90% of breast cancer could likely be prevented if everyone did some of these 12 things


By Dr. Mercola

Breast cancer is probably one of the most feared diagnoses a woman can get. The mere mention of it conjures up images of death, despair, or at best, disfigurement.

According to breastcancer.org,1 one in eight women will develop invasive breast cancer in her lifetime, and nearly 40,000 women lose their lives to the disease each year.

With such odds stacked against you, what, if anything, can you do to prevent becoming a statistic? In truth, there are many measures you can take—each of which will help decrease your risk.

It’s important to realize that less than 10 percent of all breast cancer cases are thought to be related to genetic risk factors.2 The remainder—90 percent—appear to be triggered by environmental factors.

I strongly believe that cancer is preventable through appropriate lifestyle changes, such as cleaning up your diet, optimizing your vitamin D levels, exercising, and avoiding toxins from every source you can.

This means taking careful inventory of the household and personal care products you use, and the furnishings and other potentially toxic items you get into contact with on a daily basis. Toxic overexposure undoubtedly play a major role in cancer development, and recent studies are finally starting to shed light on the worst offenders.

Scientists Identify ‘Highest Priority’ Toxins for Breast Cancer Prevention

According to recent research published in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) journal, Environmental Health Perspectives,3 you can reduce your risk of breast cancer by avoiding certain chemicals found in common, everyday products. As reported by Rodale:4

“Because the study found that animal tests are able to predict likely human breast carcinogens, the new report could serve as a major step forward in breast cancer prevention, expanding the list of possible breast cancer triggers. That’s especially important because only about 10 percent of breast cancers are genetic in nature—scientists believe environment plays a huge role…

‘Every woman in America has been exposed to chemicals that may increase her risk of getting breast cancer. Unfortunately, the link between toxic chemicals and breast cancer has largely been ignored,’ says Julia Brody, PhD, study author and executive director at Silent Spring Institute. ‘Reducing chemical exposures could save many, many women’s lives.’”

In a previous study, the researchers had identified 216 chemicals that increase mammary gland tumors in rodents. In this paper, they narrowed the focus to 102 chemicals that large numbers of women are exposed to on a regular basis, through food, medications, air pollution, or consumer products.

They then prioritized the chemicals, and grouped them based on exposure, carcinogenic potential, and chemical structure. This sorting resulted in 17 chemical groups of related chemicals, which were flagged as “high priority” due to their ability to consistently produce mammary tumors in animal tests.

Top Offenders

Their list of cancer-causing chemical groups to avoid, and their most common sources of exposure, includes the following. Another 27 different carcinogens that do not fit into the chemical categories listed below are also considered high priority. These chemicals include certain ones found in pesticides, consumer products, and food.

Two examples of the latter are methyl eugenol, which is used in processed food as a natural and artificial flavoring, and nitrosamines in smoked meats. The researchers also list obesity and medical radiation as preventable risk factors, the latter of which would include unnecessary mammograms.

High Priority Chemicals to Avoid for Breast Cancer Prevention

Flame retardants: Flame retardant products, polyester resins, plastic polymers, and rigid polyurethane foams Acrylamide: Diet (especially starchy foods, such as French fries, cooked at high temperatures), tobacco smoke, and polyacrylamide gels in consumer products, such as diapers
Aromatic amines: Polyurethane, pesticides, Azo dyes, and many other products Benzene: Gasoline (riding in a car, pumping gasoline, and storing gasoline in a basement or attached garage), tobacco smoke, adhesive removers, paints, sealants, finishers, and engine fuel and oils
Halogenated organic solvents: Dry cleaning, hair spray propellant, soil fumigants, food processing, gasoline additives, and paint and spot removers Ethylene (EtO) and propylene oxide (PO): EtO is a gas used to sterilize medical equipment, food and spices, clothing, and musical instruments. Also found in tobacco smoke and auto exhaust. PO is a sterilant and fumigant. Also found in automotive and paint products
1,3-Butadiene: Cigarette smoke, automobile exhaust, gasoline fumes, and emissions from industrial facilities Heterocyclic amines: Meat cooked at high temperatures, and tobacco smoke
Endogenous and pharmaceutical hormones and other endocrine disrupting chemicals:Estrogens, progesterone, and DES, along with other hormones Non-hormonal pharmaceuticals that have hormonal activity: These include four chemotherapeutic agents, two veterinary drugs possibly present in food, the diuretic furosemide, the anti-fungal griseofulvin, and several anti-infective agents
MX: One of hundreds of genotoxic by-products of drinking water disinfection Perfluorooctanoic acid PFOA: Non-stick and stain-resistant coatings on rugs, furniture, clothes and cookware; fire-fighting applications, cosmetics, lubricants, paints, and adhesives
Nitro-PAHs: Air pollution, primarily from diesel exhaust PAHs: Tobacco smoke, air pollution, and charred foods
Ochratoxin A (a naturally occurring mycotoxin): Contaminated grain, nuts, and pork products Styrene: Food that has been in contact with polystyrene; consumer products and building materials, including polystyrene, carpets, adhesives, hobby and craft supplies, and home maintenance products

Flame Retardants Do FAR More Harm Than Good…

While it’s difficult to single out any particular chemical grouping as being “the worst,” fire retardants may fit the bill by the fact that they are used in so many furnishings, including your mattress, where you spend a significant portion of your life. Last year, I wrote about the deceptive campaigns that led to the proliferation of fire retardant chemicals. As reported in an investigative series “Playing With Fire” by the Chicago Tribune:5

“The average American baby is born with 10 fingers, 10 toes and the highest recorded levels of flame retardants among infants in the world. The toxic chemicals are present in nearly every home, packed into couches, chairs and many other products. Two powerful industries — Big Tobacco and chemical manufacturers — waged deceptive campaigns that led to the proliferation of these chemicals, which don’t even work as promised.”

An estimated 90 percent of Americans have flame-retardant chemicals in their bodies, and many studies have linked them to human health risks, including infertility, birth defects, lower IQ scores, behavioral problems in children, as well as liver, kidney, testicular, and breast cancers.

Flame-retardant chemicals belong to the same class of chemicals as DDT and PCBs (organohalogens), and like the former, they, too, build up in the environment. These chemicals also react with other toxins as they burn to produce cancer-causing dioxins and furans. The chemical industry claims that fire-retardant furniture increases escape time in a fire by 15-fold.

