Scientists Link Selfies To Narcissism, Addiction & Mental Illness


Scientists Link Selfies To Narcissism, Addiction & Mental Illness
The growing trend of taking smartphone selfies is linked to mental health conditions that focus on a person’s obsession with looks.

According to psychiatrist Dr David Veal: “Two out of three of all the patients who come to see me with Body Dysmorphic Disorder since the rise of camera phones have a compulsion to repeatedly take and post selfies on social media sites.”

“Cognitive behavioural therapy is used to help a patient to recognise the reasons for his or her compulsive behaviour and then to learn how to moderate it,” he told the Sunday Mirror.

A British male teenager tried to commit suicide after he failed to take the perfect selfie. Danny Bowman became so obsessed with capturing the perfect shot that he spent 10 hours a day taking up to 200 selfies. The 19-year-old lost nearly 30 pounds, dropped out of school and did not leave the house for six months in his quest to get the right picture. He would take 10 pictures immediately after waking up. Frustrated at his attempts to take the one image he wanted, Bowman eventually tried to take his own life by overdosing, but was saved by his mom.

“I was constantly in search of taking the perfect selfie and when I realized I couldn’t, I wanted to die. I lost my friends, my education, my health and almost my life,” he told The Mirror.

The teenager is believed to be the UK’s first selfie addict and has had therapy to treat his technology addiction as well as OCD and Body Dysmorphic Disorder.
Part of his treatment at the Maudsley Hospital in London included taking away his iPhone for intervals of 10 minutes, which increased to 30 minutes and then an hour.

“It was excruciating to begin with but I knew I had to do it if I wanted to go on living,” he told the Sunday Mirror.

Public health officials in the UK announced that addiction to social media such as Facebook and Twitter is an illness and more than 100 patients sought treatment every year.

“Selfies frequently trigger perceptions of self-indulgence or attention-seeking social dependence that raises the damned-if-you-do and damned-if-you-don’t spectre of either narcissism or very low self-esteem,” said Pamela Rutledge in Psychology Today.

The big problem with the rise of digital narcissism is that it puts enormous pressure on people to achieve unfeasible goals, without making them hungrier. Wanting to be Beyoncé, Jay Z or a model is hard enough already, but when you are not prepared to work hard to achieve it, you are better off just lowering your aspirations. Few things are more self-destructive than a combination of high entitlement and a lazy work ethic. Ultimately, online manifestations of narcissism may be little more than a self-presentational strategy to compensate for a very low and fragile self-esteem. Yet when these efforts are reinforced and rewarded by others, they perpetuate the distortion of reality and consolidate narcissistic delusions.

The addiction to selfies has also alarmed health professionals in Thailand. “To pay close attention to published photos, controlling who sees or who likes or comments them, hoping to reach the greatest number of likes is a symptom that ‘selfies’ are causing problems,” said Panpimol Wipulakorn, of the Thai Mental Health Department.

The doctor believed that behaviours could generate brain problems in the future, especially those related to lack of confidence.

The word “selfie” was elected “Word of the Year 2013″ by the Oxford English Dictionary. It is defined as “a photograph that one has taken of oneself, typically with a smartphone or webcam and uploaded to a social media website”.

1. The Gym Selfie (Because the checkin isn’t enough.)
Scientists Link Selfies To Narcissism, Addiction & Mental Illness - The Gym Selfie (Because the checkin isn’t enough.)
Scientists Link Selfies To Narcissism, Addiction & Mental Illness - The Gym Selfie (Because the checkin isn’t enough.)

2. The Pet Selfie (If you want to post a picture of your pet, post a picture of your pet.)
Unless this happens, then it’s ok:
Scientists Link Selfies To Narcissism, Addiction & Mental Illness - The Pet Selfie (If you want to post a picture of your pet, post a picture of your pet.)

3. The Car Selfie AKA The Seatbelt Selfie (You LITERALLY got in the car and thought, “I look so good today, I better let everyone know before I put this thing in drive and head to my shift at the Olive Garden.”)
Scientists Link Selfies To Narcissism, Addiction & Mental Illness - The Car Selfie AKA The Seatbelt Selfie (You LITERALLY got in the car and thought, “I look so good today, I better let everyone know before I put this thing in drive and head to my shift at the Olive Garden
Scientists Link Selfies To Narcissism, Addiction & Mental Illness - The Car Selfie AKA The Seatbelt Selfie (You LITERALLY got in the car and thought, “I look so good today, I better let everyone know before I put this thing in drive and head to my shift at the Olive Garden

If you can combine the Seatbelt Selfie with the beloved Shirtless Selfie like this unattractive fella below, you..are…GOLD.
Scientists Link Selfies To Narcissism, Addiction & Mental Illness - If you can combine the Seatbelt Selfie with the beloved Shirtless Selfie like this unattractive fella below, you..are…GOLD.

4. The Blurry Selfie (Why?)
Scientists Link Selfies To Narcissism, Addiction & Mental Illness - The Blurry Selfie (Why?)

5. The Just Woke Up Selfie
Scientists Link Selfies To Narcissism, Addiction & Mental Illness - The Just Woke Up Selfie
Yeah right you just woke up.

6. Or even worse, the Pretending to Be Asleep Selfie. (We know you’re not asleep, asshole. You took the damn picture.)
Scientists Link Selfies To Narcissism, Addiction & Mental Illness - Or even worse, the Pretending to Be Asleep Selfie. (We know you’re not asleep, asshole. You took the damn picture.)
Scientists Link Selfies To Narcissism, Addiction & Mental Illness

7. The Add a Kid Selfie (Extra points for a C-section scar.)
Scientists Link Selfies To Narcissism, Addiction & Mental Illness - The Add a Kid Selfie (Extra points for a C-section scar.)

