Omega-3 Meds Not Effective After MI, EMA Panel Concludes


The European Medicine Agency’s (EMA’s) Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) has concluded that omega-3 fatty acid medicines are not effective for secondary prevention after myocardial infarction (MI).

Omega-3 fatty acid medicines at a dose of 1 g per day have been authorized in several European Union countries since 2000 for preventing heart disease or stroke after MI and for lowering high triglycerides.

When they were authorized, the available data showed “some benefits in reducing serious problems with the heart and blood vessels, although the benefits were considered modest,” the EMA said in a news release. “Further data that have become available since then have not confirmed the beneficial effects of these medicines for this use.”

The CHMP’s conclusion, released at their December meeting, means that these medicines will no longer be authorized for such use.

Their review included results of the open-label GISSI Prevenzione study from 1999, which supported the initial authorization of these products, as well as retrospective cohort studies, more recent randomized controlled trials, and results of meta-analyses.

“The review concluded that, while a small relative risk reduction was seen in the original open label GISSI Prevenzione study, such beneficial effects were not confirmed in more recent randomized controlled trials,” the EMA said. The review found no new safety concerns.

The Committee’s decision does not affect the authorization of omega-3 fatty acid medicines for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia.

The CHMP opinion will now be forwarded to the European Commission, which will issue a final legally binding decision applicable in all EU member states.

Support for the CHMP decision comes from results of the large VITAL trial, which found little benefit from omega-3 supplements (or vitamin D supplementation) for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, as reported by Medscape Medical News.

In the ASCEND trial, a 1 g dose of omega-3 fatty acids had no effect on serious vascular events (or cancer or mortality) when used for primary prevention in patients with diabetes.

However, in the REDUCE-IT trial, a high-dose purified form of the omega-3 oil, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), in patients with elevated triglycerides who had cardiovascular disease or diabetes and one additional risk factor did show significant benefit, with a 25% relative risk reduction in major adverse cardiovascular events.

Top 7 Foods that are Highest in Omega 3 Fatty Acids


Omega-3 fatty acids are somewhat of a buzz term these days.

Omega-3 fatty acids are needed for the health of your heart, your brain and your body.

The best sources of omega-3 fatty acids are those found in wild-caught fish, seafood and algae.

Algae synthesize the omega-3 fatty acids. Fish (like salmon) then consume phytoplankton that consumed the algae. The result is that omega-3 fats accumulate within the tissues of the fish.

The body can make all the fats it needs except for omega 3 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids are an essential fat meaning that they must be supplied by the diet.

This is why it is imperative to consume Omega 3s directly from foods or supplements to increase levels of these essential fats in the body.

What are omega-3 fatty acids?

Omega-3 fatty acids are a type of polyunsaturated fat. They are called “omega” fats because of the unique location of their double bonds.

There are two types of omega 3 fatty acids: EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid). They are typically found in abundance in cold water, fatty fish.

There is also a plant-based omega-3 fat (called Alpha Linolenic Acid) that is not a sufficient source of omega 3’s. This is because your body cannot fully convert Alpha Linolenic Acid to its bioavailable forms- EPA and DHA. It is a very minimal conversion rate that occurs in the liver and thus plants are not a good omega-3 source.

The body needs the two omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA forms to benefit health.

These fats are very healthy. They are considered “anti-inflammatory” and cardioprotective.

People need more omega-3 fatty acids in their diet than they’re getting!

What do omega-3 fatty acids do?

  • They boost immunity
  • They lower cellular inflammation
  • They are needed for brain function and vision
  • They have been associated with reducing the risk of heart disease and cancer

You can read more about the health benefits of these fats in our exclusive guide to omega-3 fatty acids.

Why are omega-3 fatty acids important to heart health?

  • They are anti-inflammatory
  • They decrease blood pressure
  • They increase blood flow
  • They protect against irregular heartbeats
  • They slow the growth of atherosclerotic plaques
  • They are heart-healthy!

