported foodborne viral disease, having been transmitted via raw milk as early as 1914. Raw milk predominated as the vehicle among the 10 outbreaks recorded through 1949, the last year in which foodborne poliomyelitis is known to occurred in the United States or other reporting, developed countries. Poliovirus transmission by this route ceased before the advent of the poliomyelitis vaccines, perhaps partly because of improved sanitation and the increased use of pasteurization of milk.” [8]

Sagar M. Goyal noted on page 1 of the book, Viruses in Foods,

“Food was first recognized as a vehicle for the transmission of viruses in 1914 when a raw milk-associated outbreak of poliomyelitis was reported (Jubb, 1915). Additional milk-borne outbreaks were recognized after this time, but with the development of a vaccine for poliovirus, no outbreaks were reported in the developed world after the early 1950s.” [9] (Emphasis is this author’s)

Other common diseases known to be spread through improper handling of contaminated milk at the time were Tuberculosis, Typhoid Fever, Scarlet Fever, Septic Sore Throat, Diphtheria, and Infantile Diarrhea. [16]

Can this be the genesis for all the raw milk controversy that is going on to this very day? Instead of promoting the proper safe handling of certified raw milk containing many healthful microorganisms, the U.S. FDA demands pasteurization that promotes other health problems.


Trivia Fact #4–Removing Your Tonsils Exposed You to the Worst Kind of Paralysis

Tonsillectomy surgery was cautioned in the presence of a polio epidemic. [17]

It was discovered if a child had his/her tonsils removed (or even a tooth extracted), they had a greater chance of getting the worst kind of polio called Bulbar Poliomyelitis. [18-20]

Given the information in Trivia Fact #3, this seems to make sense since it was common to give ice cream after a tonsillectomy.


Trivia Fact #5 – Pharmaceutical Companies Funded the writing of the “History of Poliomyelitis”

John R. Paul, M.D., an often-celebrated virologist in the fight against polio, wrote a book entitled, A History of Poliomyelitis. [21]

John Paul wielded significant influence and was, at the time, considered an authority on the subject of polio.

The pharmaceutical companies Lederle Laboratories, Merck, Sharp & Dohme, Parke, Davis & Co., Pfizer Inc.,and Smith Kline & French gave grants to help write a pharmaceutical-friendly-version of the history of polio.


Source: Personal Photo of Book


*Note: VacTruth readers should also investigate the history of the pharmaceutical companies. Geigy, now known as Novartis Pharmaceuticals, held the patent on the pesticide DDT. Novartis now manufacture vaccines.

The following quote was taken from the military handbook “DDT and Other Insecticides and Repellents” regarding spraying DDT, “The Geigy company holds the patents on the use of the compound [DDT] as an insecticide. The United States patent is No. 2,329,074, issued September 7, 1943, to Paul Müller.” [22]


Trivia Fact #6 – A Dangerous Vaccine: Americans Not Told Vaccine Caused Paralysis

During the polio epidemic, the Poliomyelitis Surveillance Unit (PSU) investigated a possible association between the paralysis and the vaccine manufactured by Wyeth Laboratories. This incident became known as the “Wyeth Problem.”  [23,24]

The investigation was led by Neal Nathanson and was summarized in two reports. Marked across the top of the reports are the words, “For Official Use Only – Not for Publication.


One plausible explanation is if Americans knew the vaccine was causing paralysis, they would demand the vaccines be taken off the shelf – just like any other tainted drug. Such a public outcry would have spoiled the popularity of the polio vaccine.

The following passage from one of the reports is revealing,

“The problem was discussed fully with officials of the Pennsylvania Health Department. It was learned that a number of additional cases of suspected poliomyelitis were then under investigation. These had been reported principally from Harrisburg and surrounding counties in central Pennsylvania, an area where lot 236 had been principally used in NFIP (National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis) supported clinics. Some of these cases were known to be “vaccine associated.”” [23] (Emphasis is this author’s)

*Source: Snapshot taken of the “Wyeth Problem” report


Trivia Fact #7 – Researchers Discover How to Paralyze Monkeys with Vaccines

During the International Poliomyelitis Conference held in 1954, Dr. David Bodian from the Poliomyelitis Laboratory at Johns Hopkins University discussed how his research was able to produce paralysis in cynomolgus monkeys by vaccination. [25]

Here is how they did it:

  1. First they gave an injection with, “gelatin, corticosteroids, penicillin, DTP (Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis vaccine), saline or merely hypodermic needle punctures…” [25]
  2. Second, they deliberately infected the monkeys with the poliovirus (this concept is called viremia).
  3. Lastly, their observations showed, “…the paralytic rate is considerably increased as compared with the control animals…” [25]

Bodian’s stunning admission shortly followed,

It must be emphasized that the 2 experimental conditions of viremia and of intramuscular injections, as well as the critical time period of an interval of less than 1 month, also characterize the human situation in epidemic areas when intramuscular injections of penicillin or other substances [like DTP vaccine] are given.[25] (Emphasis and inserted words are this author’s)

In other words, Bodian is telling the attendees at the conference injections and other vaccines, such as the DTP vaccine, “may be causing polio.” *

Consider how many injections and live virus vaccines a child now receives in his/her first two years of life. The above information deserves serious consideration by researchers, immunologists, and vaccinologists.

Note: The meeting minutes list Albert Sabin and Jonas Salk as speakers during this session. Thomas Francis and Hilary Koprowski were also present as discussants. Why is this information important? They were all inventors of a (polio) vaccine.

Some Facts About Polio That The CDC Wishes You Didn’t Know

Many people I talk to agree that the current CDC vaccination schedule is appalling. These same people commonly acknowledge that vaccines for HPV or the flu are ineffective and cause much more harm than good.

However, many of these seemingly intelligent people fall into the “But

, Polio” crowd.

Despite evidence that polio was on the decline long before the introduction of the vaccine, and that sanitation and plumbing improvements are likely the reason for the decline of the disease as opposed to a carcinogenic syringe filled with neurotoxins and environmental pesticides, far too many people still hail the polio vaccine as one of the greatest accomplishments of 20th century medicine.polio-death-chart

If you are one of those people who has ever stated “but, what about polio?”, this is for you.

1. The first polio vaccine was developed by Dr. Jonas Salk. Human experiments using this vaccine were conducted purposely on orphans in government/church run institutions because they were vulnerable and didn’t require parental consent signatures, as they had no parents.

The vaccine was “declared safe” (as they always are), but tragically, that vaccine gave 40,000 orphans polio and permanently paralyzed hundreds of others. At least 10 children died as a result of vaccine-induced polio. All injuries and deaths were under-reported of course by the same authorities who orchestrated the atrocity. (This is known as The Cutter Incident.)

“In retrospect, a good deal of the blame for the vaccine snafu also went to the National Foundation (for Infantile Paralysis), which, with years of publicity, had built up the danger of polio out of all proportion to its actual incidence, and had rushed into vaccinations this year with patently insufficient preparation.” ~Time Magazine: Monday, May 30, 1955

2. In 1956, the AMA (The American Medical Association) instructed every licensed medical doctor that they could no longer classify polio as polio, or their license to practice would be terminated. (Source)

Any paralysis was now to be diagnosed as AFP (acute flaccid paralysis) MS, MD, Bell’s Palsy, cerebral palsy, ALS (Lou Gehrig’s Disease), Guillian-Barre, etc., etc., etc. When all other lies failed, doctors were instructed to say that the paralysis was “rare” and that further research would be necessary.