8. The Hospital Selfie (A rare gem. The more tubes you have hooked up to you, the better.)
Scientists Link Selfies To Narcissism, Addiction & Mental Illness - The Hospital Selfie (A rare gem. The more tubes you have hooked up to you, the better.)

9. The “I’m On Drugs” Selfie (This looker below also qualifies as theLook At My New Haircut Selfie.)
Scientists Link Selfies To Narcissism, Addiction & Mental Illness - The “I’m On Drugs” Selfie (This looker below also qualifies as theLook At My New Haircut Selfie.)

10. The Duck Face Selfie (Hey girls. This doesn’t make you prettier. It makes you look stupid and desperate. If that’s what you’re going for, carry on.)
Scientists Link Selfies To Narcissism, Addiction & Mental Illness - The Duck Face Selfie (Hey girls. This doesn’t make you prettier. It makes you look stupid and desperate. If that’s what you’re going for, carry on.)
Scientists Link Selfies To Narcissism, Addiction & Mental Illness - The Duck Face Selfie (Hey girls. This doesn’t make you prettier. It makes you look stupid and desperate. If that’s what you’re going for, carry on.)

11. The Pregnant Belly Selfie (Send this to your family and friends, not the entire Internet.)
Scientists Link Selfies To Narcissism, Addiction & Mental Illness - The Pregnant Belly Selfie (Send this to your family and friends, not the entire Internet.)
And yes, that’s a pregnant belly duck face selfie. It’s the unicorn of awful selfies.

12. The “I’m a Gigantic Whore” Selfie
Scientists Link Selfies To Narcissism, Addiction & Mental Illness - The “I’m a Gigantic Whore” Selfie
Nice phone case, by the way.

13. The “I Have Enough Money to Fly On an Airplane” Selfie (AND I own earbuds.)
Scientists Link Selfies To Narcissism, Addiction & Mental Illness - The “I Have Enough Money to Fly On an Airplane” Selfie (AND I own earbuds.)

14. The 3D Selfie. (It takes talent…along with class.)
Scientists Link Selfies To Narcissism, Addiction & Mental Illness - The 3D Selfie. (It takes talent…along with class.)

15. The Say Something That Has Nothing To Do With Anything Selfie(You had a great night? Oh.)
Scientists Link Selfies To Narcissism, Addiction & Mental Illness - The Say Something That Has Nothing To Do With Anything Selfie(You had a great night? Oh.)

16. The “I Live In Filth” Selfie (We all make messes, but if you’re going to post your living quarters on the World Wide Web, pick up your damn room.)
Scientists Link Selfies To Narcissism, Addiction & Mental Illness - The “I Live In Filth” Selfie (We all make messes, but if you’re going to post your living quarters on the World Wide Web, pick up your damn room.)
Source: Disclose.tv via Why Don’t You Try This

The Most Powerful Personality Trait You May Never Have Heard Of


The flashier personality traits—narcissism, neuroticism and extraversion—get a lot of attention in the popular literature. But there’s a quieter trait that may be even more powerful: Intellectual humility, which, as the name suggests, refers to our capacity to be humble about our own intellect, to question whether what we know is actually correct and even to adjust our beliefs if we’re presented with new information. And rating higher in intellectual humility may go way beyond helping in our personal relationships (although it does that, too). It may be a great benefit in realms like politics, where people are famously resistant to changing their minds. Luckily, as the authors of a new study argue, the trait is very likely malleable, meaning that it’s something that can be learned, and perhaps even adjusted over time.

The aim of the new research, published today in Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, was to determine how the trait affects people’s reactions to various types of information. In one experiment, participants read essays that were fundamentally counter to their own views on religion. Then they rated how much they were aligned with the essay’s message, how it made them feel, and how they felt about the author of the essay. It turned out that people who ranked lower on intellectual humility also thought less of the essay’s author, rating them lower on morality, honesty, competence and warmth. People with more intellectual humility didn’t judge the character of the author in the same way. They were also less sure that their views on religion were correct and less likely to think their views “better” than others.

Follow-up experiments explored the trait in other areas—like political—where people tend to be pretty sure that they’re right about things. The team had people rate how likely they’d be to vote for a candidate who’d flip-flopped on a view based on emerging evidence. Interestingly, Republican participants were less likely to be dissuaded by flip-flopping if they were higher in intellectual humility. Democrats were on average less likely to view the politician critically for changing his mind, regardless of their intellectual humility level.

 “There are stereotypes about conservatives and religiously conservative people being less intellectually humble about their beliefs,” said lead author Mark Leary in a news release. “We didn’t find a shred of evidence to support that.” Which of course has a lot of relevance to today’s climate. “If you think about what’s been wrong in Washington for a long time, it’s a whole lot of people who are very intellectually arrogant about the positions they have, on both sides of the aisle,” added Leary, a psychology and neuroscience professor at Duke University.

A final phase looked at how people with different levels of intellectual humility evaluated different types of evidence. They presented participants with science-based evidence for flossing one’s teeth and anecdotal evidence for it. As they’d suspected, people higher in intellectual humility were better able to differentiate between the quality of evidence than people lower in the trait.

 The results suggest that people who know that their beliefs are just beliefs may fare better than others in number of realms. The value of intellectual humility, of course, reaches into other areas still, like business and personal. “If you’re sitting around a table at a meeting and the boss is very low in intellectual humility, he or she isn’t going to listen to other people’s suggestions,” Leary said. “Yet we know that good leadership requires broadness of perspective and taking as many perspectives into account as possible.” A similar thing probably makes for a good marriage.