In reality, this claim came from a study using powerful, NASA-style flame retardants, which provided an extra 15 seconds of escape time. But this is not the same type of chemical used in most furniture, and government and independent studies show that the most widely used flame-retardant chemicals provide no benefit for people while increasing the amounts of toxic chemicals in smoke.

A flame-retardant chemical known as chlorinated tris (TDCPP) was removed from children’s pajamas in the 1970s amid concerns that it may cause cancer, but now it’s a ubiquitous addition to couch cushions across the United States. As for your mattress, I recommend getting one that’s either made of 100% wool or Kevlar, both of which are natural flame retardant without added chemicals.

Antiperspirants and Cosmetics—Other Major Culprits

Parabens are chemicals that serve as preservatives in antiperspirants and many cosmetics, as well as sun lotions. Previous studies have shown that all parabens have estrogenic activity in human breast cancer cells. Research published in 20126 found one or more paraben esters in 99 percent of the 160 tissue samples collected from 40 mastectomies. The consistent presence of parabens in cancerous human breast tissue suggests antiperspirants and other cosmetics may also increase your risk of breast cancer.

While antiperspirants are a common source of parabens, the authors note that the source of the parabens cannot be established and that seven of the 40 patients reportedly never used deodorants or antiperspirants in their lifetime. What this tells us is that parabens, regardless of the source, can bioaccumulate in breast tissue. And the sources are many. Parabens can be found in a wide variety of personal care products, cosmetics, as well as drugs. That said, it appears the dermal route is the most significant form of exposure. Another component of antiperspirants, aluminum chloride, has been found to act similarly to the way oncogenes work to provide molecular transformations in cancer cells.

Other Breast Cancer Prevention Strategies

In the largest review of research into lifestyle and breast cancer, the American Institute of Cancer Research estimated that about 40 percent of US breast cancer cases could be prevented if people made wiser lifestyle choices. I believe these are low-ball estimates. More than likely, 75 percent to 90 percent of breast cancers could be avoided by strictly applying the lifestyle modifications recommended below.

Key Dietary Guidelines

Avoid sugar, especially fructose. Reduce or eliminate processed foods, sugar/fructose, and grain-based foods from your diet. All forms of sugar are detrimental to health in general and promote cancer. Fructose, however, is clearly one of the most harmful. As a general guideline, limit your total fructose intake to less than 25 grams daily. If you have cancer or are insulin resistant, you would be wise to restrict it to 15 grams or less.
Limit protein and increase healthy fat: Consider reducing your protein levels to one gram per kilogram of lean body weight. It would be unusual for most adults to need more than 100 grams of protein and most likely close to half of that amount. Replace the eliminated protein and carbs with high-quality fats, such as organic eggs from pastured hens, high-quality meats, avocados, and coconut oil. There’s compelling evidence that a ketogenic diet helps prevent and treat many forms of cancer.
Get plenty of natural vitamin A. There is evidence that vitamin A plays a role in helping prevent breast cancer.7 It’s best to obtain it from vitamin A-rich foods, rather than a supplement. Your best sources are organic egg yolks, raw butter, raw whole milk, and beef or chicken liver. However, beware of supplementing as there’s some evidence that excessive vitamin A can negate the benefits of vitamin D. Since appropriate vitamin D levels are crucial for your health in general, not to mention cancer prevention, this means that it’s essential to have the proper ratio of vitamin D to vitamin A in your body.Ideally, you’ll want to provide all the vitamin A and vitamin D substrate your body needs in such a way that your body can regulate both systems naturally. This is best done by eating colorful vegetables (for vitamin A) and by exposing your skin to safe amounts of sunshine every day (for vitamin D).
Get sufficient amounts of iodine. Iodine is an essential trace element required for the synthesis of hormones, and the lack of it can also cause or contribute to the development of a number of health problems, including breast cancer. This is because your breasts absorb and use a lot of iodine, which they need for proper cellular function. Iodine deficiency or insufficiency in any of tissue will lead to dysfunction of that tissue, and tumors are one possibility.However, there’s significant controversy over the appropriate dosage, so you need to use caution here. There’s evidence indicating that taking mega-doses, in the tens of milligram range may be counterproductive. One recent study suggests it might not be wise to get more than about 800 mcg of iodine per day, and supplementing with as much as 12-13 mg (12,000-13,000 mcgs) could potentially have some adverse health effects.8
Nourish your gut: Optimizing your gut flora will reduce inflammation and strengthen your immune response. Researchers have found a microbe-dependent mechanism through which some cancers mount an inflammatory response that fuels their development and growth. They suggest that inhibiting inflammatory cytokines might slow cancer progression and improve the response to chemotherapy. Adding naturally fermented food to your daily diet is an easy way to prevent cancer or speed recovery. You can always add a high-quality probiotic supplement as well, but naturally fermented foods are the best.
Avoid GMOs: Avoid genetically engineered foods as they are typically treated with herbicides such as Roundup (glyphosate), which are likely to be carcinogenic. A French research team that has extensively studied Roundup concluded it’s toxic to human cells, and likely carcinogenic to humans. Choose fresh, organic, preferably locally growth foods.
Avoid charring your meats. Charcoal or flame broiled meat is linked with increased breast cancer risk. Acrylamide—a carcinogen created when starchy foods are baked, roasted, or fried—has been found to increase breast cancer risk as well.
Avoid unfermented soy products. Unfermented soy is high in plant estrogens, or phytoestrogens, also known as isoflavones. In some studies, soy appears to work in concert with human estrogen to increase breast cell proliferation, which increases the chances for mutations and cancerous cells.
Drink a quart of organic green vegetable juice daily. Please review my juicing instructions for more detailed information.
Add cancer-fighting whole foods, herbs, and spices to your diet, such as broccoli. To learn more about how anti-angiogenetic foods fight cancer, please see our previous article: “Dramatically Effective New Natural Way to Starve Cancer and Obesity.”
Curcumin. This is the active ingredient in turmeric and in high concentrations can be very useful in the treatment of breast cancer. It shows immense therapeutic potential in preventing breast cancer metastasis.9 To learn more about its use for the prevention of cancer, please see my interview with Dr. William LaValley.
Avoid drinking alcohol, or at least limit your alcoholic drinks to one per day.