This was an intentional deception to make the public believe polio was eradicated by the polio vaccine campaign, but because the polio vaccine contained toxic ingredients directly linked to paralysis, polio cases (not identified as polio) were skyrocketing…but only in vaccinated areas.

Anyone who believes that polio was eradicated by vaccination is simply brainwashed and is perpetuating a lie that known liars have maliciously created to propel a eugenics agenda. (Ask yourself what the Rockefeller Family, the Federal Reserve Bank, and the polio vaccine all have in common. And then read this.)

3. In 1945, against the warnings of researchers who had studied the neurotoxic compound and found it dangerous for all forms of life, DDT was released across the globe for general use by the public as an insecticide. Coincidentally, documented evidence shows DDT is more likely the true cause of the polio epidemic. Vactruth.com recently published an infographic on their site that shows a definite correlation between the use of pesticides and polio outbreaks, the largest of which occurred in 1952. (Click here to see the graph.)

-Polio outbreaks occurred in July and August i.e. during pesticide spraying times–NOT the sunless and damp winter/spring seasons like other disease outbreaks.

-There are numerous documented accounts of parents finding their children paralyzed in and around apple orchards. One of the most heavily pesticide-sprayed crops of the time were apples. (Lead arsenate and/or copper arsenate pesticides were widely used on orchards during this time.)

 -The most famous polio victim is likely President Roosevelt, but few know the details surrounding his paralysis. Roosevelt became paralyzed literally over night while on his farm one summer, which contained many crops, including apple orchards. He also swam the entire day prior in a bay that was heavily polluted by industrial agricultural run off.

-Polio is not contagious. Polio has ZERO ability to spread from infected victims to the uninfected. Polio infected clusters of people in the exact same areas, suddenly and swiftly.

-Dr. Ralph Scobey and Dr. Mortind Biskind testified in front of the U.S. Congress in 1951 that the paralysis around the country known as polio was being caused by industrial poisons and that a virus theory was purposely fabricated by the chemical industry and the government to deflect litigation away from both parties.

Everything You Learned About The Cause of Polio Is Wrong

Pesticides and Polio

Originally titled, “A Critique Of Scientific Literature: Pesticides and Polio,” this article by Jim West was first published in The Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, June 2000, then republished as a 2nd edition in 2002 by The Weston A. Price Foundation, with additional material and the editorship of Sally Fallon. The article summarizes his book, “DDT/Polio”, which he had attempted to publish in 1998. This is a 3rd edition, August 14, 2015.


It has been alleged that DDT causes or contributes to a wide variety of diseases of humans and animals not previously recognized as associated with any chemical. Such diseases included… poliomyelitis, …such irresponsible claims could produce great harm and, if taken seriously, even interfere with scientific search for true causes…[1] (Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, edited by Wayland J. Hayes, Jr. and Edward R. Laws, 1991)

Hayes and Laws were informing their readers about the heretic, Dr. Morton S. Biskind.

In 1953, when Biskind’s writings were published, the United States had just endured its greatest polio epidemic. The entire public was steeped in dramatic images — a predatory poliovirus, nearly a million dead and paralyzed children, iron lungs, struggling doctors and dedicated nurses. The late president Franklin D. Roosevelt had been memorialized as a polio victim who was infected with the deadly poliovirus near the beautiful and remote island of Campobello. The media was saturated with positive images of scientific progress and the marvels of DDT to kill disease-carrying mosquitoes. Jonas Salk was in the wings, preparing to be moved center stage.

Through this intellectually paralyzing atmosphere, Dr. Biskind had the composure to argue what he thought was the most obvious explanation for the polio epidemic: Central nervous system diseases such as polio are actually the physiological and symptomatic manifestations of the ongoing government and industry sponsored inundation of the world’s populace with central nervous system poisons.

Today, few remember this poignant writer who struggled with the issues of pesticides, issues that Rachel Carson would be allowed to politely bring to public awareness nine years later, as the lead story in The New Yorker magazine and then as a national best seller, by limiting her focus to the environment and wildlife. Biskind had the audacity to write about human damage.

I found “M.S. Biskind” in the endnotes to Hayes’ and Laws’ diatribe. What could possibly have motivated Hayes’ and Laws’ biased genuflection towards germ theory? Such offerings, commonly written into the final paragraphs of scientific articles, are usually done with an appearance of impartiality. With great anticipation, I went to a medical library and found Biskind’s 10-page 1953 article in the American Journal of Digestive Diseases.[2] Presented below are excerpts regarding polio from his article.

In 1945, against the advice of investigators who had studied the pharmacology of the compound and found it dangerous for all forms of life, DDT (chlorophenoethane, dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane) was released in the United States and other countries for general use by the public as an insecticide.


Since the last war there have been a number of curious changes in the incidence of certain ailments and the development of new syndromes never before observed. A most significant feature of this situation is that both man and all his domestic animals have simultaneously been affected.

In man, the incidence of poliomyelitis has risen sharply;


It was even known by 1945 that DDT is stored in the body fat of mammals and appears in the milk. With this foreknowledge the series of catastrophic events that followed the most intensive campaign of mass poisoning in known human history, should not have surprised the experts. Yet, far from admitting a causal relationship so obvious that in any other field of biology it would be instantly accepted, virtually the entire apparatus of communication, lay and scientific alike, has been devoted to denying, concealing, suppressing, distorting and attempts to convert into its opposite, the overwhelming evidence. Libel, slander and economic boycott have not been overlooked in this campaign.


Early in 1949, as a result of studies during the previous year, the author published reports implicating DDT preparations in the syndrome widely attributed to a “virus-X” in man, in “X-disease” in cattle and in often fatal syndromes in dogs and cats. The relationship was promptly denied by government officials, who provided no evidence to contest the author’s observations but relied solely on the prestige of government authority and sheer numbers of experts to bolster their position.


[“X-disease”] …studied by the author following known exposure to DDT and related compounds and over and over again in the same patients, each time following known exposure. We have described the syndrome as follows:

…In acute exacerbations, mild clonic convulsions involving mainly the legs, have been observed. Several young children exposed to DDT developed a limp lasting from 2 or 3 days to a week or more.


Simultaneously with the occurrence of this disorder [X-disease] a number of related changes occurred in the incidence of known diseases. The most striking of these is poliomyelitis. In the United States the incidence of polio had been increasing prior to 1945 at a fairly constant rate, but its epidemiologic characteristics remained unchanged. Beginning in 1946 the rate of increase more than doubled. Since then remarkable changes in the character of the disease have been noted. Contrary to all past experience, the disease has remained epidemic year after year.

DDT vs Polio (1945-1953)

In the graph below, I provide confirmation of Biskind’s observations for 1945-1953, in terms of polio incidence and pesticide production. I have utilized pesticide data from Hayes and Laws which they had derived from US Tariff Commission data. Polio incidence data was gathered from US Vital Statistics.[3],[4] Although I argue herein against Hayes’ characterization of Biskind’s work, credit goes to Hayes for publishing arcane pesticide data. All graphs refer to paralytic polio.