Top 7 foods that are high in omega-3 fatty acids:


  1. 1. Mackerel – 5 oz. serving has 5,134 mg omega-3 fatty acids. Mackerel is a type of small, saltwater fatty fish that is available in both fresh and canned forms. It is also rich in protein, micronutrients like vitamin B12 and vitamin D as well as the essential omega-3 fatty acids. Atlantic mackerel is one of the healthiest options you can get.Note: If using canned mackerel be sure to source a BPA-free option and rinse off any excess salt!Recipe: Mediterranean Roasted Mackerel

  2. 2. Salmon – 5 oz. serving has 2, 260 mg omega-3 fatty acids. Salmon is a very nutrient dense food. It is one of the best sources of omega-3 fatty acids. Salmon is good for your heart, your brain, your bones and your skin. There is Atlantic or Pacific salmon varieties. Always choose wild-caught salmon or wild Alaskan salmon (which is always wild-caught). You can also check out Vital Choice Seafood online for sourcing options. Salmon is a rich source of protein, B vitamins, vitamin D, potassium, magnesium and selenium.Recipe: Superfood Baked Salmon

  3. 3. Herring – 5 oz. serving 1,729 mg omega-3 fatty acids. Herring are a medium sized type of fatty fish that are rich in omega-3 fatty acids. They are oily and bony just like sardines. You can find them fresh or canned, smoked or pickled in the store. Herring also contain adequate levels of B vitamins, vitamin D, selenium and potassium. They are a great source of protein, as well. They are similar to sardines. Often, small herring are canned and sold as sardines.Note: If using canned herring be sure to source a BPA-free option and rinse off any excess salt!Recipe: Paleo Pickled Herring

  4. 4. Sardines – 5 oz. serving has 1,480 mg omega-3 fatty acids. Sardines are a small, fatty and bony fish that contain good levels of omega-3 fats. They also contain adequate amounts of protein, B vitamins, vitamin D, zinc and calcium. Sardines are a small fish at the bottom of the aquatic food chain and so they are highly sustainable and often have one of the lowest contamination risks. The most sustainable sources are those from the Pacific region of United States and Canada. You can find sardines fresh or canned (or in glass bottles). If purchasing canned sardines, choose ones found in olive oil.Note: If using canned sardines be sure to source a BPA-free option and rinse off any excess salt!Recipe: Sardine and Garlic Spread

  5. 5. Oysters – 5 oz. serving has 672 mg omega-3 fatty acids. Oysters have quite a lot of omega-3 fatty acids per serving. Additionally, oysters are a rich source of protein, zinc, vitamin D, B vitamins and magnesium. Oysters are considered a bivalve. Bivalves are a type of mollusk, which has two shells protecting a soft inner body. They have a pretty low risk of mercury contamination and are considered healthy.Recipe: Oyster Stew

  6. 6. Anchovies – 2 oz. (one can) serving 951 mg omega-3 fatty acids. Anchovies are a small fish that have a large amount of omega- 3 fatty acids.They also contain a good amount of protein, B vitamins, calcium, vitamin K and potassium. They are very heart-healthy little fish. They also have a lower contamination risk than that of bigger fish options. They are typically found canned.Note: If using canned anchovies be sure to source a BPA-free option and rinse off any excess salt!Recipe: Spicy Sauteed Mushrooms with Anchovy

  7. 7. Mussels
    – 3 oz. serving 730 mg omega-3 fatty acids. Mussels are also a type of bivalve similar to oysters. They are rich in omega-3 fatty acids. They have a higher protein content that oysters. Mussels are also a rich source of B vitamins, selenium and phosphorous. These have a lower risk of mercury contamination, as well, which is another health benefit.Recipe: Mixed Seafood Paella

Should I take an Omega 3 supplement?

Likely, yes.

It is recommended adults get a minimum of 250-500 mg of omega-3’s per day.

If you don’t like to eat fatty fish, then you may need to consider supplementation.

Many people do not get enough wild-caught fatty fish in their diet. Additionally, many people who have chronic disease like heart disease need to increase their daily intake and a supplement is usually the only way to do that.

Is Omega-3 Pointless for Preventing Heart Disease?


Meta-analysis showed no significant link to coronary disease, any major vascular events

Omega-3 fatty acids have gotten a heart-healthy reputation without good evidence that they actually prevent major cardiovascular disease events, according to a meta-analysis.

Across 10 large randomized trials lasting at least 1 year, taking the supplements was not associated with significantly reduced risk of:

  • Death from coronary heart disease: rate ratio 0.93 (99% CI 0.83-1.03)
  • Nonfatal myocardial infarction: RR 0.97 (99% CI 0.87-1.08)
  • Any coronary heart disease events: RR 0.96 (95% CI 0.90-1.01)
  • Major vascular events: RR 0.97 (95% CI 0.93-1.01)

Benefits also weren’t seen in subgroups with prior coronary heart disease, diabetes, elevated lipid levels, or statin use, Robert Clarke, MD, of the University of Oxford in England, and colleagues reported in JAMA Cardiology.

