Dinosaur impact ‘sent life to Mars’


Artist's impression of Chicxulub impact
The Chicxulub impact sparked a mass extinction – but did it send life hurtling into space?

The asteroid that wiped out the dinosaurs may have catapulted life to Mars and the moons of Jupiter, US researchers say.

They calculated how many Earth rocks big enough to shelter life were ejected by asteroids in the last 3.5bn years.

The Chicxulub impact was strong enough to fire chunks of debris all the way to Europa, they write in Astrobiology.

Thousands of potentially life-bearing rocks also made it to Mars, which may once have been habitable, they add.

“We find that rock capable of carrying life has likely transferred from both Earth and Mars to all of the terrestrial planets in the solar system and Jupiter,” says lead author Rachel Worth, of Penn State University.

A Hitchhikers GuideEarth rocks big enough* to support life made it to:

  • Venus 26,000,000 rocks
  • Mercury 730,000
  • Mars 360,000
  • Jupiter 83,000
  • Saturn 14,000
  • Io 10
  • Europa 6
  • Titan 4
  • Callisto 1

*3m diameter or larger.

Source: Worth et al, Astrobiology

“Any missions to search for life on Titan or the moons of Jupiter will have to consider whether biological material is of independent origin, or another branch in Earth’s family tree.”

Panspermia – the idea that organisms can “hitchhike” around the solar system on comets and debris from meteor strikes – has long fascinated astronomers.

But thanks to advances in computing, they are now able to simulate these journeys – and follow potential stowaways as they hitch around the Solar System.

In this new study, researchers first estimated the number of rocks bigger than 3m ejected from Earth by major impacts.

Europa
Could life be swimming in the oceans of Europa?

Three metres is the minimum they think necessary to shield microbes from the Sun’s radiation over a journey lasting up to 10 million years.

They then mapped the likely fate of these voyagers. Many simply hung around in Earth orbit, or were slowly drawn back down.

Others were pulled into the Sun, or sling-shotted out of the Solar System entirely.

Yet a small but significant number made it all the way to alien worlds which might welcome life. “Enough that it matters,” Ms Worth told BBC News.

About six rocks even made it as far as Europa, a satellite of Jupiter with a liquid ocean covered in an icy crust.

“Even using conservative, realistic estimates… it’s still possible that organisms could be swimming around out there in the oceans of Europa,” she said.

Travel to Mars was much more common. About 360,000 large rocks took a ride to the Red Planet, courtesy of historical asteroid impacts.

“Start Quote

I’d be surprised if life hasn’t gotten to Mars. It seems reasonable that at some point some Earth organisms made it”

Rachel Worth Penn State University

Big bang theory

Perhaps the most famous of these impacts was at Chicxulub in Mexico about 66 million years ago – when an object the size of a small city collided with Earth.

The impact has been blamed for the mass extinction of the dinosaurs, triggering volcanic eruptions and wildfires which choked the planet with smoke and dust.

It also launched about 70 billion kg of rock into space – 20,000kg of which could have reached Europa. And the chances that a rock big enough to harbour life arrived are “better than 50/50”, researchers estimate.

But could living organisms actually survive these epic trips?

“I’d be surprised if life hasn’t gotten to Mars,” Ms Worth told BBC News.

“It’s beyond the scope of our study. But it seems reasonable that at some point some Earth organisms have made it over there.”

Early Mars - artist's impression
Early Mars is thought to have been a muddy, watery world

It has been shown that tiny creatures can withstand the harsh environment of space. And bacterial spores can be revived after hundreds of millions of years in a dormant state.

Continue reading the main story

“Start Quote

I sometimes joke we might find ammonite shells on the Moon from the Chicxulub impact”

Prof Jay Melosh Purdue University

But even if a hardy microbe did stow away for all those millennia, it might simply burn up on arrival, or land in inhospitable terrain.

The most habitable places in range of Earth are Europa, Mars and Titan – but while all three have likely held water, it may not have been on offer to visitors.

Europa’s oceans are capped by a crust of ice that may be impenetrably thick.

“But it appears regions of the ice sheet sometimes break into large chunks separated by liquid water, which later refreezes,” Ms Worth said.

“Any meteorites lying on top of the ice sheet in a region when this occurs would stand a chance of falling through.