Pesticides and Polio


Physiological Evidence

Biskind also describes physiological evidence of DDT poisoning that resembles polio physiology:

Particularly relevant to recent aspects of this problem are neglected studies by Lillie and his collaborators of the National Institutes of Health, published in 1944 and 1947 respectively, which showed that DDT may produce degeneration of the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord in animals. These changes do not occur regularly in exposed animals any more than they do in human beings, but they do appear often enough to be significant.

He continues, bearing his exasperation in trying to make the obvious plain.

When the population is exposed to a chemical agent known to produce in animals lesions in the spinal cord resembling those in human polio, and thereafter the latter disease increases sharply in incidence and maintains its epidemic character year after year, is it unreasonable to suspect an etiologic relationship?

Before finding Biskind’s work, I had spent months engaged in a nearly futile search for the physiology of acute DDT poisoning. I began to sense that American DDT literature as a whole intends to convey that DDT is not dangerous except with regard to its general environmental effects due to persistent bioaccumulation, and that the physiology of acute DDT poisoning is therefore trivial. DDT literature uniformly jumps from descriptions of symptoms, over physiology, to the biochemistry of DDT-caused dysfunction in nerve tissue.

It was as though detectives had come upon a mass-murder scene and immediately became obsessed with the biochemistry of dying cells around bullet holes, while ignoring the bullet holes.

Eventually, I did find a German study of the physiology of acute DDT poisoning, by Daniel Dresden.[5] (Physiological Investigations Into The Action Of DDT, G.W. Van Der Wiel & Co., 1949) This study confirms that DDT poisoning often causes polio-like physiology:

Conspicuous histological degeneration was, however, often found in the central nervous system. The most striking ones were found in the cerebellum, mainly in the nucleus dentatus and the cortex cells. Among other things an increase of the neuroglia and a necrotic degeneration and resorption of ganglionic cells was found. The Purkinje cells were less seriously affected than the other neurons. Also in the spinal cord abnormalities of a degenerative nature were found.

…such changes were not found invariably… there is neither an obvious relation between the size and spreading of the lesion and the quantity of DDT applied… information of adequate precision about the nature of the anomalies is lacking.

So we find that especially the cerebellum and the spinal cord are histologically affected by DDT.

And more recently, in the works of Ralph Scobey, MD, I found that from ancient times to the early 20th century, the symptoms and physiology of paralytic poliomyelitis were often described as the results of poisoning. It wasn’t until the mid-19th century that the word “poliomyelitis” became the designation for the paralytic effects of both severe poisoning and polio-like diseases assumed to be germ-caused.[6]

In contemporary Britain, a farmer-turned-scientist, Mark Purdey, has found substantial evidence that Mad Cow Disease, a form of polio-like encephalitis, was caused by a government-mandated cattle treatment consisting of organophosphate pesticide and a compound similar to thalidomide.[7] Unlike most scientists, Mark Purdey became legally embroiled with the government during his research.[8]

Morton S. Biskind had the courage to write about humans. His views fell into disfavor after the introduction of the polio vaccines, which was a grand act that proved in most people’s minds that polio was caused by a virus. By October, 1955, Biskind, whose works had been published in established medical journals and who testified before the Senate on the dangers of pesticides, was forced to self-publish his writings, one of which I found while browsing through an old card catalog. A scan of Medline/Pubmed[9] found no other works by him except for a very tame article in 1972, warning that diseases incurred during a patient’s stay in a hospital are not necessarily due to microbes. He died not long thereafter, in his late 60s. I don’t have the precise date of death, though his birth was in 1906.


A Contemporary Study

Below are three graphs that confirm Biskind, utilizing data that spans far beyond his observations. Due to the paucity of data regarding pesticide exposure and locale, these findings of production data are presented as an indication of exposure, keeping in mind the great changes in public awareness and legislation beginning circa 1950, which also served to reduce DDT exposure. Pesticide production data comes from Hayes and Laws.

DDT vs Polio (1940-1970) 

In this graph I did not include DDT data for the period of 1954 onward because DDT distribution was then being shifted out of the U.S. and into developing nations, while its U.S. production skyrocketed.

Governmental hearings, including those with Biskind, Scobey and others, brought about greater awareness of DDT dangers, as well as better labeling and handling methods.[10] Due to public governmental debate in 1949-51 and numerous policy and legislative changes afterward, DDT production figures after these dates do not correlate with US usage or exposure to DDT.[11],[12],[13]

Pesticides and Polio

DDT Before 1950

Before 1950, DDT was hailed as a miracle of progress that was virtually non-toxic to humans, in spite of FDA’s warnings and attempts to keep it off the market. This photo on the left is one of several similar photos from Zimmerman, et al, DDT: Killer of Killers (1946). The advertisement on the right is from an unknown source, though it appears to be circa 1954.

Pesticides and Polio


Other photos in Zimmerman advocate 5% DDT solution sprayed directly on dairy cows (body, feed, and water):

Pesticides and Polio

This promotion of highly questionable products is reflected in present-day genetically engineered food campaigns.


DDT after 1950

Governmental hearings, including Biskind and Scobey, and others, eventually brought about greater awareness of the dangers, better labeling and handling methods.


DDT after 1954

This period is given special consideration for DDT.

After 1954, DDT production increased tremendously, but mainly as an export product. Due to public governmental debate in 1950-51 and numerous policy and legislative changes afterward, its production figures thereon do not at all correlate with U.S. usage or exposure to DDT.

As many studies demonstrate, DDT exposure after 1954 declined sharply, and this decline is represented in the following graph, along with supporting data. DDT production is not shown, post-1954.

Historical context: DDT was incriminated from 1950 until its registration cancelation in 1968 and ban in 1972. Thus, 1950-1951 represents a point of increased public awareness, changes in legislation and policy, voluntary phase-out, and labeling requirements. It is significant for this comparison of DDT against infantile paralysis, that before the period of increased awareness, DDT was mandated on dairies, yet afterward, ruled out of dairies. Much of the domestic usage was shifted to forestry applications, placing less DDT directly into the food chain.

The visual impact of all the persistent pesticide graphs rests upon the assumption that production correlated with human exposure. Given the lack of regulation and the extreme media hype surrounding DDT before 1953, this is not an unrealistic assumption.

It is clear that post-1954 DDT production did not correlate with human exposure. Yet, it is possible to estimate relative values for exposure post-1954. This can be accomplished by reviewing DDT levels in adipose tissue (National Adipose Tissue Survey, and other studies),[14] considering DDT in imported food, and considering the daily amounts of ingested DDT.

The early trend of National Adipose Tissue Survey’s can be interpolated back to 1944, six years from 1950, the first Survey year, because it is safe to assume that DDT tissue levels were zero in 1944, since DDT was introduced for domestic usage in 1945. The estimate of DDT exposure is a reasonable because DDT has a half-life of about one year. To achieve any downward trend in the DDT/adipose line, DDT exposure had to have decreased sharply.

Note that no scale is provided for “relative DDT exposure”. The Survey values are presented without distortion, linearly, with the starting point at 1954, and values for are estimates based on the Survey and DDT ingestion data.