While the European Society of Cardiology has called a protective effect of omega-3s debatable at best, the American Heart Association has recommended use as “reasonable” for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in patients with recent events and “might also be considered” in people with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction.

“However, the results of the present meta-analysis provide no support for the recommendations to use approximately 1 g/d of omega-3 FAs in individuals with a history of CHD for the prevention of fatal CHD, nonfatal MI, or any other vascular events,” Clarke’s group concluded. “The results of the ongoing trials are needed to assess if higher doses of omega-3 [fatty acids] (3-4 g/d) may have significant effects on risk of major vascular events.”

The study was supported by the British Heart Foundation, British Heart Foundation Centre for Research Excellence Oxford, and Medical Research Council Clinical Trial Service Unit.

Is Omega-3 Pointless for Preventing Heart Disease?


Meta-analysis showed no significant link to coronary disease, any major vascular events

Omega-3 fatty acids have gotten a heart-healthy reputation without good evidence that they actually prevent major cardiovascular disease events, according to a meta-analysis.

Across 10 large randomized trials lasting at least 1 year, taking the supplements was not associated with significantly reduced risk of:

  • Death from coronary heart disease: rate ratio 0.93 (99% CI 0.83-1.03)
  • Nonfatal myocardial infarction: RR 0.97 (99% CI 0.87-1.08)
  • Any coronary heart disease events: RR 0.96 (95% CI 0.90-1.01)
  • Major vascular events: RR 0.97 (95% CI 0.93-1.01)

Benefits also weren’t seen in subgroups with prior coronary heart disease, diabetes, elevated lipid levels, or statin use, Robert Clarke, MD, of the University of Oxford in England, and colleagues reported in JAMA Cardiology.

While the European Society of Cardiology has called a protective effect of omega-3s debatable at best, the American Heart Association has recommended use as “reasonable” for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in patients with recent events and “might also be considered” in people with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction.

“However, the results of the present meta-analysis provide no support for the recommendations to use approximately 1 g/d of omega-3 FAs in individuals with a history of CHD for the prevention of fatal CHD, nonfatal MI, or any other vascular events,” Clarke’s group concluded. “The results of the ongoing trials are needed to assess if higher doses of omega-3 [fatty acids] (3-4 g/d) may have significant effects on risk of major vascular events.”