 

Other Lifestyle Strategies for the Prevention of Breast Cancer

Optimize your vitamin D. Vitamin D influences virtually every cell in your body and is one of nature’s most potent cancer fighters. There are well over 800 references in the medical literature showing vitamin Ds effectiveness against cancerVitamin D is actually able to enter cancer cells and trigger apoptosis (cell death). Research has shown vitamin D kills cancer cells as effectively as the toxic breast cancer drug Tamoxifen, without any of the detrimental side effects and at a tiny fraction of the cost. Vitamin D works synergistically with every cancer treatment I’m aware of, with no adverse effects.According to Carole Baggerly, founder of GrassrootsHealth, as much as 90 percent of ordinary breast cancer may in fact be related to vitamin D deficiency. Most recently, a meta-analysis of five studies published in the March 2014 issue of Anticancer Research10 found that patients diagnosed with breast cancer who had high vitamin D levels were twice as likely to survive compared to women with low levels.11, 12, 13 The high serum group had an average vitamin D level of 30 nanograms per milliliter (ng/ml). Women in the low serum group averaged 17 ng/ml, which is the average vitamin D level found in American breast cancer patients.14

The researchers urge physicians to make vitamin D monitoring and optimization part of standard breast cancer care. According to the featured findings, you need at least 30 ng/ml of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) to prevent cancer from spreading. That said, other research suggests you’d be better off with levels as high as 80 ng/ml. One 2011 study15, 16 found that a vitamin D level of 50 ng/ml is associated with a 50 percent lower risk of breast cancer.

Maintain a healthy body weight. This will come naturally when you begin eating right for your nutritional type and exercising. It’s important to lose excess body fat because fat produces estrogen, which can fuel breast cancer.
Improve your insulin/leptin receptor sensitivity. The best way to do this is by avoiding sugar and grains and making sure you are exercising regularly, ideally by incorporating the principles of Peak Fitness.
Avoid xenoestrogens. Xenoestrogens are synthetic chemicals that mimic natural estrogens. They have been linked to a wide range of human health effects, including reduced sperm counts in men and increased risk of breast cancer in women. There are a large number of xenoestrogens, such as bovine growth hormones in commercial dairy, plastics like bisphenol A (BPA), phthalates and parabens in personal care products, and chemicals used in non-stick materials, just to name a few.
Breastfeed exclusively for up to six months. Research shows this will reduce your breast cancer risk.17
Avoid wearing underwire bras. There is a good deal of data that metal underwire bras increase your breast cancer risk.
Avoid electromagnetic fields as much as possible. Limit your exposure and protect yourself from radiation produced by cell phones, towers, base stations, and Wi-Fi stations, as well as minimizing your exposure from radiation-based medical scans, including dental x-rays, CT scans, and mammograms. Items such as electric blankets can be particularly troublesome and increase your cancer risk.
Get enough sleep: Make sure you are getting enough restorative sleep. Poor sleep can interfere with your melatonin production, which is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance and weight gain, both of which contribute to cancer’s virility.
Employ effective stress management tools: Stress from all causes is a major contributor to disease. Even the CDC states that 85 percent of disease is driven by emotional factors. It is likely that stress and unresolved emotional issues may be more important than the physical ones, so make sure this is addressed. My favorite tool for resolving emotional challenges is Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT).

Taking Control of Your Lifestyle Can Significantly Reduce Your Odds of Cancer

Preventing breast cancer is far more important and powerful than simply trying to detect it, and avoiding chemical hazards such as those reviewed above are a big part of any cancer prevention strategy. The question is, how do you avoid them when there are so many? My answer is to clean up your life to where your food, water, clothes, furnishings, and other products you come into regular contact with are as close to natural and unprocessed as possible.

This means seeking out organically-produced items—be it a piece of food, clothing, bed linens, laundry detergent, or shampoo. All of it counts, as it’s the accumulated exposure from all these varied sources that end up wreaking havoc. In the case of household cleansers and personal care items, you can inexpensively replace most or all of them with just a few simple, non-toxic ingredients. Coconut oil, for example, has countless uses around the house. Ditto for baking soda and vinegar. Many of the recommendations listed above will also automatically reduce your exposure to cancer-causing toxins.

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NIH Officially Lifts Ban on Research Studying Germs with Pandemic Potential


PANDEMIC POTENTIAL

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has lifted a three-year freeze in federal funding for research projects pertaining to germs that can cause pandemics. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) released a new framework dictating how research that could create newer and deadlier germs with pandemic potential is funded.

“We have a responsibility to ensure that research with infectious agents is conducted responsibly, and that we consider the potential biosafety and biosecurity risks associated with such research,” wrote NIH director Francis S. Collins in a statement published on the organization’s website. “I am confident that the thoughtful review process laid out by the HHS P3CO Framework will help to facilitate the safe, secure, and responsible conduct of this type of research in a manner that maximizes the benefits to public health.

Pandemics are disease epidemics that occur worldwide and affect a large number of people, like the Spanish Flu in 1918 that killed nearly 50 million people. Typically, scientists manipulate existing pathogens – making them deadlier or easier to pass on – to better understand them and develop countermeasures against those that may threaten public health.

But the funding ban was put in place after a string of incidents involving avian flu and anthrax that raised concerns about the consequences of an accident occurring in a lab. Any research involving influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), or Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) viruses was blocked.

The issue has become a point of contention among members of the scientific community. While some argue that this work is an essential component of preparing for future pandemics, others maintain that the risks are too great.

“The public and regulators are looking for science-based advice, but, in this case, there is still considerable disagreement within the scientific community,” explained Daniel Rozell, a research assistant professor in the department of technology and society at Stony Brook University, in an email correspondence with Futurism.

“Furthermore, there is some unavoidable bias in the advice. Some of the virologists most acquainted with the specifics of the research have careers that depend on its continuance,” he said. “While they may have the best of intentions, there is still a tendency to underestimate familiar risks and to be partial towards one’s own efforts.”

RISK AND REWARD

When funding was paused in 2014, the NIH Office of Science Policy was tasked with carrying out a “comprehensive, sound, and credible” risk-benefit analysis to inform how the situation should be handled. Even this analysis proved contentious. However, risk assessments don’t just serve to determine whether or not the research can be carried out safely – they can establish best practices for doing so.

“A risk-benefit assessment is still a useful exercise because it can be used for risk exploration,” said Rozell. “When researchers are cognizant of the most likely hazards arising from a line of research, they can take steps to redesign the research to achieve the same outcome without the potential for unintended consequences.”