“Additionally, the moons are thought to have been significantly warmer in the not-too-distant past.”

Moon fossils

On Mars, there is little evidence of flowing water during the last 3.5bn years – the likeliest window for Earth life to arrive.

Bacillus subtilis endospores
The first space travellers? Bacterial endospores can survive for millions of years

But what if the reverse trip took place?

The early Martian atmosphere appears to have been warm and wet – prime conditions for the development of life.

And if Martian microbes ever did exist, transfer to Earth is “highly probable” due to the heavy traffic of meteorites between our planets, Ms Worth told BBC News.

“Billions have fallen on Earth from Mars since the dawn of our planetary system. It is even possible that life on Earth originated on Mars.”

While her team are not the first to calculate that panspermia is possible, their 10-million-year simulation is the most extended yet, said astrobiologist Prof Jay Melosh, of Purdue University.

“The study strongly reinforces the conclusion that, once large impacts eject material from the surface of a planet such as the Earth or Mars, the ejected debris easily finds its way from one planet to another,” he told BBC News.

“The Chicxulub impact itself might not have been a good candidate because it occurred in the ocean (50 to 500m deep water) and, while it might have ejected a few sea-surface creatures, like ammonites, into space, it would not likely have ejected solid rocks.

“I sometimes joke that we might find ammonite shells on the Moon from that event.

“But other large impacts on the Earth may indeed have ejected rocks into interplanetary space.”

Another independent expert on panspermia, Mauricio Reyes-Ruiz of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, said the new findings were “very significant”.

“The fact such different pathways exist for the interchange of material between Earth and bodies in the Solar System suggests that if life is ever found, it may very well turn out to be our very, very distant relatives,” he said.

PCOS: Endocrine Society Issues New Guidelines.


An Endocrine Society task force has developed new guidelines for the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

The guidelines published online October 24 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, are aimed at helping physicians and patients understand a complex condition that often has diverse symptoms.

Task Force Chair Richard S. Legro, MD, professor in obstetrics and gynecology, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, and colleagues developed the evidence-based guidelines, using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to rate the strength and quality of recommendations.

“The Society’s recommendations allow physicians to make the diagnosis [of PCOS] if clear symptoms are present without resorting to universal hormone tests or ultrasound screenings,” Dr. Legro said in a press release.

The guidelines advise that an adult woman be diagnosed with PCOS if she has at least 2 of the following symptoms: excess androgen, ovulatory dysfunction, or polycystic ovaries. In addition, any diagnosis of PCOS must rule out other androgen-excess disorders. Physicians should also screen patients for endometrial cancer, mood disorders, obstructive sleep apnea, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Diagnosis of PCOS in adolescent girls should be based on clinical or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism, after excluding other possible causes, in the presence of persistent oligomenorrhea, the task force advises. A PCOS diagnosis during perimenopause and menopause should be based on a documented, long-term history of oligomenorrhea and hyperandrogenism in reproductive years, the report advises. A finding of PCO morphology via ultrasound would also provide supportive evidence, although the authors note this is least likely in menopausal women. The guidelines recommend against routine ultrasound for endometrial thickness in women with PCOS.

In diagnosing and treating women with PCOS, physicians should look for terminal hair growth, acne, alopecia, acanthosis nigricans, and skin tags during physical examination, according to the new guidelines. The guidelines also recommend screening for ovulatory status using menstrual history.

The guidelines advise assessment of body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, and oral glucose tolerance. Overweight and obese patients with PCOS symptoms should be screened for obstructive sleep apnea. Adults and adolescents should be screened and treated for depression and anxiety.

The committee recommends treatment with hormonal contraceptives as the first-line therapy for menstrual abnormalities and hirsutism/acne. Exercise therapy is recommended to manage weight, alone or with a calorie-restricted diet.

The task force advises against the use of metformin as a first-line PCOS treatment, but metformin is recommended for women with PCOS and type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance who do not succeed with weight loss and exercise. Metformin is also recommended for women who cannot take hormonal contraceptives.

For infertility, the report recommends clomiphene citrate as a first-line treatment. For women undergoing in vitro fertilization, the guidelines recommend metformin as adjuvant therapy to prevent ovarian hyperstimulation.