Luckily, the trait could very likely be developed—perhaps even taught in school, and without a lot of effort. A mention or two of the importance of questioning one’s own beliefs from time to time might be enough to cultivate it in kids. And keeping that idea in mind throughout life is probably wise for the rest of us. “I think if everyone was a bit more intellectually humble,” said Leary, “we’d all get along better, we’d be less frustrated with each other.”

Source: forbes.com

The Big Five, self-esteem, and narcissism as predictors of the topics people write about in Facebook status updates.


Abstract

Status updates are one of the most popular features of Facebook, but few studies have examined the traits and motives that influence the topics that people choose to update about. In this study, 555 Facebook users completed measures of the Big Five, self-esteem, narcissism, motives for using Facebook, and frequency of updating about a range of topics. Results revealed that extraverts more frequently updated about their social activities and everyday life, which was motivated by their use of Facebook to communicate and connect with others. People high in openness were more likely to update about intellectual topics, consistent with their use of Facebook for sharing information. Participants who were low in self-esteem were more likely to update about romantic partners, whereas those who were high in conscientiousness were more likely to update about their children. Narcissists’ use of Facebook for attention-seeking and validation explained their greater likelihood of updating about their accomplishments and their diet and exercise routine. Furthermore, narcissists’ tendency to update about their accomplishments explained the greater number of likes and comments that they reported receiving to their updates.

 

1. Introduction

Why do some people write Facebook status updates that describe amusing personal anecdotes, whereas others write updates that declare love to a significant other, express political opinions, or recount the details of last night’s dinner? Since the inception of Facebook in 2004, status updates have been one of its most preferred features (Ryan & Xenos, 2011). Status updates allow users to share their thoughts, feelings, and activities with friends, who have the opportunity to “like” and comment in return. In spite of the central role of status updates in Facebook use, few studies have examined the predictors of the topics that people choose to write about in their updates. The current study took a step in this direction by examining the personality traits associated with the frequency of updating about five broad topics identified through a factor analytic approach: social activities and everyday life, intellectual pursuits, accomplishments, diet/exercise, and significant relationships. We also examined whether these associations were mediated by some of the motives for using Facebook identified in the literature (e.g., Bazarova and Choi, 2014 and Seidman, 2013): need for validation (i.e., seeking attention and acceptance), self-expression (i.e., disclosing personal opinions, stories, and complaints), communication (i.e., corresponding and connecting), and sharing impersonal information (e.g., current events).

A secondary purpose of this study was to examine whether people who update more frequently about certain topics receive greater numbers of “likes” and comments to their updates. Those who do may experience the benefits of social inclusion, whereas those who do not might experience a lower sense of belonging, self-esteem, and meaningful existence (Tobin, Vanman, Verreynne, & Saeri, 2015). Our results may therefore shed light on the status update topics that put Facebook users at risk of online ostracism. Below we review literature on personality traits and motives that are often linked with Facebook use.

1.1. The Big Five

According to the “Big Five” model of personality, individuals vary in terms of extraversion, neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness (Costa & McCrae, 1992). People who are extraverted are gregarious, talkative, and cheerful. They tend to use Facebook as a tool to communicate and socialize (Seidman, 2013), as reflected in their more frequent use of Facebook (Gosling, Augustine, Vazire, Holtzmann, & Gaddis, 2011), greater number of Facebook friends (Amichai-Hamburger & Vinitzky, 2010), and preference for features of Facebook that allow for active social contribution, such as status updates (Ryan & Xenos, 2011). We therefore predicted that extraversion would be positively associated with updating about social activities, and that this association would be mediated by extraverts’ use of Facebook for communication (Hypothesis 1).

Neuroticism is characterized by anxiety and sensitivity to threat. Neurotic individuals may use Facebook to seek the attention and social support that may be missing from their lives offline (Ross et al., 2009). Accordingly, neuroticism is positively associated with frequency of social media use (Correa, Hinsley, & de Zuniga, 2010), the use of Facebook for social purposes (Hughes, Rowe, Batey, & Lee, 2012), and engaging in emotional disclosure on Facebook, such as venting about personal dramas (Seidman, 2013). Their willingness to disclose about personal topics led us to predict that neuroticism would be positively associated with updating about close relationships (romantic partners and/or children), and that the selection of these topics would be motivated by their use of Facebook for validation and self-expression (Hypothesis 2).

People who are high in openness tend to be creative, intellectual, and curious. Openness is positively associated with frequency of social media use (Correa et al., 2010), and with using Facebook for finding and disseminating information, but not for socializing (Hughes et al., 2012). We therefore predicted that openness would be positively associated with updating about intellectual topics, and that this association would be mediated by the use of Facebook for sharing information (Hypothesis 3).

People who are high in agreeableness tend to be cooperative, helpful, and interpersonally successful. Agreeableness is positively associated with posting on Facebook to communicate and connect with others and negatively associated with posting to seek attention (Seidman, 2013) or to badmouth others (Stoughton, Thompson, & Meade, 2013). The interpersonal focus of agreeable people and their use of Facebook for communication may inspire more frequent updates about their social activities and significant relationships (Hypothesis 4).