Error is limited by two boundaries, for the estimated values of DDT exposure. 1) Exposure’s downward slope must be much greater than the Survey line’s downward slope, because of DDT’s half-life. 2) Exposure values must continue at least through 1968.

Pesticides and Polio

Hayes and Laws also used a secondary evaluation, DDT intake per day, to explain that from 1954 to 1964-67, DDT ingestion decreased by an approximate factor of five. Significantly, the Salk vaccine program began in 1954.

The observed decrease in the concentration of DDT in food (Walker et al., 1954; Durham et al., 1965a; Duggan, 1968) offers an adequate reason for the decrease in storage in people. The average intake of p,p’-DDT and of total DDT-derived material was 0.178 and 0.280 mg/human/day, respectively, in 1954, but only 0.028 and 0.063 mg/human/day, respectively, during the period 1964-1967. (Hayes and Laws, page 303)


BHC vs Polio (1940-1970) 

BHC (benzene hexachloride), a persistent, organochlorine pesticide, is several times more lethal than DDT, in terms of LD50, i.e., the lethal dosage required to kill 50 percent of a test population.

“Unlike the situation with DDT, in which there have been few recorded fatalities, there have been a number of fatalities following poisoning by the cyclodiene and hexachlorocyclohexane-type insecticides. The chlorinated cyclodiene insecticides are among the most toxic and environmentally persistent pesticides known.” (Hayes & Laws)

As shown in the graph below, BHC was produced in 1945-1954 at quantities similar to DDT. In spite of BHC’s lethal quality, it has received much less publicity than DDT. While DDT was banned for such things as an association with the thinning of eagles’ eggs, BHC was phased out of production because it was found, after 15 years, to impart a bad taste to food. It is still used in developing nations. It is tempting to ask whether the highly public DDT was “fronting” for the more dangerous BHC. BHC’s correlation with polio incidence is astonishing.

Pesticides and Polio

Lead-Arsenic vs. Polio (1940-1970)

After viewing the DDT and BHC graphs above, note that the period of 1940-46 is unaccounted for in terms of polio-pesticide correlation. The missing piece of the puzzle for this six-year period is supplied by the lead and arsenic compounds. These types of central nervous system (“CNS”) poisons have been the central component of pesticides since their widespread use beginning approximately 1868 until the advent of the organochlorine pesticides in the early 1940s. For those who have thought that “organic” food was the norm before the release of DDT to the civilian sector in 1945, the immense production of lead-arsenic compounds presented in this graph is disappointing. This data requires a reconsideration of any perception regarding “natural” quantities of arsenic found in apple seeds, apricots, or almonds, where pesticides can accumulate systemically from contaminated earth.

Pesticides and Polio


Pesticide Composite: Summary

Just over three billion pounds of persistent pesticides are represented in the graph below.

Virtually all peaks and valleys correlate with a direct one-to-one relationship with each pesticide as it enters and leaves the US market. Generally, pesticide production precedes polio incidence by 1 to 2 years. I assume that this variation is due to variations in reporting methods and the time it takes to move pesticides from factory to warehouse, through distribution channels, onto the food crops and to the dinner table.

A composite of the three previous graphs, of the persistent pesticides — lead, arsenic, and the dominant organochlorines (DDT and BHC) — is represented in the following:

Pesticides and Polio

These four chemicals were not selected arbitrarily. These are representative of the major pesticides in use during the last major polio epidemic. They persist in the environment as neurotoxins that cause polio-like symptoms, polio-like physiology, and were dumped onto and into human food at dosage levels far above that approved by the FDA. They directly correlate with the incidence of various neurological diseases called “polio” before 1965. They were utilized, according to Biskind, in the “most intensive campaign of mass poisoning in known human history.”


Virus Causation

A clear, direct, one-to-one relation between pesticides and paralytic polio over a period of 30 years with pesticides preceding polio incidence in the context of the CNS related physiology just described, leaves little room for complicated virus arguments, even as a co-factor, unless there exists a rigorous proof for virus causation. Polio shows no movement independent from pesticide movement as one would expect for the virus model.

Medical propagandists promote images of a predatory, infectious virus, invading the body and quickly replicating to a level that causes disease, however, in the laboratory, poliovirus does not easily behave in such a predatory manner. Attempts to demonstrate virus causation are performed under extremely artificial and aberrant conditions.

Poliovirus causation was first established in the mainstream mind by publications of an experiment by Landsteiner and Popper in Germany, 1908-1909. Their method was to inject a purée of diseased tissue into two monkeys, “injected into the abdominal cavity”. One monkey died after six days and the other was sickened.[15]

Proof of poliovirus causation was headlined by orthodoxy. This, however, was an assumption — not a proof — of virus causation. The weakness of this method is obvious to everyone except certain viropathologists and has recently been criticized by the molecular biologist Peter Duesberg regarding a modern-day attempt to establish virus causation for kuru, another CNS disease.[16]

Since 1908, the basic test, as intracranial injection, has been repeated successfully many times, using monkeys, dogs and genetically altered mice. However, a crucial weakness exists — polio epidemics do not occur via injections of poliovirus isolate into the brains of the victims through a hole drilled in their skull — except, of course, in laboratories and hospitals.

If injection into the brain is really a valid test for causation then it should serve especially well as a proof for pesticide causation. I propose that pesticides be injected directly into the brains of test animals. If paralysis and nerve degeneration subsequently occur, we then would have proved that pesticides cause polio.

Going further, towards much higher standards of proof than those used to prove virus causation, pesticides could be fed to animals and found to cause CNS disease. This has already been done with DDT and the histology of the spine and brain was poliomyelitis. Virus proofs require injection, often intracranial, to get any reaction from the experimental animal. It is axiomatic that a theory is only as good as its ability to predict future events. I predict that such a test would prove pesticides to be the most reliable causative factor.

The injection of purée of diseased brain tissue into the brains of dogs was the method preferred by Louis Pasteur to establish virus causation with rabies, another CNS disease. A recent, definitive biography of Pasteur finds him to be a most important publicist for germ theory, a crucial promoter for the notion that rabies is caused by a virus. Unfortunately, his rabies experiments were biased and unsupported by independent studies.[17] (G. L. Geison, The Private Science of Louis Pasteur, 1995)

Therefore, in my opinion, even a cofactor theory, where pesticides catalyze predatory poliovirus activity, or where pesticides weaken the immune system to allow opportunistic predatory poliovirus activity, cannot stand up to simple, common sense explanations that include the concept of a symbiotic virus. Neurotoxins are enough of a cause for neurological disease.

The most obvious theory — pesticide causation — should be the dominant theory. But the opposite exists, a pervasive silence regarding pesticide causation juxtaposed against a steady stream of drama regarding virus causation. In light of the evidence presented herein, the silence could ultimately discredit mainstream medical science, institutions of the environmental movement, and the World Health Organization (which directs both DDT application for mosquito campaigns and polio vaccination, world-wide).