 

 

Deficits caused by workweek sleep loss not totally recouped by sleeping in on the weekends


In many modern societies, adults often sacrifice sleep during the workweek to make time for other demands, then snooze longer on the weekends to recoup that lost sleep. Research has shown that even a few days of lost sleep can have adverse effects, including increased daytime sleepiness, worsened daytime performance, an increase in molecules that are a sign of inflammation in the body, and impaired blood sugar regulation. These last two could be partially responsible for why sleeping less negatively affects health in other ways and shortens the lifespan. Though many people believe they can make up sleep lost during the workweek by sleeping more on the weekend, it’s unknown whether this “recovery” sleep can adequately reverse these adverse effects.

To help answer this question, researchers led by Alexandros N. Vgontzas of the Penn State University College of Medicine, placed 30 volunteers on a sleep schedule that mimicked a sleep-restricted workweek followed by a weekend with extra recovery sleep. At various points along this schedule, the researchers assessed the volunteers’ health and performance using a variety of different tests.

The researchers found that the volunteers’ sleepiness increased significantly after sleep restriction, but returned to baseline after recovery sleep. Levels of a molecule in blood that’s a marker for the amount of inflammation present in the body increased significantly during sleep restriction, but returned to normal after recovery. Levels of a hormone that’s a marker of stress didn’t change during sleep restriction, but were significantly lower after recovery. However, the volunteers’ measures on a performance test that assessed their ability to pay attention deteriorated significantly after sleep restriction and did not improve after recovery. This last result suggests that recovery sleep over just a single weekend may not reverse all the effects of sleep lost during the workweek.

The study is entitled “The Effects of Recovery Sleep After One Workweek of Mild Sleep Restriction on Interleukin-6 and Cortisol Secretion and Daytime Sleepiness and Performance.” * It appears in the American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, published by the American Physiological Society.

Methodology

The researchers recruited 30 healthy adults who were normal sleepers and put them on a 13-day schedule that involved spending nights in a sleep lab. For the first four nights, the subjects were allowed to sleep for 8 hours, setting a baseline for a healthy, normal amount of sleep. For the next six nights, the researchers woke the subjects up 2 hours earlier. For the following three nights, the subjects were allowed to sleep for 10 hours. The researchers monitored the volunteers’ brain waves during these sleep sessions. At three points during the 13-day schedule, the volunteers spent whole days at the lab taking part in various tests: after the 4 days of baseline sleep, after 5 days of restricted sleep, and after 2 days of recovery sleep. On these days, the subjects had catheters inserted into their arms, and the researchers sampled blood every hour, testing it for levels of interleukin-6 (a marker of inflammation) and cortisol (a hormone secreted during stress). They also participated in a test of how quickly they fell asleep when allowed to nap several times during those days (an objective measure of sleepiness) and filled out questionnaires to assess how sleepy they felt (a subjective measure of sleepiness). To assess their performance, they participated in a test in which they were asked to press a button whenever a dot appeared on a screen, which measured how well they were able to pay attention.

Results

Not surprisingly, the researchers found that after 5 days of restricted sleep, the subjects were significantly sleepier on both objective and subjective tests compared to baseline levels. Their interleukin-6 levels increased sharply during restricted sleep, though their cortisol levels remained the same. Their performance on the attention test deteriorated. After 2 days of recovery sleep, both objective and subjective tests showed that the volunteers were less sleepy. Their interleukin-6 levels reduced, and their cortisol levels decreased significantly compared to baseline, possibly suggesting that the volunteers were sleep deprived before the study started. Notably, their performance on the attention test didn’t improve after recovery sleep.

Importance of the Findings

Though many indicators of health and well being improved after recovery sleep, these findings suggest that extra sleep may not fix all the deficits caused by lost sleep during the workweek.

“Two nights of extended recovery sleep may not be sufficient to overcome behavioral alertness deficits resulting from mild sleep restriction,” the authors write. “This may have important implications for people with safety-critical professions, such as health-care workers, as well as transportation system employees (drivers, pilots, etc.).”

The authors also suggest that even though these results provide some insight on the health effects of a single week of sleep loss and recovery, reliving the cycle over and over again may have more significant health effects that this study wouldn’t show.

“The long-term effects of a repeated sleep restriction/sleep recovery weekly cycle in human remains unknown,” they write.