Conscientiousness describes people who are organized, responsible, and hard-working. They tend to use Facebook less frequently than people who are lower in conscientiousness (Gosling et al., 2011), but when they do use it, conscientious individuals are diligent and discreet: they have more Facebook friends (Amichai-Hamburger & Vinitzky, 2010), they avoid badmouthing people (Stoughton et al., 2013), and they are less likely to post on Facebook to seek attention or acceptance (Seidman, 2013). Thus, we predicted that conscientiousness would be positively associated with updating about inoffensive, “safe” topics (i.e., social activities and everyday life), which would be mediated by the lower tendency of using Facebook for validation (Hypothesis 5).

1.2. Self-esteem

People with low self-esteem are more likely to see the advantages of self-disclosing on Facebook rather than in person, but because their status updates tend to express more negative and less positive affect, they tend to be perceived as less likeable (Forest & Wood, 2012). Furthermore, anxiously-attached individuals – who tend to have low self-esteem (Campbell & Marshall, 2011) – post more often about their romantic relationship to boost their self-worth and to refute others’ impressions that their relationship is poor (Emery, Muise, Dix, & Le, 2014). We therefore hypothesized that self-esteem would be negatively associated with updating about a romantic partner, and that this association would be mediated by the use of Facebook for validation (Hypothesis 6).

1.3. Narcissism

Narcissistic individuals tend to be self-aggrandizing, vain, and exhibitionistic (Raskin & Terry, 1988). They seek attention and admiration by boasting about their accomplishments (Buss & Chiodo, 1991) and take particular care of their physical appearance (Vazire, Naumann, Rentfrow, & Gosling, 2008). This suggests that their status updates will more frequently reference their achievements and their diet and exercise routine (Hypothesis 7). Moreover, the choice of these topics may be motivated by the use of status updates to gain validation for inflated self-views, consistent with the positive association of narcissism with the frequency of updating one’s status ( Carpenter, 2012), posting more self-promoting content (Mehdizadeh, 2010), and seeking to attract admiring friends to one’s Facebook profile (Davenport, Bergman, Bergman, & Fearrington, 2014).

1.4. Response to status updates

We examined whether people receive differential numbers of likes and comments to their updates depending on their personality traits and frequency of writing about various topics. People with lower self-esteem tend to receive fewer likes and comments because their status updates express more negative affect (Forest & Wood, 2012). We tested the possibility that they may also receive fewer likes and comments because they are more likely to update about their romantic partner (Hypothesis 8); indeed, people who write updates that are high in relationship disclosure are perceived as less likeable ( Emery, Muise, Alpert, & Le, 2015). The associations of the Big Five traits, narcissism, and the other status update topics with the number of likes and comments received were examined on an exploratory basis to shed light on who may be at risk of receiving less social reward on Facebook, and whether it is because they express unpopular topics in their updates.

2. Method

2.1. Participants

Data was collected from 555 Facebook users currently residing in the United States (59% female; Mage = 30.90, SDage = 9.19). Sixty-five percent of participants were currently involved in a romantic relationship, and 34% had at least one child. Fifty-seven percent checked Facebook on a daily basis, and spent an average of 107.95 min per day actively using it (SD = 121.41). Ninety percent of participants were recruited through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk and paid $1.00 in compensation; the rest were recruited through web forums for online psychology studies, and received no compensation.

2.2. Materials and procedure

Participants completed an online survey consisting of demographic questions and the following measures. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients are reported in Table 1.

Table 1.Means, standard deviations, Cronbach’s alpha coefficients, and Pearson’s correlations.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1. Extraversion
2. Neuroticism −.42
3. Openness .22 −.07
4. Conscientious .23 −.54 .13
5. Agreeable .29 −.36 .15 .37
6. Self-esteem .40 −.64 .16 .58 .37
7. Narcissism .31 −.04 .14 −.04 −.21 .05
8. Social activity .24 −.04 .10 .09 .13 .06 .03
9. Intellectual .15 −.03 .31 .01 .05 .04 .08 .54
10. Achieve .20 .01 .18 .04 .14 .07 .14 .62 .53
11. Diet/exercise .18 −.04 .03 −.02 .04 −.06 .19 .49 .44 .40
12. Romantic .11 −.05 −.03 −.01 −.01 −.05 .05 .46 .21 .36 .34
13. Children .04 .05 .04 .06 .06 −.03 −.03 .37 .10 .33 .14 .27
14. Validation .14 .14 −.01 −.09 .01 −.12 .21 .43 .29 .42 .41 .30 .19
15. Expression .16 .06 .15 −.04 .02 −.06 .14 .54 .49 .50 .41 .27 .16 .72
16. Communicate .24 −.02 .17 .13 .16 .14 .02 .55 .41 .49 .26 .31 .38 .52 .56
17. Information .23 −.02 .24 .12 .13 .13 .06 .52 .55 .49 .31 .27 .16 .55 .64 .75
18. Like/comment .18 −.13 −.01 .14 .19 .10 .08 .12 .05 .19 .07 .20 .26 .07 .03 .14 .08
Mean 20.94 19.42 24.79 24.54 24.47 36.85 3.99 11.75 8.18 7.07 3.20 2.46 3.32 20.48 15.79 13.71 33.37 10.53
SD 5.89 5.91 4.83 4.96 4.91 8.79 2.88 3.88 3.17 2.67 1.59 1.17 1.16 9.27 6.88 4.47 11.17 11.81
α .85 .85 .72 .77 .76 .92 .73 .76 .75 .80 .76 .85 .82 .75 .88
Note. Bolded values were significant at p < .01.
p < .10.
p < .05.

2.2.1. Big Five personality traits

The 35-item Berkeley Personality Profile (Harary & Donahue, 1994) measures extroversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness with 7 items each (1 = Strongly disagree, 5 = Strongly agree).

