Rheumatic diseases can be divided in two groups, autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders. The clinical presentation of both types of diseases overlap, but the pathological pathways underlying rheumatic autoinflammation and autoimmunity are distinct and are the subject of ongoing research. There are a number of ways in which these groups of diseases differ in terms of disease mechanisms and therapeutic responses. First, autoinflammatory diseases are driven by endogenous danger signals, metabolic mediators and cytokines, whereas autoimmunity involves the activation of T and B cells, the latter requiring V-(D)-J recombination of receptor-chain gene segments for maturation. Second, the efficacy of biologic agents directed against proinflammatory cytokines (for example IL-1β and TNF) also highlights differences between autoinflammatory and autoimmune processes. Finally, whereas autoinflammatory diseases are mostly driven by inflammasome-induced IL-1β and IL-18 production, autoimmune diseases are associated with type I interferon (IFN) signatures in blood. In this Review, we provide an overview of the monocyte intracellular pathways that drive autoinflammation and autoimmunity. We convey recent findings on how the type I IFN pathway can modulate IL-1β signalling (and vice versa), and discuss why IL-1β-mediated autoinflammatory diseases do not perpetuate into autoimmunity. The origins of intracellular autoantigens in autoimmune disorders are also discussed. Finally, we suggest how new mechanistic knowledge of autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases might help improve treatment strategies to benefit patient care.
Holy Hormones Journal: Yes, this is is good news… however, that we have arrived at this point is not good news. If a mother is exposed to infectious bacteria and her body cannot contend with it – there is an immunity issue that needs to be addressed as prevention – not intervention.
Named a major women’s health issue by the Office of Research on Women’s Health at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), autoimmunity is the underlying cause of more than 100 serious, chronic illnesses. OF the 50 million Americans living and coping with autoimmune disease (AD), more than 75 percent of them are women. ~ Autoimmune Disease in Women
We now have a generation of girls whose immunity has been severely compromised by the HPV vaccine, Gardasil. Are we going to see more stillbirths and
deaths? Fetal abnormalities?
There is no question that our immunity is at risk. Women make up the majority of those with compromised immune systems – because they are unaware that their immunity is at its lowest point during theparamenstrum (premenstrual and menstrual phase of their cycle). By not knowing this they further compromise their immunity by their behaviors, lifestyle, scheduling surgeries, including dental work – exposure to toxins, diet – and not allowing their body to recoup and regenerate. Months and years of pretending that we can move forward at the same pace every single day of the month places enormous pressure on every system in the body.
Add synthetic hormones into the mix – and immunity is even more compromised.
Add a diet devoid of any nutritional value and immunity does not have a chance to protect us from the bacteria, viruses and toxins in our environment. This is not rocket science. This is wisdom.
We have to change this pattern. We have to rebuild our immunity if we want our babies to thrive – and if we want to enjoy motherhood.
If a woman’s body attacks the fetus… that is a red flag for for a severe imbalance – not just for the woman – but it is also a social indicator of the damage that has been done to the human microbiome.
Preventing stillbirths: Therapy may protect fetus from mother’s immune system
When a pregnant mother is exposed to infectious bacteria, her immune system kicks into gear and attacks the fetus, which can lead to fetal loss, stillbirth and premature birth— complications for which there is no therapy available today.
But now, researchers have discovered the specific protein that sets off this process, and they say their findings may lay the groundwork for a potential treatment to preemptively and retroactively treat these abnormalities.
“What we know is that during pregnancy, the mother needs to be tolerant to the fetus so that it doesn’t reject the fetus like it would reject any other transplanted organ— and that tolerance is very intricately regulated, and has many moving parts that we’re only beginning to understand and appreciate. One of the most important aspects of that tolerance is preventing the harmful maternal immune cells from attacking the placenta,” lead study author Sing Sing Way, an infectious disease pediatrician at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital, told FoxNews.com.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), one out of every nine infants in the U.S. was born premature— or before 37 weeks of a full pregnancy— in 2012, the most recent data available. Preterm birth in 2010 accounted for 35 percent of all infant deaths, which is more than any other cause, and the condition is also the top cause of long-term neurological disabilities in children. In 2006, the most recent CDC data available, about 25,970 stillbirths were reported. Stillbirths can occur after 20 weeks of gestation.
Multivariate analysis of the data showed that the only variable linked to type 1 diabetes or autoislet immunity was having a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes ( <.001). After adjustment for this factor, researchers found no significant association between development of type 1 diabetes and full breast-feeding (OR=1.28; =.66) or any breast-feeding (OR=1.01; =.99). Similar results were noted for full breast-feeding (OR=1.3; =.41) or any breast-feeding (OR=1.25; =.51) and islet autoimmunity.
For the study, the researchers assessed data from the MIDIA prospective cohort study, which included children with the high-risk human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype. Of 48,000 children genotyped, 1,047 had the high-risk HLA genotype. At 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age, parents filled out questionnaires and the researchers obtained blood samples from the children. Full and any breast-feeding were defined using WHO criteria, and logistic regression analyses were used to identify the relationship between type 1 diabetes and islet autoimmunity and full or any breast-feeding and parent or infant characteristics.
Source: Endocrine Today.