Secrets of Effective Office Humor.


Making colleagues laugh takes timing, self-confidence—and the ability to rebound from a blooper.

Margot Carmichael Lester loves making good-natured jokes at work. As owner of The Word Factory, a Carrboro, N.C., content-creation company, she looks for employees with a sense of humor. “I only want to work with people who can take a joke.”

Sometimes, though, her jokes fall flat. Last month, at a meeting with insurance-industry clients, she poked fun—gently—at how people often view their insurers: “I mean, who really expects to hear, ‘I’m calling from your insurance company and I’m here to help?’ ” The joke died amid a few titters, she says. While she recovered and completed the client project successfully, the memory lingers. “If you are funny and putting yourself out there, making yourself vulnerable, and people don’t respond? That hurts.”

Employers like to hire people with a sense of humor, research shows. And mixing laughter and fun into a company culture can attract skilled workers, according to a study last year in the journal Human Relations. A 2011 study at Pennsylvania State University found that a good laugh activates the same regions of the brain that light up over a fat bonus check.

image

But the office can be a comedic minefield. Making colleagues laugh takes timing, self-confidence—and the ability to rebound from a blooper.

“People will like you better if they find you funny. They will also think you are smarter,” says Scott Adams, creator of the popular syndicated cartoon “Dilbert.” But “if you’ve never been funny before, trying to start in the workplace—the most important place you’ll ever be in your life”—is a terrible idea, says Mr. Adams, author of a new book, “How to Fail at Almost Everything and Still Win Big.”

Fred Kilbourne says his knack for funny banter has helped his career as an actuary, making him a sought-after speaker and participant in professional groups. “Actuarial work can be pretty dull and deadly, and I’m always looking for a way to make it a little lighter,” says Mr. Kilbourne, of San Diego. “People say, ‘I can’t tell when you’re kidding.’ My usual answer is, ‘If my lips are moving, I’m kidding.’ “

Not that he hasn’t had a few missteps. He once cracked a joke in the middle of a serious discussion by a committee on auto-insurance risk, prompting a fellow participant to say, ” ‘You know, we’re trying to get something serious done here, and this is not helpful,’ ” recalls Mr. Kilbourne. “He was right,” he says. “I was a serious contributor for the rest of the meeting.”

Office jokesters must be ready with a funny comeback if they drop a clunker, making sure to deliver it in a warm, non-sarcastic tone, says Michael Kerr, a Calgary, Alberta, speaker, author and consultant on humor at work. Turn the joke on yourself. For example: “It takes a special human being to do what I just did,” or, “This is great. I was feeling a little under-stressed today,” Mr. Kerr says.

It is also important to read the nuances of co-workers’ moods and attitudes and pick the right context for jokes, says Andrew Tarvin, a New York City humor coach. Mr. Adams says he watches listeners’ body language. If they tense up, or they avert their gaze or narrow their eyes, it isn’t a good time to crack wise.

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Most people know the taboos: Divisive racist, ethnic or sexist jokes, are out. Beyond those boundaries, a jokester should consider the ramifications if a joke showed up on Twitter or Facebook.

One way to keep humor positive is to apply the “yes–and” technique used in improvisational comedy, says Zach Ward, managing director of ImprovBoston, a Cambridge, Mass., theater and humor-training school. (Many students come there, he says, to build interpersonal skills they can use in the workplace.) A co-worker who hears a joke might “actively add to what you have you have said,” he says. If the sound system crashes during a presentation, for example, the speaker might say, “Was it something I said?” while other employees might play off and extend the witticism with, “It must have been your electrifying humor,” or “Whose turn was it to pay the electrical bill?”

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The best office humor brings people together, often through shared pranks or inside jokes, Mr. Tarvin says. For nearly three years, employees at Silver Lining Ltd. held monthly “corporate jargon days” when they tried to use as much vague, bureaucratic language as possible, says Carissa Reiniger, founder and chief executive of the New York City-based small-business management consulting firm.

A study published earlier this year in the Leadership & Organization Development Journal says executives and managers who use self-deprecating humor appear more approachable and human to subordinates.

Paul Spiegelman, co-founder of BerylHealth, a Bedford, Texas, medical call-center company, stars in annual office videos. One year, he was shown applying for jobs as a short-order cook and a theater projectionist because he didn’t “feel valued any more at the company.” Another year, in a parody of “Dancing with the Stars,” he donned in-line skates and a matador costume and danced with his chief operating officer.