61 Health Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids


61 Health Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids

  1. There is strong evidence that omega-3 fatty acids have a beneficial effect in bipolar disorder.
  2. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation is associated with reduced mania and depression in juvenile bipolar disorder.
  3. Clinical studies have reported that oral fish oil supplementation has beneficial effects in rheumatoid arthritis and among some asthmatics.
  4. Fish oil improves tubular dysfunction, lipid profiles and oxidative stress in patients with IgA nephropathy.
  5. Dietary supplementation with flaxseed oil lowers blood pressure in dyslipidaemic patients.
  6. Omega 3 fatty acids improve the cardiovascular risk profile of subjects with metabolic syndrome, including markers of inflammation and auto-immunity.
  7. Omega-3 in modest doses reduces cardiac deaths, and in high doses reduces nonfatal cardiovascular events.
  8. Dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids reduces the incidence of sudden cardiac death in patients with myocardial infarction.
  9. Omega-3 fatty acid reduce the total mortality and sudden death in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction.
  10. Raising blood levels of omega-3 fatty acid levels may be 8 times effective than distributing automated external defibrillators (AEDs), and 2 times more effective than implanting implanting cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) in preventing sudden death.
  11. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation reduces total mortality and sudden death in patients who have already had a heart attack.
  12. Consuming small quantities of fish is associated with a reduction in coronary heart disease.
  13. Omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D supplementation results in a substantial reduction incoronary calcium scores and slowed plaque growth.
  14. Omega-3 fatty acids prevent atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery.
  15. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation has a therapeutic effect in children with ADHD.
  16. A combination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids as well as magnesium and zinc consumption provide a beneficial effect on attentional, behavioural, and emotional problems of children and adolescents.
  17. Fish oil supplementation has a significant therapeutic effect on children with autism.
  18. Omega-3 fatty acids appear to be an effective treatment for children with autism.
  19. The consumption of omega-3 fatty acid supplements decreases homocysteine levels indiabetic patients.
  20. Omega-3 fatty acids improve macro- and microvascular function in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  21. In patients with stable coronary artery disease, an independent and inverse association exists between n-3 fatty acid levels and inflammatory biomarkers.
  22. Omega-3 fatty acids improve endothelial function in peripheral arterial disease.
  23. Fish oil has a beneficial effect on blood viscosity in peripheral vascular disease.
  24. Fish oil supplementation improves walking distance in peripheral arterial disease.
  25. The omega-3 fatty acid docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) reduces the risk of peripheral arterial diseaseassociated with smoking.
  26. An 8-month treatment with omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA) has a positive effects, such as decreasing inflammation, in patients with cystic fibrosis.
  27. Omega-3 fatty acids may have a protective effect against mucus over-productioncaused by pulmonary bacterial colonization in cystic fibrosis.
  28. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation reduces inflammatory biomarkers, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and interleukin-8 concentrations in cystic fibrosis patients.
  29. DHA increases resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.
  30. EPA supplementation has therapeutic value in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C patients.
  31. EPA and DHA have therapeutic value in the treatment of systemic lupus erythmeatosus.
  32. Omega-3 fish oil reduces the severity of symptoms in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.
  33. Fish and long-chain omega-3 fatty acid intake reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and total mortalityin diabetic women.
  34. Higher plasma concentrations of EPA and DPA are associated with a lower risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction among women.
  35. Omega-3 fatty acid consumption is inversely associated with incidence of hypertension.
  36. Fish oil, but not flaxseed oil, decreases inflammation and prevents pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction.
  37. The consumption of fish reduces the risk of ischemic stroke in elderly individuals.
  38. A moderate intake of EPA and DHA may postpone cognitive decline in elderly men.
  39. Omega-3 fatty acids may have a therapeutic effect on postpartum depression.
  40. Omega-3 fatty acids may have therapeutic value in the treatment of dry eye syndrome.
  41. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation exhibits therapeutic value in the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology.
  42. Fish consumption reduces the risk of ischemic stroke in men.
  43. Omega-3 Fatty acids supplementation prevents and reverses insulin resistance.
  44. Omega-3 fatty acids prevent the formation of urinary calcium oxalate stone formation.
  45. Omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial for children with bronchial asthma.
  46. Omega 3 fatty acid supplementation may contribute to the prevention of early preterm birth in both low-risk and high-risk pregnancies.
  47. Fish consumption is associated with a 63% reduction in prostate cancer-specific mortality.
  48. Omega 3 fatty acids decrease the severity of autoimmune disorders.
  49. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) may have a therapeutic role in attenuating pulmonary hypertension.
  50. Omega-3 fatty acids resulted in an improvement in weight bearing in dogs withosteoarthritis.
  51. Primary open-angle glaucoma patients have reduced blood levels of DHA and EPA.
  52. Omega-3 fatty acids alleviate insulin resistance and fatty liver in obese mice.
  53. Intake of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids from fish may be associated with areduced prevalence of allergic rhinitis.
  54. Cod liver oil (omega-3 Fatty Acids) reduces the need for NSAIDs in patients withrheumatoid arthritis.
  55. Omega-3 Fatty Acids has significant therapeutic benefits and drug sparing activity in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
  56. Diets containing EPA and DHA have an inhibitory effect on breast cancer growth and metastasis.
  57. Dietary Omega-3 fatty acids may protect smokers against chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
  58. Omega-3 fatty acids were shown to be more effective than placebo for depression in both adults and children in small controlled studies and in an open study of bipolar depression.
  59. The omega-3 fatty acid EPA is as effective as fluoxetine (Prozac) in treating major depressive disorder.
  60. A diet low in trans-unsaturated fat and rich in omega-3 fatty acids and olive oil mayreduce the risk of age-related macular degeneration.
  61. Higher intake of omega 3 fatty acids may reduce the risk of pneumonia.

Extra fish consumption prevents hearing loss in women


Women who eat fish regularly have a lower risk of developing hearing loss compared to women who rarely or never eat fish, according to a study.

Researchers speculate that the Omega 3 fatty acids in fish may help maintain good blood flow to the inner ear, BBC health reported.

Extra fish consumption prevents hearing loss in women

These are two questions commonly used to screen for hearing loss which affects more than one third of people over age 65.

Women who ate two or more servings of fish per week had a 20 percent lower risk of hearing loss, according to researchers.

Eating any type of fish whether it’s tuna dark fish [like salmon] or light fish was associated with a lower risk.