Virus Presence

When the symptoms of polio are recognized, there is often a claim of virus presence in the body of the polio victim. Sometimes a virus is found. Sometimes that virus is an enterovirus (a virus of the digestive tract). Sometimes that enterovirus is a poliovirus. During polio epidemics, orthodoxy blames the poliovirus, and therefore, my argument for the innocence of the poliovirus requires an explanation of these claims of virus presence and the presence of an agent called the poliovirus. Here are three points:

a) Economic Impetus: During the great epidemic of 1942-1962 polio victims were diagnosed with poliovirus-caused polio, regardless of whether or not the poliovirus was found, because the NFIP (March of Dimes) funds paid only for this kind of polio. Therefore, if patients were going to spend time hospitalized, in iron lungs and undergoing therapy, it would have been economically imperative for the hospital to diagnose them in this way.[18]Thus, presence of poliovirus in poliomyelitis was rarely determined in order to arrive at a diagnosis of polio.

b) Other Pathogens: Even if one believes in virus culpability, other viruses are also claimed by orthodoxy to be the cause of polio-like CNS diseases which are “clinically indistinguishable” from polio. In the 1940-50s, relatively few polio victims were confirmed technically for presence of the poliovirus. In 1958, a laboratory analyses of 222 diagnosed polio victims (Detroit epidemic) found poliovirus in only 51% of the cases.[19] When multiple pathogens are hunted, a mix of pathogens, multiple viruses, fungi, and bacteria, can be associated with a single diagnosed case of polio.[20]

Coxsackievirus and echoviruses can cause paralytic syndromes that are clinically indistinguishable from paralytic poliomyelitis.[21] (John H. Menkes, Textbook Of Child Neurology, 5th ed., 1995, p420)

During a polio epidemic, such cases would have likely been diagnosed as “polio”. After the 1970s, with the supposed approaching extinction of the poliovirus, such cases would have been diagnosed as encephalitis or meningitis.

c) Benign Virus: The poliovirus is considered to have been endemic throughout the world going back to ancient times, yet this is not the case with paralytic polio. According to Arno Karlen, author of Man and Microbes, the

“polio virus lives only in people; it probably adapted to the human small intestine countless millennia ago.” He continues, “. . . some historians have claimed that [paralytic] polio goes back to ancient Egypt; it may, but the evidence is thin.”[22]

Karlen makes a lot of sense here in view of the pesticide graphs, Biskind’s arguments, and ancient historians describing paralysis from the inhalation of vaporized chemicals during blacksmithing operations. However, Karlen goes on to write that “the first undisputed case dates from the late eighteenth century.” This statement, however, must be invalid (in its attempt to establish polio images that have a basis in early history) because of Menkes’ statement (above) that other viruses can also be causative for polio symptoms and because common industrial poisons such as arsenic and lead compounds can cause polio-like symptoms. Poisoning by arsenic, as a method of assassination, has also been frequently employed from the earliest eras, and it is not unreasonable to assume that unsuccessful poisonings would have left their victims paralyzed.

Orthodox medical literature can offer no evidence that the poliovirus was anything else than benign until the first polio epidemic, which occurred in Sweden in 1887. This small epidemic occurred 13 years after the invention of DDT in Germany, in 1874, and 14 years after the invention of the first mechanical pesticide crop sprayer, which was used to spray formulations of water, kerosene, soap and arsenic. The epidemic also occurred immediately following an unprecedented flurry of pesticide innovations. This is not to say that DDT was the actual cause of the first polio epidemic, as arsenic was then in widespread use, other organochlorines had been developed, and DDT is said to have been merely an academic exercise.

Poliovirus is categorized as an enterovirus. There are at least 72 known enteroviruses discovered to date. According to Duesberg, many enteroviruses are harmless “passenger viruses.” In view of the material presented here, probably unknown to Duesberg, it is reasonable that we also view poliovirus as harmless outside of extreme laboratory conditions.


The Symbiotic Poliovirus

Having now established the possibility of an innocent poliovirus, its presence in polio can be explained as follows, with five more points:

a) Accelerated Genetic Recombination: Genetic recombination is accelerated whenever a biological system is threatened.[23] Pesticides can be that threat. The proliferation of viruses is known to be part of the process of accelerated genetic recombination.

b) The SOS Response: When a cell is critically threatened, accelerated genetic recombination (which may include virus proliferation) is just one of a set of events that may occur. This set of events is called the “SOS response,” which is known to be triggered by exposure to toxic chemicals or radiation.[24]

Arnold Levine, writing in Field’s Virology, provides an example:

“When lysogenic bacteria were lysed [split open] from without, no virus was detected. But from time to time a bacterium spontaneously lysed and produced many viruses. The influence of ultraviolet light in inducing the release of these viruses was a key observation that began to outline this curious relation between a virus and its host.”[25]

Is this mere irony? Common medical procedures such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and the use of toxic pharmaceuticals accelerate genetic recombination and thus the potential for a necessary virus proliferation.

c) The Ames Assay Test: The SOS response is utilized in the Ames Assay Test, a standard test whereby chemical toxicity is determined. According to the procedure, bacteria are exposed to a chemical solution in question, and if a genetic recombination accelerates via the spontaneous proliferation of viruses from these bacteria, then the chemical is determined to be a poison. The phenomenon is analogous to a poker player with a bad hand who must request an exchange of cards and a reshuffled deck to improve the possibilities for survival. In the Ames Assay Test, bacteria are concerned with their genetic “hand” in order to improve their abilities to metabolize poisons, create utilizations for poisons, and shield against poisons. Thus they engage in this well-known phenomena of “gene shuffling,” facilitated by virus proliferation.

Thus, I propose that the poliovirus is a symbiotic (and possibly a dormant) virus that behaves in a manner suggested by the phenomenon found in the Ames Assay Test, a test used to determine toxicity.

One could object to this analogy on the grounds that because the Ames Test utilizes prokaryote cells (bacteria-like cells) rather than eukaryote cells (nucleus-containing cells that comprise multicellular tissue) and because it is asserted that poliovirus invokes damage by infecting eukaryote cells, the explanation is invalid. However, the evolution of eukaryotes includes structures and functions inherited from symbiotic unions of prokaryotes. Eukaryotes continue to possess to this day prokaryote functionality such as found in the genetic independence of the organelles within the eukaryote cells, such as mitochondria (Lynn Margulis and Dorion Sagan, What Is Life? (1995), and, Lynn Margulis, Dorion Sagan, Slanted Truths: Essays on Gaia, Symbiosis, and Evolution (1997)). Thus, generalizations derived from the Ames Test can contribute well to a valid hypothesis for the presence of poliovirus in “polio”.

d) Dormant Virus: When a cell is critically threatened by toxic chemicals (or radiation) it can invoke survival mechanisms (the SOS Response) such as the suspension of metabolism, or the activation of dormant viruses, triggering their proliferation from the cell — such viruses are said to be “dormant” or “latent”. These words are not my preference because the way that they are popularly used implies that viruses are only externally generated and are found in the cell in a condition of temporary rest (dormancy). In cyclical phenomena, such as the life cycle of the virus, the “starting point” is a political-philosophical decision. The orthodox virus image (possibly a projection of the orthodox mind) is of an external, selfish, non-living parasite that tricks cells into infecting themselves with the virus and then to replicate said virus with cell machinery. Dormant viruses are publicized as external life forms that spend most of their time (as much as several decades) waiting inside cells, awaiting activation to perform parasitic activities.