Research into pandemic pathogens could play a vital role in ensuring that we can respond appropriately to an outbreak – but it’s crucial that such research is carried out in such a way that it doesn’t end up causing the very situation it’s meant to address.

Research proving cannabis kills cancer cells safely has been suppressed since 1974


Watch: Incredible Microscopic Footage Of Cannabis Oil Eliminating Cancer Cells

 Remember the hassles Rick Simpson went through in his Canadian Nova Scotia town trying to bring the cannabis oil cures he and others used to cure themselves of various cancers? Rick assumed the world was ready for him to share the good news from his and his townspeople’s experiences.

After several attempts to get cannabis oil allowed through the court system with many testimonials from those who had been helped, Rick realized this important harsh reality: The cancer industry does not want a cure for cancer.

cancerpot

He was growing the hemp on his land, making the cannabis oil, and sharing it without cost to those who had needed it after curing his skin cancer and a fiercely intense neurological post concussion disorder from a head injury that pharmaceuticals only exacerbated. The townspeople were cured of several disorders, including lung cancer. All of them had been failed by mainstream medicine.

Rick removed himself from Canada and exiled himself to Amsterdam, Netherlands, at first. Now he tours the world spreading the wonders of cannabis healing to whomever is willing to listen.

You can view his full length documentary. URL:https://youtu.be/YuQVeeZki_E

 The Constantly Disappearing Cannabis Research from 1974

In 1974, the NIH (National Institutes of Health) funded the Medical College of Virginia to prove that cannabis hampers the immune system and destroys brain cells. This was research ammunition that the DEA (Drug Enforcement Agency), initiated under the Nixon administration to further justify throwing pot smokers into prison.

Unfortunately for the DEA and the war on drugs, the researchers came upon some interesting results with their lab rats. They discovered that cancer cells were getting destroyed, not healthy cells. The immune systems were enhanced, not impeded. Well, that was the end of that research.

Their funding was canceled at the behest of the DEA, and the research documents were destroyed. In 1976, president Gerald Ford halted all research on cannabis except for Big Pharma’s attempts at creating synthetic THC. In 1983, other college research centers who were privy to copies of the Virginia research documents were urged by the Reagan administration to destroy them. The memory hole mission for cannabis curing cancer was complete, almost.

The Virginia medical college applied for research grants for further inquiry into cannabis’ healing potentials in 1996 and 2006, both denied. Their 1974 studies were ignored by the  mainstream media except for one short mention of it in the Local Section of the Washington Post.

The documents went into such a memory hole that researchers in Madrid, Spain’s 2000 huge breakthrough study of cannabis TCH cannabinoid effects on cancer couldn’t get them for their paper. Madrid’s lead researcher, Dr. Manual Guzman commented: “I am aware of the existence of that research. In fact I have attempted many times to obtain the journal article on the original investigation by these people, but it has proven impossible.”

 This statement was made when an independent investigative journalist got document copies from a California university and faxed them over. By then, the Madrid study was completed.

But even the Madrid breakthrough research on rats was ignored by virtually all of our mainstream media. Not only did this study prove efficacy on reducing brain cancer tumors in rats, they also tested healthy rats with THC to see if there were any harmful effects. They found no harmful effects on normal brain tissues.

Currently, two large hospitals in Israel, Sheba and Abarbanel, are doing successful clinical studies and treatments on humans with cannabis for several maladies, funded by the Israeli government. But our mainstream media can’t touch that.

Rick Simpson got more favorably objective TV media coverage in Canada when he was trying to bring cannabis curing cancer to the attention of everyone in circa 1999. By the way, he wasn’t trying to “cash in” with any patents.

Anecdotal Testimonies and Independent Studies Confirm Cannabis Cancer Efficacy and Safety

Anyone who views alternative health information on the internet isn’t blocked by mainstream media’s lack of exposure. There have been many anecdotal recoveries from terminal cancer recorded by people as old as 80. Kudos to Dr. Sanjay Gupta of CNN for doing a public 180 reversal on his previous anti-cannabis stance while covering cannabis healing among extremely epileptic children.

Obviously, cannabis is both effective and safe. It induces apoptosis on tumor cancer cells. Apoptosis is cellular programmed cell death (PCD) that’s part of normal cells die-off and replacement from new cells. But cancer tumor cells don’t do apoptosis. They just keep on going and expanding. Cannabinoids also curb angiogenis, which tumors use to develop blood vessels that supply glucose for their metabolism.

So cannabis induces apoptosis to kill cancer cells and inhibits angiogenis to cut off their food supplies.And as the Madrid study proved and anyone who has used or uses cannabis can testify, healthy cells are not harmed. That’s what standard oncology’s treatments do.

It’s easily arguable that many of the cancer deaths reported are actually from the chemo and radiation treatments. But the Medical Mafia family doesn’t say that. They say death from cancer. Meanwhile fund raisers keep duping suckers into contributing money, time, and energy to find that cure for cancer.

Cannabis caveats: Smoking is the least effective for curing. Using a vaporizer or “vaping” is better. Ingesting cannabis oils or pastes is the best approach. But – ignoring lifestyle and diet habit changes can reverse what’s gained from any alternative cancer treatments.

 Here’s an example of a baby who was cured of brain cancer without being subjected to the cruelties of surgery, radiation, or brain cancer. Instead, he was given cannabis oil via his pacifier. The baby was completely cured within eight months. After two months of observed progress, the pediatric oncologist who had given the diagnosis called off any future treatments that would cause more damage, calling him a miracle baby.
Source:healthy-holistic-living.com

New Guidelines Tell Parents When To Introduce Babies To Peanut Products 


The National Institutes of Health has announced new guidelines for when parents should begin introducing peanut-containing foods into the diets of infants at risk for food allergies.

After multiple recent studies showing that feeding peanut-containing foods to infants can reduce the risk of peanut allergies, there are new federal guidelines for parents about when to start feeding their infants such foods.

The National Institutes of Health announced Thursday that a panel of allergy experts recommends that parents introduce peanut-containing foods into the diets of babies as young as 4 to 6 months.

As the NIH summary for parents and caregivers states, introducing babies with severe eczema or egg allergy — conditions that increase the risk of peanut allergy — to foods containing peanuts at that age can reduce the risk of developing peanut allergy. However, the guidelines spell out that these infants should be evaluated by an allergy specialist before their parents or caregivers introduce them to peanuts.