2.2.2. Self-esteem

The 10-item Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) measures self-esteem with items such as “I feel that I have a number of good qualities” (1 = Strongly disagree, 5 = Strongly agree).

2.2.3. Narcissism

The 13-item version of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI-13; Gentile et al., 2013) is derived from the original NPI-40 (Raskin & Terry, 1988) and measures three components of trait narcissism: need for leadership/authority, grandiose exhibitionism, and entitlement/exploitativeness. Items are rated on a forced-choice basis, such that one choice represents greater narcissism and the other less. Higher scores indicate greater narcissism.

2.2.4. Facebook use

Participants reported their number of Facebook friends, how many days of the week they check Facebook (0–7 days), how much time they spend actively using it on days they check it, and how frequently they update their Facebook status (1 = Never, 9 = 7–10 times a day).

2.2.5. Topics of status updates

Participants indicated how frequently they write about 20 topics in their Facebook status updates (i.e., verbal descriptions of their status excluding photos, videos, or emoticons). These topics were generated by the authors through laboratory group discussions. Responses were rated on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (Never) to 5 (Very often). To extract common themes across topics, we conducted principal axis factoring with promax rotation. This yielded four factors with eigenvalues greater than 1 that together accounted for 57% of the total variance. Five topics loaded on the first factor, which reflected social activities and everyday life (my social activities, something funny that happened to me, my everyday activities, my pets, sporting events). Four topics loaded on the second factor, which reflected intellectual themes (my views on politics, current events, research/science, my own creative output – e.g., art, writing, research). Three topics loaded on the third factor, which reflected achievement orientation (achieving my goals, my accomplishments, work or school). Two topics loaded on the fourth factor, which reflected diet/exercise (my exercise routine, my diet). Several topics did not meetTabachnik and Fidell’s (2007) criteria that items must have a minimal loading of .32 on a single factor: three items (my children, my religious beliefs, and quotations or song lyrics) were below this threshold, and two items cross-loaded (my travels, my views on TV show, movies, or music). A final topic (my relationship with my current romantic partner) was not included in the factor analysis because it was only completed by participants currently involved in a relationship. Of the topics that did not load onto one of the four factors, we only further analyzed the frequency of updating about children and romantic partners as single variables because of our hypotheses regarding the associations of personality traits with updating about significant relationships. We also asked participants who they shared each status update topic with (no one, the public, friends only, close friends only), but because there was little variation across topics in these privacy settings, we did not examine this variable further.

2.2.6. Motives for using Facebook

We measured four motives for using Facebook by adapting items from a variety of sources (e.g., Hughes et al., 2012 and Seidman, 2013) so that each began with “I use Facebook to…”. Use of Facebook for validation was measured with seven items that tapped attention-seeking (e.g., “I use Facebook to show off”) and need to feel accepted and included (e.g., “I use Facebook to feel loved”). Five items measured use of Facebook for self-expression (e.g., “I use Facebook to express my identity/opinions”). Three items measured use of Facebook to communicate (e.g., “I use Facebook to communicate with people I often see”), and eight items assessed use of Facebook to find and disseminate information (e.g., “I use Facebook to stay informed”). Participants indicated their agreement with these statements using a 1–7 Likert scale anchored with Strongly disagree (1) and Strongly agree (7).

2.2.7. Likes and comments

Participants indicated how many likes and comments, on average, they tend to receive when they post a typical Facebook status update.

3. Results and discussion

Table 1 reports the descriptive statistics and Pearson’s correlations. Table 2 reports the results of regression analyses that examined the predictors of updating about each of the six topics (criterion variables), the four motives for using Facebook (mediating variables), and the number of likes and comments received to a typical update (criterion variable). Predictors included several control variables (frequency of updating one’s status, number of Facebook friends, sex, age) and the traits of interest (Big Five traits, self-esteem, narcissism). We conducted bootstrap tests of multiple mediation using Preacher and Hayes’s (2008) SPSS script to assess whether the motives for using Facebook mediated the associations of the personality traits with updating about certain topics. In these tests, the control variables and other personality traits were entered as covariates, and the four motives for using Facebook were entered as multiple mediators.

Table 2.Standardized regression coefficients for the predictors of status update topics, motives for using Facebook, and number of likes/comments.

Predictor variables Topics (criterion variables)


Motives for using Facebook (mediating variables)


Number likes/comments (criterion variable)
Social activities/everyday life Intellect Achieve Diet/exercise Romantic partner (N = 372) Children (N = 188) Validation Self-express Communicate Information
Frequency update .60 .46 .42 .27 .30 .30 .31 .48 .38 .42 .09
Number of friends .03 .03 .12⁎⁎ .02 .07 −.03 .11 .08 .15⁎⁎ .17 .29
Sex .06 −.03 .14⁎⁎ −.04 −.04 .19 −.01 .06 .20 .08 .17⁎⁎
Age −.05 .04 −.19 .02 −.12 −.19 .01 .04 −.01 −.01 −.03
Extraversion .14⁎⁎ .04 .05 .11 .11 −.02 .05 .04 .14⁎⁎ .11 .07
Neuroticism .02 −.04 .06 −.03 −.09 .02 .18⁎⁎ −.01 .05 .10 .01
Openness −.01 .29 .12⁎⁎ −.02 −.04 −.01 −.06 .06 .06 .12 −.05
Conscientiousness .08 −.05 .02 −.01 .06 .23 .02 −.02 .11 .11 .07
Agreeableness .03 −.03 .07 .02 −.04 .10 .02 −.01 −.01 .02 .06
Self-esteem −.05 −.04 .03 −.11 −.17 −.19 −.05 −.13 .01 −.01 .07
Narcissism −.01 .03 .14⁎⁎ .17⁎⁎ −.06 −.06 .22 .13⁎⁎ −.02 .02 .15⁎⁎
R2 .43 .35 .35 .14 .14 .21 .21 .31 .31 .32 .21
Note. Bolded values were significant at p < .001.

