The largest dinosaur footprint ever has been found in Australia’s ‘Jurassic Park’.


This thing is huge.

On a 25 kilometre (15.5 mile) stretch of coastline in Western Australia, there lies a prehistoric treasure trove.

Thousands of approximately 130-million-year-old dinosaur footprints are embedded in a stretch of land that can only be studied at low tide, when the sea – and the sharks and crocodiles that inhabit the region  – can’t hide them.

 What scientists found there is truly special, according to a study recently published in The Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology.

“Nowhere else in the world has as many dinosaurs represented by track that Walmadany does,” Steve Salisbury, a palaeontologist at the University of Queensland and lead author of the study, says in a video describing the area.

Included among those many dinosaur tracks is the largest dinosaur footprint ever found. At approximately 1.75 metres long (about 5 feet, 9 inches), the track came from some sort of giant sauropod, a long-necked herbivore.

“There’s nothing that comes close” in terms of size, Salisbury tells CNN.

But there’s far more there than one giant footprint.

Dinosaur footprints australia

“We see a unique dinosaur fauna that includes things like stegosaurs and some of the biggest dinosaurs to have ever walked the planet, gigantic sauropods,” Salisbury says in the video.

This was the first evidence of stegosaurs ever found in Australia.

 There are also tracks from meat-eating theropods that walked on two feet and left three-toed prints with shapes similar to those many remember from the film Jurassic Park.

In this case, the three-toed prints have a special significance: in local lore, the tracks belong to Marala, an Emu man who journeyed through the region, giving laws that dictated how people should behave.

Dinosaur footprints

In a press release announcing the findings, Salisbury also describes the various other types of dinosaur tracks discovered.

“There were five different types of predatory dinosaur tracks, at least six types of tracks from long-necked herbivorous sauropods, four types of tracks from two-legged herbivorous ornithopods, and six types of tracks from armoured dinosaurs,” he says.

Dinosaur australia footprints

The University of Queensland researchers were brought in more than five years ago by the aboriginal Goolarabooloo community, who are the traditional custodians of the area and have known about the tracks for many years.

The Western Australian Government had selected the region as a processing site for liquid natural gas, and the local groups wanted experts to help protect the region and show what was at stake.

The area was designated a National Heritage site in 2011, and two years later it was announced that the gas production project wouldn’t happen.

Dinosaur australia footprints

Since no equipment could be left out when the tide came in, the researchers used drones to map the area with digital photography and laser scans.

According to Salisbury, they have spent more than 400 hours out on the reefs.

“It’s such a magical place – Australia’s own Jurassic Park, in a spectacular wilderness setting.

Soure:sciencealert.com

Australia considers childcare ban on unvaccinated children.


Medical vials and a syringe

Unvaccinated children would be banned from childcare centres and preschools under an Australian government plan.

Some Australian states already have “no jab, no play” laws, but PM Malcolm Turnbull is calling for nationwide legislation.

Health groups have supported the push, arguing parents and the community have an obligation to protect children.

An Australian Child Health Poll survey of nearly 2,000 parents showed 5% of children were not fully vaccinated.

Mr Turnbull said more needed to be done, citing the case of a baby who died from whooping cough.

“This is not a theoretical exercise – this is life and death,” Mr Turnbull said.

“If a parent says, ‘I’m not going to vaccinate my child,’ they are not simply putting their child at risk, they are putting everybody else’s children at risk too.”

Vaccinating children is not a legal requirement in Australia, but failing to do so makes parents ineligible for childcare rebates.

Children more at risk

Three Australian states – Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria – already require children to be immunised, or be on an approved catch-up programme, to enrol in childcare centres.

Australian Medical Association president Michael Gannon said children were more susceptible to infections.

“If you, as a parent, expect the community to support you by either welfare payments or access to care, then you need to do your bit to contribute to that community by protecting other children,” he told Fairfax Media.

Media captionIn 2015, a measles outbreak in California was blamed on the “anti-vax movement”

The so-called “anti-vax” movement believes vaccinations may cause medical conditions such as autism, but overwhelming scientific research suggests this is not the case.

Vaccines can cause adverse reactions in a small number of people, like many medicines, but the accepted science is that the benefits far outweigh the risks.

Widespread vaccination also reduces the risk of infection to those who, for medical reasons, may not be able to receive the vaccine themselves.

So-called “herd immunity” is an important part of public health programmes. It stops the spread of disease by preventing an infection from moving among most people – the ones who have been vaccinated. And so it protects those few without the vaccine.

But as the numbers of those without protection rises, so to does the risk to each of them – something which happened alongside the first death from measles in the United States in 12 years.

Soure: BBC

Australia Was Colonised by One Group 50,000 Years Ago, DNA Evidence Reveals


The oldest continuous society on Earth.

 

Historic hair samples collected from Aboriginal people show that following an initial migration 50,000 years ago, populations spread rapidly around the east and west coasts of Australia.

Our research, published in Nature today, also shows that once settled, Aboriginal groups remained in their discrete geographical regions right up until the arrival of Europeans a few hundred years ago. So where does the evidence for this rapid migration and long settlement come from?