The omega 3 fatty acids found in fatty fish are linked to a range of health benefits including cutting the risk of heart disease, depression and possibly memory loss.

The findings come by way of the Nurses long-term research study that includes more than 100 000 nurses.

The nurses were aged 27 to 42 when they started completing detailed surveys about what they ate and drank.

And they were also asked whether they had a hearing problem and if so at what age they first noticed it.

The blood flow to the inner ear needs to be very well regulated and higher fish consumption may help maintain adequate cochlear blood flow.

11 AMAZING HEALTH BENEFITS OF EATING FISH


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Fish is among the healthiest foods on the planet.

It is loaded with important nutrients, such as protein and vitamin D.

Fish is also the world’s best source of omega-3 fatty acids, which are incredibly important for your body and brain.

Here are 11 health benefits of eating fish that are supported by research.

1. Fish is high in important nutrients that most people don’t get enough of

Generally speaking, all types of fish are good for you.

They are high in many nutrients that most people aren’t getting enough of.

This includes high-quality protein, iodine and various vitamins and minerals.

However, some fish are better than others, and the fatty types of fish are considered thehealthiest.

That’s because fatty fish (like salmon, trout, sardines, tuna and mackerel) are higher in fat-based nutrients.

This includes the fat-soluble vitamin D, a nutrient that most people are deficient in. It functions like a steroid hormone in the body.

Fatty fish are also much higher in omega-3 fatty acids. These fatty acids are crucial for your body and brain to function optimally, and are strongly linked to reduced risk of many diseases (1).

To meet your omega-3 requirements, eating fatty fish at least once or twice a week is recommended.

Bottom Line: Fish is high in many important nutrients, including high-quality protein, iodine and various vitamins and minerals. Fatty types of fish are also high in omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D.

2. Fish may lower your risk of heart attacks and strokes

Heart attacks and strokes are the two most common causes of premature death in the world (2).

Fish is generally considered to be among the best foods you can eat for a healthy heart.

Not surprisingly, many large observational studies have shown that people who eat fish regularly seem to have a lower risk of heart attacks, strokes and death from heart disease (3, 4,5, 6).

In one study of more than 40,000 male health professionals in the U.S., those who regularly ate one or more servings of fish per week had a 15 percent lower risk of heart disease (7).

Researchers believe that the fatty types of fish are even more beneficial for heart health, because of their high amount of omega-3 fatty acids.

Bottom Line: Eating at least one serving of fish per week has been linked to reduced risk of heart attacks and strokes, two of the world’s biggest killers.

 

3. Fish contains nutrients that are crucial during development

Omega-3 fatty acids are absolutely essential for growth and development.

The omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is especially important, because it accumulates in the developing brain and eye (8).

For this reason, it is often recommended that expecting and nursing mothers make sure to eat enough omega-3 fatty acids (9).

However, there is one caveat with recommending fish to expecting mothers. Some fish is high in mercury, which ironically is linked to brain developmental problems.

For this reason, pregnant women should only eat fish that are low on the food chain (salmon, sardines, trout, etc.), and no more than 12 ounces (340 grams) per week.

Pregnant women should also avoid raw and uncooked fish (including sushi), because it may contain microorganisms that can harm the fetus.

Bottom Line: Fish is high in omega-3 fatty acids, which is essential for development of the brain and eyes. It is recommended that expecting and nursing mothers make sure to eat enough omega-3s.

 

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4. Fish may increase grey matter in the brain and protect it from age-related deterioration

One of the consequences of aging is that brain function often deteriorates (referred to as age-related cognitive decline).

This is normal in many cases, but then there are also serious neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s.

Interestingly, many observational studies have shown that people who eat more fish have slower rates of cognitive decline (10).

One mechanism could be related to grey matter in the brain. Grey matter is the major functional tissue in your brain, containing the neurons that process information, store memories and make you human.

Studies have shown that people who eat fish every week have more grey matter in the centers of the brain that regulate emotion and memory (11).

Bottom Line: Fish consumption is linked to reduced decline in brain function in old age. People who eat fish regularly also have more grey matter in the brain centers that control memory and emotion.

5. Fish may help prevent and treat depression, making you a happier person

Depression is a serious and incredibly common mental disorder.

It is characterized by low mood, sadness, decreased energy and loss of interest in life and activities.

Although it isn’t talked about nearly as much as heart disease or obesity,depression is currently one of the world’s biggest health problems.