Sex: female = 1, male = −1.

p < .10.
p < .05.
⁎⁎
p < .01.

3.1. Predictors of status update topics and motives for using Facebook

Table 2 reveals support for Hypothesis 1: extraversion was positively associated with updating more frequently about social activities and everyday life, and with using Facebook to communicate. A further regression analysis showed that the use of Facebook to communicate predicted the frequency of updating about social activities and everyday life over and above the control variables and other personality traits (b = .25, p < .0001). Examination of the 95% bias-corrected confidence intervals (CI) from 1000 bootstrap samples revealed that the positive association of extraversion with updating about social activities and everyday life was mediated by the use of Facebook to communicate (b = .03, p = .05 (CI: .003–.05)). These results further confirm that extraverts use Facebook, and specifically status updates, as a tool for social engagement ( Ryan and Xenos, 2011 and Seidman, 2013).

Hypothesis 2 was only partially supported: neuroticism was not associated with updating about any of the six topics or with using Facebook for self-expression, but it was associated with using Facebook for validation. Indeed, neurotic individuals may use Facebook to seek the attention and support that they lack offline (Ross et al., 2009).

Consistent with Hypothesis 3, openness was positively associated with updating about intellectual topics, and with using Facebook for information. A further regression analysis showed that the use of Facebook for information and for self-expression predicted the frequency of updating about intellectual topics over and above the control variables and traits (b = .34, p < .0001 and b = .22, p < .001, respectively). The bootstrap test revealed that the positive association of openness with updating about intellectual topics was indeed mediated by the use of Facebook for information (b = .03, p < .01 (CI: .007–.05)). People high in openness, then, may write updates about current events, research, or their political views for the purpose of sharing impersonal information rather than for socializing, consistent with the findings of Hughes et al. (2012).

There was no support for Hypothesis 4 – agreeableness was not associated with updating more frequently about social activities, significant relationships, or with using Facebook to communicate. Contrary to Hypothesis 5, conscientiousness was not associated with updating about “safe” topics such as social activities and everyday life; rather, it was associated with writing more frequent updates about one’s children. Furthermore, conscientiousness was not negatively associated with using Facebook for validation, but it was positively associated with using Facebook to share information and to communicate. The latter use predicted the frequency of updating about one’s children over and above the control variables and personality traits (b = .38, p = .01), but it did not significantly mediate the association of conscientiousness with updating about children. Thus, conscientious individuals may update about their children for purposes other than communicating with their friends. Perhaps such updates reflect an indirect form of competitive parenting.

Consistent with Hypothesis 6, people who were lower in self-esteem more frequently updated about their current romantic partner, but they were more likely to use Facebook for self-expression rather than for validation. That the frequency of updating about one’s romantic partner was predicted not by the use of Facebook for self-expression but rather by communication (b = .24, p = .01) suggests that people with low self-esteem may have other motives for posting updates about their romantic partner. Considering that people with low self-esteem tend to be more chronically fearful of losing their romantic partner (Murray, Gomillian, Holmes, & Harris, 2015), and that people are more likely to post relationship-relevant information on Facebook on days when they feel insecure (Emery et al., 2014), it is reasonable to surmise that people with low self-esteem update about their partner as a way of laying claim to their relationship when it feels threatened.

In line with Hypothesis 7, narcissism was positively associated with updating about achievements and with using Facebook for validation. Moreover, the use of Facebook for validation and for communication predicted the frequency of updating about achievements over and above the control variables and traits (b = .14, p = .02 and b = .13, p = .04, respectively). The association of narcissism with updating about achievements was significantly mediated by the use of Facebook for validation (b = .04, p = .05 (CI: .006–.07)), consistent with narcissists’ tendency to boast in order to gain attention (Buss & Chiodo, 1991). Also consistent with Hypothesis 7, narcissism was positively associated with updating about diet/exercise, but the use of Facebook for self-expression rather than validation was positively associated with updating about diet/exercise over and above the control variables and traits (b = .24, p < .01). Self-expression mediated the association of narcissism with updating about diet/exercise (b = .03, p = .03 (CI: .003–.04)), suggesting that narcissists may broadcast their diet and exercise routine to express the personal importance they place on physical appearance (Vazire et al., 2008).

3.2. Predictors of likes and comments received

As seen in Table 2, there was no support for Hypothesis 8: narcissism rather than self-esteem was associated with receiving a greater number of likes and comments to one’s updates. We then assessed whether the four topics common to the entire sample – social activities and everyday life, intellectual pursuits, achievements, and diet/exercise – predicted the number of likes and comments typically received to an update over and above the control variables and traits. Updating about social activities and everyday life was positively associated with the number of likes and comments received (b = .13, p = .05), as was achievements (b = .16, p = .01), whereas updating about intellectual topics was negatively associated (b = −.13, p = .04). Two additional regression models added the frequency of updating about one’s romantic partner or one’s children as predictors for participants who had a relationship partner or children. Only the frequency of updating about one’s children significantly predicted likes/comments (b = .23, p = .02).

 Bootstrap mediation revealed that the tendency for narcissists to report receiving more likes and comments was mediated by their higher frequency of updating about their achievements (b = .06, p < .01 (CI: .01–.18)). Thus, narcissists’ publicizing of their achievements appeared to be positively reinforced by the attention and validation they crave.