As NPR’s Allison Aubrey reports, “parents of infants used to be told to hold off on introducing peanut-containing foods, sometimes until the toddler years, especially if there was a family history of allergies.”

Experts thought this could reduce the chances of developing an allergy.

But over the past few years, Allison says, several large studies such as this one and this one “have found that babies at high risk for becoming allergic to peanuts are less likely to develop the allergy if they are regularly fed peanut-containing foods in the first year of life.”

As NPR’s Patti Neighmond has reported:

“The guidelines are largely based on dramatic findings from a large study published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 2015. Researchers found that babies at high risk of developing a peanut allergy who were fed the equivalent of about 4 heaping teaspoons of peanut butter each week, starting at the age of 4 to 11 months, were about 80 percent less likely to develop an allergy to the legume by age 5 than similar kids who avoided peanuts. The benefit held up even after the children stopped getting the puree, a follow-up study found.

“Allergic reactions to peanuts can range from hives or rashes to, in the most extreme cases, trouble breathing and even death.”

 The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases has published the full text of the guidelines for the prevention of peanut allergies, as well as summaries for doctors and parents, on its website.
 

Infants and small children should never be given whole peanuts due to the risk of choking, the NIH cautions. A video aimed at parents warns that even undiluted peanut butter can be dangerous for infants because it is thick and sticky.

The American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology video, which features Northwestern University pediatrician Ruchi S. Gupta, recommends adding hot water to 2 teaspoons of peanut butter to make a warm puree. Feed a little bit of the puree to the child, and then monitor for about 10 minutes to make sure there is no reaction such as hives, rash or trouble breathing before continuing to feed the child peanut-containing foods.

Drinking Alcohol While Smoking Weed Increases The High, Makes You A Greater Threat


drink and smoke

Any dose of alcohol causes the THC levels in a weed smoker’s bloodstream to rise, a new study finds.Kevin Galens, CC BY-SA 2.0

The East Coast calls it getting “twisted.” The West Coast calls it getting “crossfaded.” Scientists just call it raising your odds ratio for life-threatening injury. A new study finds consuming any dose of alcohol after using cannabis increases the concentration of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive ingredient found in weed, in the user’s blood.

Marijuana use has seen unprecedented growth in the U.S. in the last decade, as several states have decriminalized public use and many more have legalized it for the treatment of chronic conditions related to pain and inflammation. However, the trend still draws criticisms for the public health effects that, by and large, are still unknown.

Accidents are the fifth-leading cause of death in the U.S., and motor vehicles account for more than half of those, according to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Scientists, meanwhile, have come to agree that while alcohol and marijuana each raise a driver’s risk for injury independently, doing both is even worse. The latest study may help to explain why.

Dr. Marilyn Huestis, senior investigator at the National Institutes of Health, led a team of researchers in finding out how 19 people reacted to either just alcohol, just cannabis, or a combination of both or neither, which they measured with placebos and at different dosages. They found adding any dose of alcohol increased the amount of THC in the participants’ blood significantly, from a low dose of 32.7 micrograms per liter (µg/L) and high dose of 42.2 µg/L to 35.3 and 67.5 µg/L, respectively.

“The significantly higher blood THC … values with alcohol possibly explain increased performance impairment observed from cannabis-alcohol combinations,” the authors concluded in their report.

The data on marijuana-related car accidents are unfortunately fuzzy. Some evidence suggests the drug is involved in just six percent of cases, while other data suggest the rate could be as high as 32 percent. On the one hand, scientists acknowledge that frequent marijuana users, through practice or simply poor judgment, actually drive more cautiously than sober drivers. But alcohol ruins this cautiousness. Where marijuana gets drivers paranoid about their recklessness, alcohol makes them feel invincible.

Combining the two is a point of study Huestis and her team argue is still up for grabs. “Our results will help facilitate forensic interpretation and inform the debate on drugged driving legislation,” they wrote. With the science of intoxication at hand, experts will be able to better analyze the drug levels in a driver’s blood to help them figure out what went wrong.

On a wider scale, the data could bolster what is otherwise middling information on alcohol’s relationship to a drug that is commonly arriving as a package deal. With falling costs to buy cannabis, increasing potency, and relaxing attitudes, scientists hope their rush to gather important data can outpace the destructive, albeit innocent, decision to indulge.

Source: Harman R, Brown T, Milavet G, et al. Controlled Cannabis Vaporizer Administration: Blood and Plasma Cannabinoids with and without Alcohol. Clinical Chemistry. 2015.

‘Robot Mouse’ Marks New Step Forward in Neuroscience


The mouse walked, the mouse stopped; the mouse ignored a bowl of food, then scampered back and gobbled it up, and it was all controlled by neuroscientists, researchers reported on Thursday.

The study, describing a way to manipulate a lab animal’s brain circuitry accurately enough to turn behaviors both on and off, is the first to be published under President Barack Obama’s 2013 BRAIN Initiative, which aims to advance neuroscience and develop therapies for brain disorders.

The point of the remote-control mouse is not to create an army of robo-rodents. Instead, neuroscientists hope to perfect a technique for identifying brain wiring underlying any behavior, and control that behavior by activating and deactivating neurons.

If scientists are able do that for the circuitry involved in psychiatric or neurological disorders, it may lead to therapies. That approach reflects a shift away from linking such illnesses to “chemical imbalances” in the brain, instead tracing them to miswiring and misfiring in neuronal circuits.

“This tool sharpens the cutting edge of research aimed at improving our understanding of brain circuit disorders, such as schizophrenia and addictive behaviors,” said Dr. Francis Collins, director of the National Institutes of Health, which funded the $1 million study.

The technique used to control neurons is called DREADDs (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs).

Brain neurons are genetically engineered to produce a custom-made — “designer” — receptor. When the receptor gathers in a manmade molecule that fits like a key in a lock, the neuron is activated.

Because the receptor does not respond to other molecules, including natural ones in the brain, the only way to activate the neurons is via the manmade one. DREADDs allow scientists to manipulate neurons without implanting anything in the brain.

DREADDs, invented about a decade ago, had been used to turn neurons on or off, but not both. DREADDs 2.0 are the first to do that, scientists led by Bryan Roth of the University of North Carolina reported April 30 in the journal Neuron.

Targeting hunger-promoting neurons, the scientists made mice ignore food bowls or dive into them. Targeting movement neurons, they made mice scamper or stop.