Humor “breaks down silos and flattens the organization,” fostering employee loyalty and productivity, says Mr. Spiegelman, who recently sold the company to SteriCycle Inc., where he is chief culture officer.

Any employee, however, can use “self-enhancing” humor to make light of failures, polish her image or rise above stress, Dr. Cruthirds says. One study cited a team of co-workers who kidded each other almost constantly. In a meeting where one employee delivered a document with a mistake in it, a laughing co-worker accused him of failing his word-processing training. The perp’s comeback drew another laugh: “I find it really hard to be perfect at everything.”

Beth Slazak’s part-time job in a physician’s office requires taking calls about medical records from people who are often tense and rushed. To lighten things up, Ms. Slazak, of Cowlesville, N.Y., answers the phone with fictitious job titles. Her first one, “This is Beth, Office Ray of Sunshine,” made a co-worker sitting nearby spit out her coffee, Ms. Slazak says. Others include Dragon Slayer, Narnia Tour Guide, Zombie Defender and Hope for All Mankind.

Her boss and co-workers in the small office approve, she says, since they’re not the only ones who laugh: Callers almost always do, too. “If you can get somebody who sounds uptight to giggle, it’s totally a win,” says Ms. Slazak.

Source: WSJ.

Hebrew University Researchers Demonstrate Why DNA Breaks Down In Cancer Cells .


black-dna-dna-double-helix-dna-helicase-abstractdna-replication-model-145x88Damage to normal DNA is a hallmark of cancer cells. Although it had previously been known that damage to normal cells is caused by stress to their DNA replication when cancerous cells invade, the molecular basis for this remained unclear.

Now, for the first time, researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have shown that in early cancer development, cells suffer from insufficient building blocks to support normal DNA replication. It is possible to halt this by externally supplying the “building blocks,” resulting in reduced DNA damage and significant lower potential of the cells to develop cancerous features. Thus, hopefully, this could one day provide protection against cancer development.

In laboratory work carried out at the Hebrew University, Prof. Batsheva Kerem of the Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences and her Ph.D. student Assaf C. Bester demonstrated that abnormal activation of cellular proliferation driving many different cancer types leads to insufficient levels of the DNA building blocks (nucleotides) required to support normal DNA replication.

Then, using laboratory cultures in which cancerous cells were introduced, the researchers were able to show that through external supply of those DNA building blocks it is possible to reactivate normal DNA synthesis, thus negating the damage caused by the cancerous cells and the cancerous potential. This is the first time that this has been demonstrated anywhere.

This work, documented in a new article in the journal Cell, raises the possibility, say the Hebrew University researchers, for developing new approaches for protection against precancerous development, even possibly creating a kind of treatment to decrease DNA breakage.

 

 

argin�C tm�>� �:� ne-height:11.25pt;background: white;vertical-align:baseline’>Furthermore, unlike meats, caffeinated beverages, and alcohol, fruits and vegetables do not improve the taste of cigarettes.

 

“Foods like fruit and vegetables may actually worsen the taste of cigarettes,” remarked Haibach in the statement.

The research team states that more research needs to be done to see if the results can be replicated. If the findings are replicated, the investigators will work to determine the mechanisms in fruit and vegetables that help smokers quit the habit. They also want to look into research based on other dietary factors and smoking cessation.

“It’s possible that an improved diet could be an important item to add to the list of measures to
help smokers quit. We certainly need to continue efforts to encourage people to quit and help them succeed, including proven approaches like quitlines, policies such as tobacco tax increases and smoke-free laws, and effective media campaigns,” concluded researchers in the statement.

 

Source:  redOrbit.com

 

 

 

Like Father, Like Son.


A 10-year-old boy spends his summer vacation helping his chemist dad solve the structure of complicated materials.

Chemist Sven Hovmöller of Stockholm University had been trying for nearly a decade to determine the structures of materials known as quasicrystals and their nearly identical approximants. Thought to be physically impossible until some 30 years ago, quasicrystals are aperiodic structures—meaning they don’t display the rigidly repeating patterns characteristic of crystals like sodium chloride, for example. Since their discovery in the lab, physicists had been working tirelessly to better understand the structure of quasicrystals. But because the existence of such materials was doubted for so long, computer programs currently used to interpret imaging data aren’t equipped to analyze the aperiodic structures.