Studies have found that people who eat fish regularly are much less likely to become depressed (12).

Numerous controlled trials have also found that omega-3 fatty acids are beneficial against depression, and significantly increase the effectiveness of antidepressant medications (13, 14,15).

What this means is that fish can quite literally make you a happier person and improve your quality of life.

Fish and omega-3 fatty acids may also help with other mental disorders, such as bipolar disorder (16).

Bottom Line: Omega-3 fatty acids can be beneficial against depression, both on their own and when taken with antidepressant medications.

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6. Fish is the only good dietary source of vitamin D

Vitamin D has received a lot of mainstream attention in recent years.

This important vitamin actually functions like a steroid hormone in the body, and a whopping 41.6 percent of the U.S. population is deficient in it (17).

Fish and fish products are the best dietary sources of vitamin D, by far. Fatty fish like salmon and herring contain the highest amounts (18).

A single four ounce (113 gram) serving of cooked salmon contains around 100 percent of the recommended intake of vitamin D (19).

Some fish oils, such as cod liver oil, are also very high in vitamin D, providing more than 200 percent of the recommended intake in a single tablespoon (20).

If you don’t get much sun and don’t eat fatty fish regularly, then you may want to consider taking a vitamin D supplement.

Bottom Line: Fatty fish is an excellent source of vitamin D, an important nutrient that over 40 percent of people may be deficient in.

7. Fish consumption is linked to reduced risk of autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes

Autoimmune disease occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissues.

A key example is type 1 diabetes, which involves the immune system attacking the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas.

Several studies have found that omega-3 or fish oil consumption is linked to reduced risk of type 1 diabetes in children, as well as a form of autoimmune diabetes in adults (21, 22, 23).

The results are preliminary, but researchers believe that this may be caused by the omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D in fish and fish oils.

Some believe that fish consumption may also lower the risk of rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis, but the current evidence is weak at best (24, 25).

Bottom Line: Eating fish has been linked to reduced risk of type 1 diabetes and several other autoimmune diseases.

8. Fish may help prevent asthma in children

Asthma is a common disease that is characterized by chronic inflammation in the airways.

Unfortunately, rates of asthma have increased dramatically over the past few decades (26).

Studies show that regular fish consumption is linked to a 24 percent lower risk of asthma in children, but no significant effect has been found in adults (27).

Bottom Line: Some studies show that children who eat more fish have a lower risk of developing asthma.

 

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9. Fish may protect your vision in old age

A disease called macular degeneration is a leading cause of vision impairment and blindness, and mostly affects older individuals (28).

There is some evidence that fish and omega-3 fatty acids may provide protection against this disease.

In one study, regular consumption of fish was linked to a 42 percent lower risk of macular degeneration in women (29).

Another study found that eating fatty fish once per week was linked to a 53 percent decreased risk of neovascular (“wet”) macular degeneration (30).

Bottom Line: People who eat more fish have a much lower risk of developing macular degeneration, a leading cause of vision impairment and blindness.

10. Fish may improve sleep quality

Sleep disorders have become incredibly common worldwide.

There are many different reasons for this (such as increased exposure to blue light), but some researchers believe that vitamin D deficiency can also play a role (31).

In a 6-month study of 95 middle-aged men, a meal with salmon three times per week led to improvements in both sleep and daily functioning (32).

The researchers speculated that this was caused by the vitamin D in the salmon.

Bottom Line: There is preliminary evidence that eating fatty fish like salmon may lead to improved sleep.

11. Fish is delicious and easy to prepare

This last one is not a health benefit, but still very important.

It is the fact that fish is delicious and easy to prepare.

For this reason, it should be relatively easy to incorporate it into the diet. Eating fish one to two times per week is considered sufficient to reap the benefits.

If possible, choose wild-caught fish over farmed. Wild fish tends to have more omega-3s and is less likely to be contaminated with harmful pollutants.

That being said, even if eating farmed fish, the benefits still far outweigh the risks. All types of fish are good for you.

Omega-3 fatty acids may prevent some forms of depression


Patients with increased inflammation, including those receiving cytokines for medical treatment, have a greatly increased risk of depression. For example, a 6-month treatment course of interferon-alpha therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus infection causes depression in approximately 30% of patients.

Omega-3 fatty acids, more commonly known as fish oil, have a long list of health benefits, including lowering the risk of heart disease and reducing triglyceride levels. These nutritional compounds are also known to have anti-depressant and anti-inflammatory properties.