3.3. Limitations and future directions

The main limitation of this study is that it was based on participants’ self-reported Facebook behavior. Narcissists, in particular, may not accurately report the number of likes and comments they receive to updates. More objective and precise estimates can be obtained in future research by coding participants’ actual status updates for topic themes and recording the number of likes and comments received to each topic. Another avenue for future research is to obtain direct evaluations of particular status update topics and of the likeability of people who update about these topics. That updating about social activities, achievements, and children was positively associated with Facebook attention, and updating about intellectual topics negatively associated, suggests that the former topics might be evaluated more positively than the latter. Yet these associations are at best a proxy for the likeability of these topics and of the individuals who write them. Considering that objective raters can accurately discern whether a person is narcissistic by looking at their Facebook page (Buffardi & Campbell, 2008), people may be correctly perceived as narcissistic if they more frequently update about their achievements, diet, and exercise. Furthermore, people may like and comment on a friend’s achievement-related updates to show support, but may secretly dislike such displays of hubris. The closeness of the friendship is therefore likely to influence responses to updates: close friends may “like” a friend’s update, even if they do not actually like it, whereas acquaintances might not only ignore such updates, but eventually unfriend the perpetrator of unlikeable status updates.

4. Conclusions

Taken together, these results help to explain why some Facebook friends write status updates about the party they went to on the weekend whereas others write about a book they just read or about their job promotion. It is important to understand why people write about certain topics on Facebook insofar as the response they receive may be socially rewarding or exclusionary. Greater awareness of how one’s status updates might be perceived by friends could help people to avoid topics that annoy more than they entertain.

Source:http://www.sciencedirect.com

Scientists Link ‪Selfies‬ To Narcissism, ‪Addiction‬ & Mental Illness


The growing trend of taking smartphone selfies is linked to mental health conditions that focus on a person’s obsession with looks.

 According to psychiatrist Dr David Veal: “Two out of three of all the patients who come to see me with Body Dysmorphic Disorder since the rise of camera phones have a compulsion to repeatedly take and post selfies on social media sites.”
selfie

“Cognitive behavioral therapy is used to help a patient to recognize the reasons for his or her compulsive behavior and then to learn how to moderate it,” he told the Sunday Mirror.

s it possible that taking selfies causes mental illness, addiction, narcissism and suicide? Many psychologists say yes, and warn parents to pay close attention to what kids are doing online to avoid any future cases like what happened to Bowman.
A British male teenager tried to commit suicide after he failed to take the perfect selfie. Danny Bowman became so obsessed with capturing the perfect shot that he spent 10 hours a day taking up to 200 selfies. The 19-year-old lost nearly 30 pounds, dropped out of school and did not leave the house for six months in his quest to get the right picture. He would take 10 pictures immediately after waking up. Frustrated at his attempts to take the one image he wanted, Bowman eventually tried to take his own life by overdosing, but was saved by his mom.

“I was constantly in search of taking the perfect selfie and when I realized I couldn’t, I wanted to die. I lost my friends, my education, my health and almost my life,” he told The Mirror.

The teenager is believed to be the UK’s first selfie addict and has had therapy to treat his technology addiction as well as OCD and Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

Tens of thousands of people want Trump examined for narcissism


‘He is out of control, even to his own detriment,’ according to congresswoman Karen Bass

trump.jpg

Tens of thousands of people are calling for Donald Trump to be examined by doctors for narcissism – and a Harvard medical professor thinks they are right.

The Change.org petition was started by Democratic congresswoman Karen Bass who believes the aspiring president “appears to exhibit all the symptoms of the mental disorder Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD).”

She tweeted: “Medical professionals must step up and demand a mental fitness test for the Republican Presidential nominee.”

The petition, signed by almost 25,000 people, states: “Donald Trump is dangerous for our country.

“His impulsiveness and lack of control over his own emotions are of concern. It is our patriotic duty to raise the question of his mental stability to be the commander in chief and leader of the free world.”

Ms Bass sent a series of picture tweets explaining her reasons for suspecting Trump suffers from narcissistic personality disorder  – appearing to use his own quotes as to back up her case.

View image on Twitter

View image on Twitter

View image on Twitter

Harvard Medical School dean prof Flier, backed Mr Bass by tweeting: “Narcissistic personality disorder. Trump doesn’t just have it, he defines it.”

“We live in an age where information on a given individual is easier to access and more abundant than ever before, particularly if that person happens to be a public figure,” said Maria A. Oquendo, president of the APA.

“The unique atmosphere of this year’s election cycle may lead some to want to psychoanalyze the candidates but to do so would not only be unethical, it would be irresponsible,” she added.

“Simply put, breaking the Goldwater Rule is irresponsible, potentially stigmatizing, and definitely unethical.”

The Insecurity And Narcissism Hiding In Facebook Posts


Entertainment News: The Insecurity And Narcissism Hiding In Facebook Posts

The Insecurity And Narcissism Hiding In Facebook Posts

Trending News: How Your Facebook Posts Reveal Your Deepest Insecurities

Why Is This Important?

Because we live much of our lives on the internet.


Long Story Short

Research from Brunel University London reveals that your Facebook posts may have a dark side. After surveying over 500 users, the researchers found a high correlation between certain status updates and personality traits like narcissism.


Long Story

Facebook, for any stable-minded adult, is borderline unusable. The average person’s news feed is clogged with so much self-aggrandizing, “look at me” drivel that Facebook is constantly retooling their algorithm to create the slimmest chance that something – anything – of value will pop up in your news feed. As for why that is, researchers from Brunel University London found what many of us already suspected: People who post a lot of Facebook have a few screws loose.