In a competing remote-control technique called optogenetics, engineered neurons are activated upon receiving a pulse of light. That turns them on and off more quickly than with DREADDs, but the hardware required for delivering light to a spot in the brain is invasive and cumbersome.

Autoimmunity and Stillbirths is there a Connection?


Holy Hormones Journal:  Yes, this is is good news… however, that we have arrived at this point is not good news. If a mother is exposed to infectious bacteria and her body cannot contend with it – there is an immunity issue that needs to be addressed as prevention – not intervention.

Named a major women’s health issue by the Office of Research on Women’s Health at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), autoimmunity is the underlying cause of more than 100 serious, chronic illnesses. OF the 50 million Americans living and coping with autoimmune disease (AD), more than 75 percent of them are women. ~ Autoimmune Disease in Women

We now have a generation of girls whose immunity has been severely compromised by the HPV vaccine, Gardasil. Are we going to see more stillbirths and

Getty Images/DeAgostini

deaths? Fetal abnormalities?

There is no question that our immunity is at risk.  Women make up the majority of those with compromised immune systems – because they are unaware that their immunity is at its lowest point during theparamenstrum (premenstrual and menstrual phase of their cycle). By not knowing this they further compromise their immunity by their behaviors, lifestyle, scheduling surgeries, including dental work – exposure to toxins, diet – and not allowing their body to recoup and regenerate. Months and years of pretending that we can move forward at the same pace every single day of the month places enormous pressure on every system in the body.

Add synthetic hormones into the mix – and immunity is even more compromised.

Add a diet devoid of any nutritional value and immunity does not have a chance to protect us from the bacteria, viruses and toxins in our environment. This is not rocket science. This is wisdom.

We have to change this pattern. We have to rebuild our immunity if we want our babies to thrive – and if we want to enjoy motherhood.

If a woman’s body attacks the fetus… that is a red flag for for a severe imbalance – not just for the woman – but it is also a social indicator of the damage that has been done to the human microbiome.

Preventing stillbirths: Therapy may protect fetus from mother’s immune system

12 Foods To Eat When You’re Totally Stressed Out


When work deadlines begin piling up and your social calendar is booked, the last thing you want to hear is to steer clear of the vending machine. Who has time for healthy eating? But when it comes to combating stress levels, what you eat may actually help relieve your tension. Indeed, some foods may help stabilize blood sugar or, better yet, your emotional response. Here, 12 foods to reach for when you’ve just about had enough.

AVOCADO

Green leafy vegetables.
leafy vegetables

It’s tempting to reach for a cheeseburger when stressed, but go green at lunch instead. “Green leafy vegetables like spinach contain folate, which produces dopamine, a pleasure-inducing brain chemical, helping you keep calm,” says Heather Mangieri, RDN, a spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. A 2012 study in the Journal of Affective Disorders of 2,800 middle-aged and elderly people and found those who consumed the most folate had a lower risk of depression symptoms than those who took in the least. And, a 2013 study from the University of Otago found that college students tended to feel calmer, happier and more energetic on days they ate more fruits and veggies. It can be hard to tell which came first — upbeat thoughts or healthy eating — but the researchers found that healthy eating seemed to predict a positive mood the next day.

Turkey breast.
You’ve probably heard that the tryptophan in turkey is to blame for that food coma on Thanksgiving. The amino acid, found in protein-containing foods, helps produce serotonin, “the chemical that regulates hunger and feelings of happiness and well-being,” Mangieri says. On its own, tryptophan may have a calming effect. In a 2006 study published in the Journal of Psychiatry Neuroscience, men and women who were argumentative (based on personality tests) took either tryptophan supplements or a placebo for 15 days. Those who took tryptophan were perceived as more agreeable by their study partners at the end of the two weeks compared with when they didn’t take it. (The study was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.) Other foods high in tryptophan include nuts, seeds, tofu, fish, lentils, oats, beans and eggs.

Oatmeal.
If you’re already a carb lover, it’s likely that nothing can come between you and a doughnut when stress hits. First rule of thumb: Don’t completely deny the craving. According to MIT research, carbohydrates can help the brain make serotonin, the same substance regulated by antidepressants. But instead of reaching for that sugary bear claw, go for complex carbs. “Stress can cause your blood sugar to rise, Mangieri says, “so a complex carb like oatmeal won’t contribute to your already potential spike in blood glucose.”

Yogurt.
yogurt

As bizarre as it may sound, the bacteria in your gut might be contributing to stress. Research has shown that the brain signals to the gut, which is why stress can inflame gastrointestinal symptoms; communication may flow the other way too, from gut to brain. A 2013 UCLA study among 36 healthy women revealed that consuming probiotics in yogurt reduced brain activity in areas that handle emotion, including stress compared to people who consumed yogurt without probiotics or no yogurt at all. This study was small so more research is needed to confirm the results—but considering yogurt is full of calcium and protein in addition to probiotics, you really can’t go wrong by adding more of it to your diet.

Salmon.
When you’re stressed, it can ratchet up anxiety hormones, such as adrenaline and cortisol. “The omega-3 fatty acids in salmon have anti-inflammatory properties that may help counteract the negative effects of stress hormones,” says Lisa Cimperman, RD, of the University Hospitals Case Medical Center and a spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. In a study funded by the National Institutes of Health, Oregon State University medical students who took omega-3 supplements had a 20% reduction in anxiety compared to the group given placebo pills. One 3-ounce serving of cooked wild salmon can have more than 2,000 milligrams of omega-3s, double the daily intake recommended by the American Heart Association for people with heart disease.

Blueberries.
“When you’re stressed, there’s a battle being fought inside you,” Mangieri says. “The antioxidants and phytonutrients found in berries fight in your defense, helping improve your body’s response to stress and fight stress-related free radicals.” Research has also shown that blueberry eaters experience a boost in natural killer cells, “a type of white blood cell that plays a vital role in immunity, critical for countering stress,” says Cynthia Sass, MPH, RD, Health’s contributing nutrition editor.

Pistachios.
pistachios

When you have an ongoing loop of negative thoughts playing in your mind, doing something repetitive with your hands may help silence your inner monologue. Think knitting or kneading bread—or even shelling nuts like pistachios or peanuts. The rhythmic moves will help you relax. Plus, the added step of cracking open a shell slows down your eating, making pistachios a diet-friendly snack. What’s more, pistachios have heart-health benefits. “Eating pistachios may reduce acute stress by lowering blood pressure and heart rate,” Mangieri says. “The nuts contain key phytonutrients that may provide antioxidant support for cardiovascular health.”