Despite some recent negative findings, as their tendency to increase the risk for prostate cancer was proven and some of the putative health benefits were not replicated in large trials, omega-3’s remain of high interest to the field, where several studies have suggested benefits for depression and other psychiatric disorders.

This led a group of international researchers, led by senior author Dr. Carmine Pariante, to conduct a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in order to carefully evaluate the effects of on -induced depression.

They recruited 152 patients with hepatitis C to participate, each of whom was randomized to receive two weeks of treatment with EPA, DHA, or placebo. EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) are the two main omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil supplements.

Following the two-week treatment, the patients received a 24-week course of interferon-alpha treatment and were evaluated repeatedly for depression.

The researchers found that treatment with EPA, but not DHA or placebo, decreased the incidence of interferon-alpha-induced depression in patients being treated for hepatitis C.

Pariante, a Professor at the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience at King’s College London, added, “The study shows that even a short course (two weeks) of a nutritional supplement containing one such omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (EPA) reduced the rates of new-onset depression to 10%.”

In addition, both EPA and DHA delayed the onset of depression, and both treatments were well tolerated, with no serious side effects.

“These new data provide promising support for omega-3 fatty acids to prevent depression, complementing other studies where omega-3’s were found to enhance antidepressant treatment,” said Dr. John Krystal, Editor of Biological Psychiatry.

EPA is considered an “endogenous” anti-inflammatory, and in previous work, also published in Biological Psychiatry, these same authors found that subjects with low levels of endogenous EPA in the blood were at higher risk of developing depression. Therefore, the authors speculate that this nutritional intervention restores the natural protective anti-inflammatory capabilities of the body, and thus protects patients from new-onset depression when inflammation occurs.

Although further work is still necessary and the findings must be replicated, these data indicate that omega-3 polyunsaturated may be effective in preventing depression in a group of patients at high-risk of depression because of increased inflammation.

Omega-3s boost brain health by improving neuron cell membrane functionality .


Most Americans have an omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid imbalance due to the prevalence of unsaturated omega-6 fatty acids from polyunsaturated processed oils in processed foods.

omega-3

It should minimally be three to one omega-6 to omega-3, while one to one is considered ideal by experts. But it’s estimated that many SAD (standard American diet) consumers are at around 20 to 1 omega-6 to omega-3 or worse.

This imbalance creates chronic inflammation that invites obesity and even more serious autoimmune diseases. Omega-3 fatty acids from eggs, whole organic raw milk, and meat and fish from healthy sources provide instantly usable omega-3 fatty acids that are important for heart health and optimal brain function, despite medical dogma and “common knowledge” to the contrary.

Plant-based polyunsaturated seeds or oils, such as flax oils or ground seeds, hemp oils or seeds and chia seeds, do provide additional health benefits and elements of usable omega-3.

But the process of converting plant based ALA (alpha-linolenic acid) into usable omega-3 as EPA and DHA is less efficient among diabetics and wanes as we grow older.

EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) are already formed for us by fish and animal sources, and they are very supportive of heart and brain health and reduce rheumatoid arthritis issues. [1]

But it would be wise to balance those out with plant sources as well, since they offer other nutritional advantages that we all need. Omega-3s have provided amazing results for brain protection and restoration in animal studies and in real-life human brain damage recoveries.

Animal (in vivo) and lab (in vitro) studies

A study comparing mice with omega-3-rich diets to those without was conducted at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine’s Department of Neurology and published in the journal Stroke.

The researchers determined that omega-3s in brain-damaged mice brought about brain-damage repair and neuroprotection by suppressing an inflammatory process. [2]

The exact mechanics of this neuroprotection and reconstruction were explored more recently in 2014. Three Paris universities collaborated on in vitro (lab cultures) studies using high magnification.

That study proved that the presence of omega-3 lipids makes the brain cell membranes more malleable and therefore more sensitive to deformation and fission by proteins.

This might seem like a bad thing, but malleability, deformation and fission are elements of endocytosis, a vital function enabling brain cells’ membranes to transport hormones and nutrients and provide efficient neurotransmitter pathways for optimum brain function.

The study results were published in the journal Science on August 8, 2014. [3] [4]

And now for something more dramatic

In Virginia a couple of years ago, a high school teenager whose brain was so damaged in a car accident that his parents were informed that he would be vegetative for the rest of his life if he ever came out of his coma while on life support.