“It might come as little surprise that Facebook status updates reflect people’s personality traits. However, it is important to understand why people write about certain topics on Facebook because their updates may be differentially rewarded with ‘likes’ and comments,” said psychology lecturer Dr Tara Marshall.

The researchers analyzed data from 555 Facebook users who voluntarily completed a survey concerning the “big five” personality traits – extroversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness. Also included in the survey were narcissism and self-esteem. Not surprisingly, the data showed a high correlation between Facebook posts and those last two traits.

They found that people who post more updates about their romantic partners tended to exhibit lower self-esteem, while people who post often about their achievements are narcissists looking for attention and validation. The same is true for people who post their diet and workout routines, proving once and for all that CrossFitters are the worst.

This may come as news of the “no shit” variety for a lot of us, but not necessarily. It’s normal, when seeing that girl from high school post about her “bae” or the formerly fat classmate post their WOD, to assume “oh, she’s just happy”/ ”he’s just showing off.” But it may not be so benign – the research indicates that rather than meaningless self-expression, these sorts of posts are direct indicators of someone’s personality. That’s a much scarier thought.

Society isn’t crumbling; the internet just showcases how fragile it’s always been.


Own The Conversation

Ask The Big Question: Is it dangerous for people to rely on likes and comments to bolster their self-esteem and narcissism?

Disrupt Your Feed: I’d offer commentary on this but I’m afraid of what such a status update might say about me.

Drop This Fact: Facebook’s messenger app pinpoints the latitude and longitude coordinates of message locations to more than 5 decimal places of precision.

The 2 Faces of Narcissism: Admiration Seeking and Rivalry .


In the past two years the study of narcissism has gotten a face-lift. The trait is now considered to have two distinct dimensions: admiration seeking and rivalry. Subsequent studies, including a recent look at actors, revealed a more nuanced picture of personality than did past work. The actors, for instance, want admiration more than most people but tend to be less competitive than the average Joe—they may crave the spotlight, but they will not necessarily push others out of the way to get it.

The new understanding of narcissism started with a 2013 paper in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology that identified narcissism’s two dimensions. “Previous theories and measures of narcissism dealt with this trait as a unitary construct, mixing up agentic aspects—assertiveness, dominance, charm—with antagonistic aspects—aggressiveness and devaluation of others,” says Mitja Back of the University of Münster in Germany, the study’s primary author. Lumping both aspects together made narcissistic behavior confounding.

Studying hundreds of healthy subjects, Back’s team found that traits related to narcissism clustered into two categories, with both facets of narcissism serving to maintain a positive self-image. Self-promotion draws praise, whereas self-defense demeans others to fend off criticism. Admiration seeking and rivalry each have different effects on body language, relationship health and personality.

In the latest paper to build on these findings, in press in Social Psychological and Personality Science, actors and acting students were rated by themselves and others as more hung up on admiration than nonactors. But although winning plum roles requires competing with fellow thespians, working with others demands collaboration, and this aspect also attracts actors: the actors were found to be less rivalrous than the nonactors. Hollywood, then, may be predictably full of egotists but not jerks. The research was led by Michael Dufner of Leipzig University in Germany, who collaborated with Back on both papers.

It pays to be aware of narcissism’s duality. “What attracts us in social partners at first sight is not necessarily what makes us happy in long-term relations,” Back says. Even if narcissists have that bright, charming side, it is often simply a matter of time before the clouds come out. Except, perhaps, on Broadway.

Selfies linked to narcissism, addiction and mental illness


The growing trend of taking smartphone selfies is linked to mental health conditions that focus on a person’s obsession with looks.

According to psychiatrist Dr David Veal: “Two out of three of all the patients who come to see me with Body Dysmorphic Disorder since the rise of camera phones have a compulsion to repeatedly take selfies.

“Cognitive behavioural therapy is used to help a patient to recognise the reasons for his or her compulsive behaviour and then to learn how to moderate it,” he told the Sunday Mirror.

19-year-old Danny Bowman’s selfie addiction spiralled out of control, spending ten hours a day taking up to 200 snaps of himself on his iPhone.

The teenager is believed to be the UK’s first selfie addict and has had therapy to treat his technology addiction as well as OCD and Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

Part of his treatment at the Maudsley Hospital in London included taking away his iPhone for intervals of 10 minutes, which increased to 30 minutes and then an hour.

miley-cyrus-selfie-2

“It was excruciating to begin with but I knew I had to do it if I wanted to go on living,” he told the Sunday Mirror.

Public health officials in the UK announced that addiction to social media such as Facebook and Twitter is an illness and more than 100 patients sought treatment every year.

“Selfies frequently trigger perceptions of self-indulgence or attention-seeking social dependence that raises the damned-if-you-do and damned-if-you-don’t spectre of either narcissism or low self-esteem,” said Pamela Rutledge in Psychology Today.

The addiction to selfies has also alarmed health professionals in Thailand. “To pay close attention to published photos, controlling who sees or who likes or comments them, hoping to reach the greatest number of likes is a symptom that ‘selfies’ are causing problems,” said Panpimol Wipulakorn, of the Thai Mental Health Department.

The doctor believed that behaviours could generate brain problems in the future, especially those related to lack of confidence.

The word “selfie” was elected “Word of the Year 2013″ by the Oxford English Dictionary. It is defined as “a photograph that one has taken of oneself, typically with a smartphone or webcam and uploaded to a social media website”.