Dark chocolate.
Calling all chocoholics: a regular healthy indulgence (just a bite, not a whole bar!) of dark chocolate might have the power to regulate your stress levels. “Research has shown that it can reduce your stress hormones, including cortisol,” Sass says. “Also, the antioxidants in cocoa trigger the walls of your blood vessels to relax, lowering blood pressure and improving circulation. And finally, dark chocolate contains unique natural substances that create a sense of euphoria similar to the feeling of being in love!” Go for varieties that contain at least 70% cocoa.

Milk.
Fortified milk is an excellent source of vitamin D, a nutrient that might boost happiness. A 50-year-long study by London’s UCL Institute of Child Health found an association between reduced levels of vitamin D and an increased risk of panic and depression among 5,966 men and women. People who had sufficient vitamin D levels had a reduced risk of panic disorders compared to subjects with the lowest levels of vitamin D. Other foods high in vitamin D include salmon, egg yolks and fortified cereal.

Seeds.
pumpkin seeds

Flaxseed, pumpkin seeds and sunflower seeds are all great sources of magnesium (as are leafy greens, yogurt, nuts and fish). Loading up on the mineral may help regulate emotions. “Magnesium has been shown to help alleviate depression, fatigue and irritability,” Sass says. “Bonus: When you’re feeling especially irritable during that time of the month, the mineral also helps to fight PMS symptoms, including cramps and water retention.”

Avocado.
You can’t just reach for slice after slice of avocado toast during crunch time if you don’t want to gain weight, but this superfruit might help shut down stress-eating by filling your belly and making you feel more satisfied. In a 2014 study by Loma Linda University (which, full disclosure, was sponsored by the Hass Avocado Board), researchers had participants add half an avocado to their lunches, which reduced their desire to eat more by 40% for the three hours following the midday meal. That full feeling will make you less inclined to reach for unhealthy snacks when stress kicks in.

Cashews.
One ounce of the buttery nut packs 11% of the daily recommended value of zinc, an essential mineral that may help reduce anxiety. When researchers gave zinc supplements to people who were diagnosed with both anxiety symptoms (irritability, lack of ability to concentrate) and deficient zinc levels over a course of eight weeks, the patients saw a 31% decrease in anxiety, according to Nutrition and Metabolic Insights. This is likely because zinc affects the levels of a nerve chemical that influences mood. If you’re already getting enough zinc, then it may not help your mood to chow down on cashews (or other zinc-rich foods like oysters, beef, chicken and yogurt). But, cashews are also rich in omega-3s and protein, so they’re a smart snack no matter what.

World’s fastest 2-D camera, 100 billion frames per second, may enable new scientific discoveries


A team of biomedical engineers has developed the world’s fastest receive-only 2-D camera, a device that can capture events up to 100 billion frames per second.
Photographers have been pursuing the capture of transient scenes at a high imaging speed for centuries. Now, Washington University engineers have developed the world’s fastest receive-only 2-D camera that can capture events up to 100 billion frames per second. This image is also the cover illustration of the Dec. 4, 2014, issue of Nature, in which Wang’s research appears.

A team of biomedical engineers at Washington University in St. Louis, led by Lihong Wang, PhD, the Gene K. Beare Distinguished Professor of Biomedical Engineering, has developed the world’s fastest receive-only 2-D camera, a device that can capture events up to 100 billion frames per second.

That’s orders of magnitude faster than any current receive-only ultrafast imaging techniques, which are limited by on-chip storage and electronic readout speed to operations of about 10 million frames per second.

Using the Washington University technique, called compressed ultrafast photography (CUP), Wang and his colleagues have made movies of the images they took with single laser shots of four physical phenomena: laser pulse reflection, refraction, faster-than light propagation of what is called non-information, and photon racing in two media. While it’s no day at the races, the images are entertaining, awe-inspiring and represent the opening of new vistas of scientific exploration.

The research appears in the Dec. 4, 2014, issue of Nature.

“For the first time, humans can see light pulses on the fly,” Wang says. “Because this technique advances the imaging frame rate by orders of magnitude, we now enter a new regime to open up new visions. Each new technique, especially one of a quantum leap forward, is always followed a number of new discoveries. It’s our hope that CUP will enable new discoveries in science — ones that we can’t even anticipate yet.”

This camera doesn’t look like a Kodak or Cannon; rather, it is a series of devices envisioned to work with high-powered microscopes and telescopes to capture dynamic natural and physical phenomena. Once the raw data are acquired, the actual images are formed on a personal computer; the technology is known as computational imaging.

The development of the technology was funded by two grants from the National Institutes of Health that support pioneering and potentially transformative approaches to major challenges in biomedical research.

“This is an exciting advance and the type of groundbreaking work that these high-risk NIH awards are designed to support,” said Richard Conroy, PhD, program director of optical imaging at the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, part of the NIH. “These ultrafast cameras have the potential to greatly enhance our understanding of very fast biological interactions and chemical processes and allow us to build better models of complex, dynamical systems.”

An immediate application is in biomedicine. One of the movies shows a green excitation light pulsing toward fluorescent molecules on the right where the green converts to red, which is the fluorescence. By tracking this, the researchers can get a single shot assessment of the fluorescence lifetime, which can be used to detect diseases or reflect cellular environmental conditions like pH or oxygen pressure.

Wang envisions applications in astronomy and forensics, where the advanced imaging frame rate could analyze the temporal activities of a supernova that occurred light years away, or track and predict the movements of thousands of potentially hazardous pieces of “space junk,” refuse of old satellites and jettisoned space craft hurtling about at high speed in outer space. In forensics, CUP might be used in reproducing bullet pathways, which could once again open up the Kennedy assassination conspiracy theories and revive a more accurate analysis of the strange physics of the “magic bullet.”

Wang and his collaborators essentially added components and used algorithms to complement an existing technology known as a streak camera, which measures the intensity variation in a pulse of light with time. While a streak camera is fast, it gives only a one-dimensional view, which “is not intuitive — much analogous to watching a horse race through a distant vertical slit,” Wang said. “We expanded the view into 2-D space, more like what we see in the real world.”