Hovmöller has worked on and off in the field of quasicrystals for more than 25 years, focusing primarily on the aluminum-cobalt-nickel (Al-Co-Ni) system. Like other quasicrystal researchers, he studied not the elusive materials themselves but their approximants, which differ in atom placement by only 1 or 2 percent and have more tractable patterns of atomic arrangement. Hovmöller’s interest in quasicrystals was piqued when he saw a conference poster displaying an electron diffraction pattern of one of the Al-Co-Ni approximants. The image was “so beautiful, so clear, [that] it should be possible to solve it,” recalls Hovmöller, who immediately invited Markus Döblinger, the student who made the poster, to do a postdoc in his lab.

But after months of further electron microscopy studies, the duo couldn’t seem to solve the structure. “Not only him and me, but other people also involved, tried so hard, but we didn’t get anywhere,” Hovmöller recalls. “It was extremely annoying.”

The image was so beautiful, so clear, that it should be possible to solve it.
—Sven Hovmöller, Stockholm University

Döblinger eventually moved on to the University of Munich, but Hovmöller couldn’t let the idea go. “Every year, once or twice, I [tried] to solve these things, and I just couldn’t.” Then, last summer, he had a seemingly off-the-wall idea. He’d enlist the aid of his 10-year-old son, Linus. “I thought, He’s a smart guy; maybe he could help me,” Hovmöller says.

The father-and-son team sat at the kitchen table for 2 days, poring over the dozens of electron microscopy images Döblinger had generated, as well as some electron diffraction data, which provides more precise information on the materials’ atomic positions. Hovmöller would explain to Linus what he was thinking about how the images all fit together, and when Linus didn’t understand something, he’d interrupt his father to ask. This made Hovmöller realize that he was rushing to conclusions. When he slowed down to clear up Linus’s confusion, he’d get new ideas. “In 2 days, we solved four new structures.”

They published their findings in a special issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A honoring the 85th birthday of Alan Mackay, who had predicted the existence of quasicrystals before they were identified in 1982. Linus was listed as a coauthor on the paper (370:2949-59, 2012).

“A kid [who] is clever and good at spatial things might well come up with a solution to a problem like that,” says surface physicist Renee Diehl of Penn State University. “I think there’s probably a lot of potential in 10-year-old kids that we’re not tapping.”

And in fact, Linus isn’t as unlikely a character as one might expect in the field of quasicrystals. “There have been a lot of highly creative and unusual people associated with the field,” says Carnegie Mellon University theoretical physicist Mike Widom. Amateur mathematician Robert Ammann, for example, made several significant contributions to quasicrystal theory before the crystals were even proven to exist. Others have pointed to the links between quasicrystals and art, such as aperiodic tilings and mosaics found in Persia. There’s even a company, called Zometool, that manufactures toys used to model quasicrystalline shapes, Widom notes. “The field is quite rich … [in] unusual personalities,” he says. “This boy is in the tradition of the field attracting some nontraditional scientists.”

But all the structures of the Al-Co-Ni quasicrystal and its approximants aren’t exactly solved. “What Sven Hovmöller did is quite nice,” says Walter Steurer of the Laboratory of Crystallography at ETH Zurich, but his methods are qualitative. Thus, Hovmöller and Linus merely mapped out some of the repeating motifs in four of the approximant structures, but “did not publish any atomic coordinates.” The precise locations of some of the crystals’ atoms have yet to be pinpointed.

“A lot of the interesting controversy in the field of quasicrystals has to do with fairly fine details,” which are critically important to understanding the materials’ true structures, Widom says. “You can know where 90 percent of the atoms are, but still not really know the structure because a minority of the atoms are doing interesting and crucial things. . . . What [Hovmöller and Linus] give us is a good starting point for future structure refinement.”

But if someone eventually solves the true structure of the Al-Co-Ni quasicrystal or its approximants, it won’t be Linus. “He’s refused” to work on the remaining structures, Hovmöller says with a laugh. “He’s still a little bit tired” from the last bout of structure solving.

http://www.sciencedaily.com