Recently it has become known that a tremendous amount of human DNA is devoted to virus proliferation. The virologist, Eleni Papadopulos-Eleopulos, stated in Continuum, Autumn 1997:

…it’s accepted that endogenous retroviral DNA forms about 1% of human DNA… that’s about 3,000 times larger than what the experts claim is the size of the HIV genome. And what’s more, new retroviral genomes can arise by rearrangements and recombination of existing retroviral genomes.

Like the retroviruses, the poliovirus is an RNA virus and has a genome of similar weight and length. There is suspicion of dormant characteristics because enteroviruses have been found by several independent investigators, in post-polio (PMID: 8818905, UI: 96415998 (Lyon, France, Aug., 1996) and others).

e) Gene Sharing: Viruses represent shared capability, shared data, and data in transit. They are genetic couriers. Shared data decreases the burden on each cell to carry all capabilities. Capability, in the form of genetic information, can be stored in the environment as virus “gene packets”, and different capabilities can be stored in different cells, just as humans each have, to some degree, uncommon capabilities which are shared with the community as needed. In the microbiotic world, when a specific capability is needed, cells share genetic information from the dynamically changing universal library of free floating genetic material, such as exists in viruses, free organelles, symbiotic parasites, and free nucleic acid, in addition to straight sexual intercourse where nucleic acid is transferred directly form cell to cell. It could be said that cells can carry dormant genetic information in the form of nucleic acid and when that information is required, share it through the proliferation of viruses.

For example, in terms of disease, a symbiotic virus presence could be explained as a provider of cathartic capabilities or mechanisms, appropriate for various toxic or stressed environments. These cathartic mechanisms are manifested as disease symptoms, in the form of masses of sacrificed leucocytes, obviously found in boils, pimples, and pocks. Orthodoxy gives the label “transduction” to the processes of virus infection. Transduction is one of several modes of intercellular transport of genetic material, which allows for direct, laterally passed genetic data. Such data is routinely used to alter cell structure and metabolism modes dynamically, without engaging in the slower, more formal, sexual reproduction cycles.

The concept of the symbiotic virus is explained in Encyclopedia Britannica, Macropaedia (1990) p507:

Although viruses were originally discovered and characterized because of the diseases they cause, most viruses that infect bacteria, plants, and animals (including humans) do not cause disease. In fact, bacteriophages [bacteria viruses] may be helpful in that they rapidly transfer genetic information from one bacterium to another, and viruses of plants and animals may convey genetic information among similar species, aiding the survival of their hosts in hostile environments.

Britannica continues with a praise of industrial biotechnology, and abruptly converts the probable-present into a future-made-possible by dependent consumers:

This could in the future be true for humans as well. Recombinant DNA biotechnology may allow genetic defects to be repaired by injecting afflicted persons with harmless viruses that carry and integrate functional genes to supplant defective ones.

The implication is that humans are not part of nature, however, in the next sentence Britannica states that we humans may already utilize symbiotic viruses:

Such events may actually occur in nature in the transmission of “good” viruses from one person to another.

The nature-friendly view, that viruses are effective genetic symbionts, dilutes the market impact of genetic-based treatments alluded to by Britannica, and threatens biotech profits. Perhaps this explains certain aspects of the current worldwide “war” against virus-carrying mosquitoes?


Virus Contradictions

The concept of a predatory poliovirus becomes less certain in the context of these little known virus “facts”:

1. Poliovirus “[I]nfectosomes have yet to be experimentally demonstrated…”, writes Roland R. Rueckert, under the subtitle, “Infection: A Rare Event” in Fields Virology.
2. “Eukaryote cells have a wide arsenal of activities to control the half-lives of mRNAs, and these nucleases have made it difficult to isolate intact RNA viral genomes from cells.” (“Virus Evolution”, Ellen G. Strauss, et al, Fields Virology, Lippincott – Raven Publishers, Philadelphia (1996), v1p163)

In view of item 1, Rueckert, this appears to be another careful way of saying “never”.

3. The poliovirus does not always infect in accordance to its notoriety, “For every 200 or so virus particles that encounter a cell, only one will successfully enter and replicate, so research in this area is often confounded by the rarity of successful entry.” (http://cumicro2.cpmc.columbia.edu/PICO/Chapters/Cellular.html (defunct link))
4. Only herpesvirus has been traced enroute to site of disease from site of infection. “Viruses during retrograde transport on their way up to the cell bodies have so far been localized ultrastructurally only in the case of herpes simplex and herpes virus suis.” (Martin E. Schwab and Hans Thoenen, Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, edited by George Adelman, pub, Birkhaüser Bros. Inc., Boston, 1987, Chapter 39, p102-3)
5. A “poliovirus” has been electrophotographed in cell tissue. Due the lack of any photos of the virus as an infectosome, these photos should be interpreted as evidence of the cell’s SOS response rather than of poliovirus causation. Electrophotography has existed for several decades and has yet to photograph a poliovirus infectosome. An infectosome is a “membrane-associated particle… which transfers genomic viral RNA through the membrane.” (Field’s Virology, 1996, p635)
6. “It seems likely that all viruses trace their origins to cellular genes and can be considered as pieces of rogue nucleic acids.” (Encyclopedia Britannica, Micropaedia, 1997, “Virus”)

This demonstrates the great potential for a symbiotic relation between viruses and “hosts”.

7. The point in history when known viruses began their evolution has been calculated by molecular biochemists who have interpolated backwards through time the speed and direction of virus evolution. They found that “most viruses we know today have probably evolved since the last ice age.” (“Virus Evolution”, Ellen G. Strauss, et al, Fields Virology, 1996, p164)
8. Viruses are involved in a process called transduction, one of the three modes of genetic transfer between cells, a process that can accelerate genetic recombination when cells are critically threatened by poisons.
9. Virus infection is used by clone technology to transfer genetic material into cells.
10. “Genetic information moves between viruses and their hosts to the point where definitions and classifications begin to blur.” (Fields Virology, 1996, p6)
11. In terms of genetic similarity, “[T]here was a remarkable continuum…” from virus to host. (Fields Virology, 1996, p6)
12. “Carrel (1926) was able to produce tumors resembling Rous’ sarcoma and transmissible by cell-free filtrates with indol, arsenic, or tar in chicken embryo. Carrel’s observations have been confirmed by other workers. Fischer (1926), by treating cultures of normal cells with arsenic obtained on one occasion a filtrable virus capable of causing tumors.” (Ralph R. Scobey, M.D., “Poliomyelitis Caused by Exogenous Virus?”, Science, v71, 1954)




Any of the items listed above can be used to direct work towards a refreshing view of viropathology. For instance, Alexis Carrel and Albert Fischer’s experiments, in 1925-1926, preceded the discovery of the cellular SOS Response by decades. Their work is important in its impact on the basic tenants of viropathology, the contemporary proofs of virus causation, and definitions of immunity. Carrel, who happens to be one of the most recognized of all the Nobel Laureates, has stated without equivocation that the Rous sarcoma tumour is not infective, is caused by an agent within the cells themselves, yet is transmissible by cell-free Berkfeld filtrate of tumour extract. He states that the agent could not be a virus because of his assumption that a virus is an external, disease-causing, infectious entity. In retrospect such statements reveal the first (unrecognized) discovery of the dormant retrovirus. Carrel also clearly demonstrates poisoncausation for cancer. These landmark experiments are very simple, very clear, and totally ignored by orthodoxy.