The teen’s dad refused to give up. An old Army buddy, now MD, told him about a recent similar case in neighboring West Virginia where a 26-year-old man brain-damaged and in a coma was flirting with death after a coal-mining accident. He was treated with high-dose fish oil through his feeding tube, 20 grams a day. One gram a day is considered normal supplementation, with three grams a day the limit. [1]

The West Virginia hospital’s neurosurgeon knew omega-3s were an important part of brain cell structures. He courageously broke the boundaries of the American Medical Association’s “standard of care” and helped the young coal miner walk out of the hospital just three months after the mining accident.

The Virginia hospital didn’t have that courageous neurosurgeon, so the teenage boy’s father’s efforts to convince the hospital to duplicate that West Virginia neurosurgeon’s protocol on his own son was an uphill drama.

But he ultimately succeeded with getting the hospital to duplicate that mega-dose fish oil feeding protocol to restore his son’s ability to walk and even formally address his high school classmates on graduation day. [5]

Sources for this article include:

[1] http://umm.edu

[2]http://science.naturalnews.com

[3] http://www2.cnrs.fr [PDF]

[4] http://www.sciencedaily.com

[5] http://www.naturalnews.com

Learn more: http://www.naturalnews.com/046544_omega-3_fatty_acids_neurons_cell_membranes.html#ixzz3BDv44jad

Study Finds No CVD Benefit With Omega-3 Fatty Acids.


Supplementing the diets of elderly patients with a moderate dose of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids failed to reduce CVD risk, a new study shows. Taking omega-3 fatty-acid supplements for nearly five years failed to reduce the incidence of CVD mortality, MI, stroke, unstable angina, revascularization, CHF hospitalizations, and resuscitated cardiac arrest, report investigators[1].

“The results of the study show that there is no safety signal, so there’s no harm at the levels that were given, but it doesn’t demonstrate any benefit in taking dietary supplements in terms of CV outcomes,” lead investigator Dr Denise Bonds (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD) told heartwire .

Published March 17, 2014 in JAMA Internal Medicine, the trial is an ancillary study of the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2), which includes 4203 men and women treated at US ophthalmology clinics. As part of the factorial-design randomized trial, individuals were treated with 350-mg docosahexaenoic acid  and 650-mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) for 4.8 years. Approximately 20% of randomized participants had a history of CVD. Participants were also treated with the macular xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin to determine impact on CV outcomes.

Regarding the primary end point, a composite of CV mortality and morbidity, supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids failed to provide any reduction in clinical events. In terms of secondary end points, which included multiple combinations of components of the primary end point, there was also no reduction in events. In an exploratory analysis, the researchers did not observe any significant difference in clinical-event rates among those with high or normal triglycerides.

Supplementation with lutein and zeaxanthin also failed to reduce CV morbidity and mortality.

In an editorial[2]Drs Evangelos Rizos (University Hospital of Ioannina, Greece) and Evangelia Ntzani(University of Ioannina School of Medicine, Greece) point out that sales of omega-3 fatty acids were over $25 billion in 2011 and continue to grow. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved omega-3 fatty acids for hypertriglyceridemia, and the European Medicines Agency has approved them as adjuvant treatment in post-MI patients. However, their use for CV-risk modification remains controversial.

The editorialists point out that the present study was likely underpowered to detect a significant benefit in CV outcomes because the researchers assumed a 25% reduction in the primary end point. The current study, they add, is just one of countless others that continue to test the link between supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids and CV risk. Given these and other results, patients should be informed of the uncertainty surrounding the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on heart health and instead encouraged to regularly consume whole fish.

“What is evident so far is that omega-3 supplementation with daily doses close to 1 g in patients with or without established CVD shows no clear, considerable benefit,” write Rizos and Ntzani. “Continuing to conduct more randomized, controlled trials seems unjustified.” The field, they add, would be better served by conducting a large meta-analysis or focusing on higher-risk populations, such as those with triglycerides greater than 200 mg/dL.

To heartwire , Bonds said her recommendations for patients would be to focus on consuming a heart-healthy diet that includes fish, which the editorialists agree with, given the epidemiologic evidence supporting whole-fish consumption.

Last October, an FDA advisory panel voted against approval of an expanded indication for a highly purified ethyl ester of EPA for use in combination with a statin in patients with mixed dyslipidemia and CHD or a CHD risk equivalent. Despite reducing lipid parameters, the panel was concerned about the lack of benefit on hard CV outcomes.