CUP photographs an object with a specialty camera lens, which takes the photons from the object on a journey through a tube-like structure to a marvelous tiny apparatus called a digital micromirror device (DMD), smaller than a dime though hosting about 1 million micromirrors, each one just seven by seven microns squared. There, micromirrors are used to encode the image, then reflect the photons to a beam splitter which shoots the photons to the widened slit of a streak camera. The photons are converted to electrons, which are then sheared with the use of two electrodes, converting time to space. The electrodes apply a voltage that ramps from high to low, so the electrons will arrive at different times and land at different vertical positions. An instrument called a charge-coupled device (CCD) stores all the raw data. All of this occurs at the breathtaking pace of 5 nanoseconds. One nanosecond is a billionth of a second.

Wang’s work with CUP pushes the dimensional limits of fundamental physics and also pushes the limits of deep imaging of biological tissues, one of Wang’s research specialties.

“Fluorescence is an important aspect of biological technologies,” he says. “We can use CUP to image the lifetimes of various fluorophores, including fluorescent proteins, at light speed.”

In the astronomy world, CUP can be a game-changer, Wang says.

“Combine CUP imaging with the Hubble Telescope, and we will have both the sharpest spatial resolution of the Hubble and the highest temporal solution with CUP,” he says. “That combination is bound to discover new science.”

This research was funded by the National Institutes of Health grants DP1 EB016986 and R01 CA186567.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Washington University in St. Louis. The original article was written by Tony Fitzpatrick. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Liang Gao, Jinyang Liang, Chiye Li, Lihong V. Wang. Single-shot compressed ultrafast photography at one hundred billion frames per second. Nature, 2014; 516 (7529): 74 DOI: 10.1038/nature14005

Human trial of experimental Ebola vaccine begins this week


A highly anticipated test of an experimental Ebola vaccine will begin this week at the National Institutes of Health, amid mounting anxiety about the spread of the deadly virus in West Africa.

After an expedited review by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, researchers were given the green light to begin what’s called a human safety trial, said Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

It will be the first test of this type of Ebola vaccine in humans.

The experimental vaccine, developed by the pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline and the NIAID, will first be given to three healthy human volunteers to see if they suffer any adverse effects. If deemed safe, it will then be given to another small group of volunteers, aged 18 to 50, to see if it produces a strong immune response to the virus. All will be monitored closely for side effects.

The vaccine will be administered to volunteers by an injection in the deltoid muscle of their arm, first in a lower dose, then later in a higher dose after the safety of the vaccine has been determined.

Some of the preclinical studies that are normally done on these types of vaccines were waived by the FDA during the expedited review, Fauci said, so “we want to take extra special care that we go slowly with the dosing.”

The vaccine did extremely well in earlier trials with chimpanzees, Fauci said. He noted that the method being used to prompt an immune response to Ebola cannot cause a healthy individual to become infected with the virus.

Still, he said, “I have been fooled enough in my many years of experience… you really can’t predict what you will see (in humans).”

According to the NIH, the vaccine will also be tested on healthy volunteers in the United Kingdom, Gambia and Mali, once details are finalized with health officials in those countries.

CDC director raises Ebola alarm

Trials cannot currently be done in the four countries affected by the recent outbreak — Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Nigeria — because the existing health care infrastructure wouldn’t support them, Fauci said. Gambia and Mali were selected because the NIH has “long-standing collaborative relationships” with researchers in those countries.

According to the NIH, officials from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are also in talks with health officials from Nigeria about conducting part of the safety trial there.

Funding from an international consortium formed to fight Ebola will enable GlaxoSmithKline to begin manufacturing up to 10,000 additional doses of the vaccine while clinical trials are ongoing, the pharmaceutical company said in a statement. These doses would be made available if the World Health Organization decides to allow emergency immunizations in high-risk communities.

The GSK/NIAID vaccine is one of two leading candidate vaccines. The other was developed by the Public Health Agency of Canada and licensed this month to NewLink Genetics, a company based in Iowa.

According to the NIH, safety trials of that vaccine will start this fall.

Earlier this month, the Canadian government shipped what it said was “800 to 1,000” doses of that vaccine to Liberia, at the government’s request. It’s not clear whether it has been given to health workers or anyone else there.

Worth noting: In 2009, an earlier version of the vaccine was given to a lab worker in Germany after he thought he had pricked himself with a needle tainted with Ebola. He did not develop the disease.

While there currently is no proven treatment for Ebola beyond supportive care, government agencies and small biotech firms have been scrambling to speed up development of several potential therapies and vaccines.

A third vaccine, also developed by the NIH, was recently tested in primates and found to protect them from infection; it was given in combination with Depovax, an adjuvant that has been used with other vaccines and cancer therapies to boost the body’s immune response.

While vaccines might be given to prevent infection among health workers or other people thought to be at high risk, development has also been speeded up on drugs that might potentially be given to patients who already have the disease.

The drug that’s received the most attention is ZMapp, which has been given to at least seven individuals in the current outbreak, including two American missionary medical workers, Nancy Writebol and Dr. Kent Brantly.

The drug has never been formally tested in humans, and while the results in human patients are encouraging — five of the seven known to have received it are still alive — experts say there is too little data to say whether it played a role in their recoveries.

Are myths making the Ebola outbreak worse?

Earlier versions of ZMapp, which received backing from the U.S. and Canadian governments as well as from biotech firms, have shown some ability to protect rhesus macaque monkeys more than two days after they were infected with the virus.

Another drug, TKM-Ebola, has been tested for safety in a small number of humans. That trial was put on hold in January, after one volunteer developed moderate gastrointestinal side effects after receiving a high dose of the medication.

Last month, the FDA modified the hold to a “partial clinical hold.” In effect, this means that Tekmira could potentially be allowed to give the drug to doctors or hospitals who request it, on an emergency basis. There’s no indication that the company has received any such requests.

The vaccine going into trials this week is based on an adenovirus — a type of cold virus — that’s found in chimpanzees. The virus delivers genetic material derived from two species of Ebola virus, including the Zaire strain that’s responsible for the current outbreak. Those genes are meant to trigger the development of antibodies in the person who receives the vaccine, antibodies that can specifically defend against Ebola.

Another trial, using a version of the GSK/NIAID vaccine that uses only the Zaire strain of Ebola, will be launched in October, according to the NIH.

All participants in the trial will be evaluated nine times over a 48-week period. NIH expects to reveal the results of the trial by the end of the year.

If it’s approved for widespread use, the first priority will be to give the vaccine to health care workers or lab workers who are fighting the spread of the virus, Fauci said. It will then be considered for people in the communities where outbreaks occur.

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