If one views Carrel and Fischer as a reinforcement of the symbiotic virus paradigm, then two strong alternative views can be defined regarding work that has been based on injections:

Virus Disease: In the case of classical induction of disease by injection of extremely high quantities of virus, the alternative view would be that the presence of such quantities of virus serve as an informational context, a context that indicates imminent toxic death to naïve tissue, with an expected tissue reaction (disease). Or in other words, disease induction (via injection) is no more than an over-reaction (like jumping out of a window when someone yells “fire”) in terms of inflammation and catharsis (disease manifestations).

Immunity: In the case of the classical demonstration of immunity whereby surviving subjects are found immune to attempts to induce disease by subsequent injections of virus, the alternative view is — you can’t fool them twice.

Thus, a) inducement of disease by the injection of high-quantities of virus, and b) acquired immunity in survivors of these injections, can both be viewed as parlour tricks, though claimed to be demonstrations of virus causation for disease.



The word “virus” is ancient Latin, meaning “slime” or “poison”. Mainstream science admits that most viruses are harmless, yet the word “virus” adds to a biased and highly promoted language of fear regarding nature. Definitions of viruses range from “pathogenic” to “not usually pathogenic” — the more popular the media source, the more frightening the definition. Less fearful definitions would change the relationship between the medical industry and its “patients”.

Paradoxically, early virus studies considered virus filtrates to be a poison, not a microbe, thus the name virus. Today, we know that viruses are information.

Now, nearly a half-century later, the validity of Dr. Biskind’s work appears even more certain. Again, according to Biskind:

It was even known by 1945 that DDT is stored in the body fat of mammals and appears in the milk. With this foreknowledge the series of catastrophic events that followed the most intensive campaign of mass poisoning in known human history, should not have surprised the experts. Yet, far from admitting a causal relationship so obvious that in any other field of biology it would be instantly accepted, virtually the entire apparatus of communication, lay and scientific alike, has been devoted to denying, concealing, suppressing, distorting and attempts to convert into its opposite, the overwhelming evidence. Libel, slander and economic boycott have not been overlooked in this campaign.

The unique correlations between CNS disease and CNS poisons present a variety of research opportunities not only in medical science, but political science, philosophy, media studies, psychology, and sociology.[26],[27],[28],[29],[30],[31]


Author’s note, 2015:

This article describes a view of polio, faithful to the tenets of the original article of June 2000. Research has continued through the present, however. For more information, an evolution of facts and concepts, books and articles, see http://harvoa.org

The intent herein is to provide an impartial, scholarly analysis of CNS disease and chemical causation. Current research priorities are for proof of poliovirus causation and/or proof that invalidates chemical causation.

Corrections, uncredited sources and/or copyright infractions, if any, will be rectified upon notice. This site is not a monologue of truth. It is a catalyst for the reevaluation of “polio”. The reader is urged to confront officials to clarify issues mentioned herein.

This site is designed for critical, literary, and academic usage. A qualified and trustworthy medical professional must be consulted regarding medical issues, treatments, diagnoses, etc.

Find Out How Polio Is Being Used to Treat Cancer

The potentially deadly polio virus could be used to save brain cancer patients, according to scientists at Duke University Medical Center.

Researchers and physicians at the Preston Robert Tisch Brain Tumor Center are now in the first phase of testing the polio virus in patients with brain tumors.

Justin Caba, with the Medical Daily Reporter, explained that the researchers re-engineered polio into a new virus that replicates within cancer cells, corrupting those cells.

“Cancer is so notorious to treat because it all comes equipped with a protective barrier that basically hides it from the immune system,” Caba explained. “This new polio virus, which is now a vaccine, is coming in and lifting that barrier and [allowing] the immune system to come in and attack.”

Caba revealed that they are still testing the virus, but they are already treating some patients with glioblastoma, one of the deadliest and most aggressive types of brain cancer. So far, they have four patients in remission, which is very encouraging.

Caba added that this eventually could be used to treat other forms of cancer, such as breast cancer and lung cancer.

Polio is re-emerging in areas previously considered polio free.

Concern is mounting that the global drive to eradicate polio is being undermined by security problems and access constraints that have led to a resurgence of poliovirus in a number of countries previously declared to be free of polio.

On 30 September South Sudan’s new health minister, Riek Gai Kok, declared a “national health emergency” after confirming three cases of wild poliovirus type 1 infection. The country had been officially polio free since June 2009, but the health ministry had been on high alert for its reintroduction since an outbreak was confirmed in Somalia last May, which rapidly spread to Ethiopia and Kenya.

There have now been 174 confirmed cases in Somalia, 14 in Kenya, and three in Ethiopia. Major emergency vaccination campaigns have been started in these and neighbouring countries, but vaccinations have been unable to take place in certain no-go areas in Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen.

The Sudanese Doctors’ Union warned that the disease could rapidly spread across the border because of a “large immunity gap” caused by the denial of aid access in the Nuba Mountains and Blue Nile areas bordering South Sudan, where the lack of vaccination had left “almost all children susceptible to polio and other vaccine preventable diseases.”1 2

On 1 October the union wrote to the UK prime minister, David Cameron, calling on him to denounce the Sudanese government’s denial of access to healthcare, after doctors were prevented from treating hundreds of people injured in recent demonstrations.

The union’s UK spokesman, Abdelmalik Hashim, told the BMJ that Sudan had just experienced the worst outbreak of yellow fever in recent years after the expulsion of aid groups from Darfur, and now “the refusal of the government of Sudan to cooperate with the international community is jeopardising all the gains achieved by the global polio eradication programme since 1988.”


Indian Surgeon Helping Polio Patients Take First Steps.

India is getting close to marking its third year without a new recorded polio case, setting the stage for the country to be officially declared polio-free in January. While much has been done to immunize infants against the disease, millions of people are living with polio, unable to live a normal life.

But one surgeon is working to change that.

At one of New Delhi’s oldest hospitals, in the only designated polio ward in all of India, patients like Abida Khatoon have only one goal.

“I can stand and walk,” Khatoon said. “I just need a little help, and soon I won’t need that as well. Soon, I will be able to walk on my own.”

It took two months of surgery and rehabilitation at St. Stephen’s Hospital for Khatoon to achieve her life-long dream of being able to walk.

She and other young women in this eight-bed ward credit Dr. Mathew Varghese, an orthopedic surgeon who has devoted his entire career to restoring mobility and dignity to those left crippled by the poliovirus that invades the brain and spinal cord, causing paralysis.

“All these girls have been crawling, except for this one, all the others have been crawling,” Varghese said. “The other muscles are very weak. They have never had the opportunity to stand on their two feet. For the first time in their lives – like this girl is paralyzed at six months — she has never been able to stand on her two feet.”

As India gets closer to officially being declared polio-free, the effect of the massive immunization effort can be seen in the hospital, with Varghese now mostly treating people in their early twenties as opposed to young children some two decades ago.

In 1990, New Delhi alone saw 3,000 new polio cases. Now that number is zero.The trend is reflected here at this polio ward, where at its peak it saw 600 patients annually. Now that number is down to fewer than 200.

Rotary International has been on the frontline of India’s polio eradication efforts and helps fund reconstructive surgeries at St. Stephen’s. Former Rotary President Rajendra Saboo saw the need to give polio patients a second chance at a normal life during a trip to a village in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.

“Then another child came, also crawling,” said Saboo. “And I said ‘what is happening to these children?’ They seem to have been struck by polio. And the villagers said, ‘no, no, no, just forget them, they are dust.’”

But Rotary and Varghese did not forget them. Patients hear about the ward and travel to New Delhi from across India in hopes of correcting bent legs and feet. No one is turned away.

After weeks in the hospital, 19-year-old Abida Khartoon is getting ready to go home to her village in Uttar Pradesh.

“If I had only met Dr. Varghese earlier, I wouldn’t have had as much hardship in life,” she said. “My hands wouldn’t be so calloused [from using them to get around]. Because of him, I am doing better,” she said tearfully.

But Khartoon is not the only one brought to tears. When asked what this surgeon’s dream is — the answer was simple.

“My dream,” he asked, trying to choke back his own tears. “This ward should be empty. No polio.”

read the fill story:


Polio Crusade: The Success Staircase.


Following two long hauling decades of global vaccination campaign, the world is at the edge of eradicating polio. Pakistan is one of the only three countries, labouring under a huge burden of polio, Afghanistan and Nigeria being the other two. The national campaign to wipe out polio and various deadly diseases from the roots have feared failure for the past few years and very recently, a devastating blow when the murders of the aid workers made headlines and pushed the agencies to suspend the Polio Crusade. Over 90 percent of the polio cases being reported are from four major transmission zones in Fata, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (K-P), Baluchistan, central Punjab and Sindh.


Pakistan declared a national health emergency in January 2011 uncovering an action plan with a singular goal of disrupting transmission of the disease by the year’s end. Unfortunately, the initiative failed. A recent intensification of the disease with emerging violence has been highlighted, which unfortunately continues up to date. The incidence of the highly infectious disease is relatively low in the peaceful areas, Punjab and Sindh and high in KPK, FATA and Baluchistan.

In 2011, Pakistan reported 198 fresh cases, being the highest in the world. Over 188 out of the 198 new infections reported to have emerged from the violence-plagued areas. Similarly, 55 out of 58 cases in 2012 emerged from Baluchistan, FATA and KPK. The ruling under the new leadership could have the government to eradicate polio from Pakistan; a goal we have almost achieved. However, in the light of recent attacks on the health care personnel, which included women, have raised fear and subsequent departure from respective duties, abandoning the vaccination campaigns and various health associated activities.

Many have spoken about the government responsibilities, highlighted the need for education of the masses, remote accessibility, promising security services and making this world an infection-free place to live in. However, Polio and I sat down with the Pakistani dilemma where we discussed weaknesses thereafter coming up with a plan we called the Success Staircase. Polio highlighted the first step towards eradication – Health education, which by definition is a positive impact on individual, which results in a favourable behavioural change, leading to good health. Health education in primary health care aims to foster activities that encourage people to want to be healthy, know how to stay healthy, do what they can to maintain health and seek help when needed.

It remains the duty of all conscientious persons dealing with each other in everyday life. Therefore, it starts form “Us”. – The second step towards enlightenment as mentioned by polio was sensitization. This step is overlooked by the authorities who race towards achieving bigger goals neglecting the basics.

Therefore, the nation can come up with new ideas, polices and agendas once we have successfully eradicated polio. Those who have access to health care services should be given a tutorial supplemented with visuals (as seeing is believing) whereas those who remain unattended and unreachable should be approached through media and community leaders. In health campaigns driven in the country so far, no special efforts have been dedicated to reach to the illiterate population. Do we and our future really require clothing labels, processed food, tea and telecommunication plans to recover our health liabilities?

How about we incorporate polio awareness regimens with the existing advertisements. We can target the product consumed/adopted widely by the masses to spread knowledge. For example, through the mobile facility, we can extend text/pictorial messages and offer free tele-health services. Polio and Publicity go hand in hand.

Back in my childhood days, I memorized a jingle that played in a short advertisement of a family planning service. I sang it like all other poems from the recitation classes. A very good example in today’s time emanates from the practice of hand-washing which is a primary step towards nipping the disease in the bud. The hand-wash product came up with a good theme and a child friendly song, bagging nationwide incentive.

My idea was to contemplate campaigns and advertisements in an entertaining approach to grab mass appeal. Instead of having crippled children look at the sight of ordinary kids performing daily activities coupled with a distressing melody in the backdrop, make the practice of inoculation fun and enamouring. Bright colours, energetic theme and lively environment is definitely heartening. Even the census participation was made encouraging due to the cheerful rattle; it ran over the tube a hundred times in a day resultantly.

Polio asked to re-establish priorities. In addition to door-to-door services, establish and push school-to-school and community–to-community agenda forward. Bangladesh is becoming an emerging economy showing cohesive tendencies to various changes and demands. It achieved a huge reduction in poverty; there has been a growth in trade and education, overcoming most of their challenges.

Therefore, in order for Pakistan to grow into a healthy nation, we need a collective collaboration and sustenance program and adequate funds free of manoeuvre. Continued education and training of the health care personnel is a very important step towards the quality of implementation. The trainees should be motivated and expectant for absolute health care delivery. A very important aspect of this exercise remains bridging the communication gap.

Special attention should be given to areas of barriers such as social and cultural divide, negative attitudes, insufficient emphasis and contradictory messages. The trainees should also be offered attractive quality packages keeping in mind the objectives of occupational health; thereby encouraging performance and dedication. Special training and advancements should be offered to promote remote access and healthcare relief. Considering the recent event in the lawless areas, operations and killings of the charity and aid workers had gripped the localities with fear.

Polio emphasized upon security as a requisite for the protection of the conduct. All health associated movements and activities should have satisfactory safety arrangements due to various events in history that have endangered medicine and medical practice. Polio and I spent hours discussing the merits of pressing a campaign in a low profile manner where authorities could inoculate children in phases, with adequate security arrangements instead of pulling off a nationwide campaign which may not only be strenuous to supervise but also under-productive. Another idea that hit us was to offer general healthcare facilities which obviously encased the polio proposal instead of highlighting special polio camps and workers.

This attempt could smash its way into successful inoculation of a child at a routine visit and subsequent education of the guardian. Polio called in for an enterprise which could regain trust. The government should re-think the measures previously taken for the medical movement; making nationwide announcements for a child friendly campaign. Local authorities should scheme initiatives entitled to gain confidence of the masses which is the gateway to reliance upon the government.

Pharmaceutical fraud is the biggest threat to the integrity of the global drug supply. With meager training and knowledge, the criminals have made their way in the market generating illegitimate profits. The impact of the convincing fakes has a potential to contribute to world health crisis. The government should run and revise inspection and subsequent quality control programs and announce strict penalties to the offenders.

Our great emphasis has been on the government abilities. Our system should realize the crisis Pakistan is falling into. We as health officials should join forces to formulate a singular agenda instead of feeding our personal motives, with a sole purpose of a Healthy Nation, Healthier Environment, and the Healthiest People.


http://www.emro.who.int/countries/pak/ http://europe.wsj.com/home-page http://tribune.com.pk/