 In a series of remarkable expeditions that ran from the 1920s to 1960s, scientists travelled widely across the Australian outback. They recorded as much anthropological information as possible about Aboriginal Australians.

They recorded film and audio, drawings, songlines, genealogies and extensive physical measurements under tough outback conditions. This included packing in the equipment on camels for the early trips.

The extensive collections from the Board for Anthropological Expeditions are now curated in the South Australian Museum.

They contain the vast majority of the black and white film footage you may have seen of traditional Aboriginal culture, songs, hunting practices and ceremonies.

The metadata collected was voluminous. It now comprises possibly the best anthropological collection of an indigenous people in the world.

But perhaps the biggest scientific contributions may yet turn out to be hidden within small locks of hair. These were collected with permission (such as it was given in the situation and era) for a minor project to study the variation of Aboriginal hair types across Australia.

 But the hair clippings turn out to preserve an incredible record of the genetic diversity and distribution of Indigenous Australia prior to European disruption.

Importantly, the detailed genealogical data collected with each sample allows the genetic lineages to be placed on the map back through several generations.

This allowed us to reconstruct the genetic structure within Australia prior to the forced relocation of Aboriginal people to missions and stations, sometimes thousands of kilometres from their traditional lands.

Reconnecting histories

This project was only possible through partnership with Aboriginal families and communities. So we needed to design an ethical framework and protocol for such unprecedented work.

This was based on large amounts of archival research performed by our team members in the Aboriginal Family History Unit of the South Australian Museum, to locate and contact the original donors, or their descendants and family elders.

We arranged a meeting time, and then the combined team spent several days in each Aboriginal community talking to individual families about the project, and passing on copies of the archival material.

We discussed both the potential and pitfalls of genetic research, and answered common questions. These included why the results cannot be used for land claim issues (insufficient geographical resolution) or as a test of Aboriginality (which is a cultural, rather than genetic, association).

The feedback from communities was overwhelmingly positive. There was a strong interest in how a genetic map of Aboriginal Australia could help people of the stolen generation to reconnect with family and country.

It could also help facilitate the repatriation of Aboriginal samples and artefacts held in museums.

The DNA results

The initial genetic results not only reveal exciting insights into the deep genetic history of the continent, but also showcase the enormous potential of our project.

We mapped the maternal genetic lineages onto the birthplace of the oldest recorded maternal ancestor (sometimes two to three generations back) and found there were striking patterns of Australia’s genetic past.

There were many very deep genetic branches, stretching back 45,000 to 50,000 years. We compared these dates to records of the earliest archaeological sites around Australia.

We found that the people appear to have arrived in Australia almost exactly 50,000 years ago.

Early migration

Those first Australians entered a landmass we collectively call ‘Sahul‘, where New Guinea was connected to Australia.

The Gulf of Carpentaria was a massive fresh water lake at the time and most likely a very attractive place for the founding population.

The genetic lineages show that the first Aboriginal populations swept around the coasts of Australia in two parallel waves. One went clockwise and the other counter-clockwise, before meeting somewhere in South Australia.

The occupation of the coasts was rapid, perhaps taking no longer than 2,000 to 3,000 years. But after that, the genetic patterns suggest that populations quickly settled down into specific territory or country, and have moved very little since.

The genetic lineages within each region are clearly very divergent. They tell us that people – once settled in a particular landscape – stayed connected within their realms for up to 50,000 years, despite huge environmental and climate changes.

We should remember that this is about 10 times as long as all of the European history we’re commonly taught.

This pattern is very unusual elsewhere in the world, and underlines why there might be such remarkable Aboriginal cultural and spiritual connection to land and country.

As Kaurna Elder, Lewis O’Brien, one of the original hair donors and part of the advisory group for the study, put it:

“Aboriginal people have always known that we have been on our land since the start of our time, but it is important to have science show that to the rest of the world.”

Watch the video. URL:https://youtu.be/R6LzbKszKhQ

Do You Really Think a Group ‘Asthma Attack’ Caused 8500 People to Drop Like Flies in Australia?


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‘This is one of the weirdest stories I’ve heard in a long time. So very weird that I have to call BS on the whole darned thing.

Last week, 8500 people were sent to the hospital in Melbourne, Australia during a period of five hours due to a freak storm that caused what authorities are referring to as “thunderstorm asthma.” An ambulance was dispatched every 4.5 seconds during the peak of the storm, and eight people died.

Is it just me or does this sound like a biological or chemical attack? This video explains how our government, in cooperation with the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Investigation and other world governments, have performed some unsettling testing. (Think about stuff like MK Ultra mind control experiments or the US allowing Nazi scientists to quietly continue their work in America after WWII.) It goes on to provide a compelling case against the official explanation.’

 

Last week, 8500 people were sent to the hospital in Melbourne, Australia during a period of five hours due to a freak storm that caused what authorities are referring to as “thunderstorm asthma.” An ambulance was dispatched every 4.5 seconds during the peak of the storm, and eight people died.

Is it just me or does this sound like a biological or chemical attack? This video explains how our government, in cooperation with the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Investigation and other world governments, have performed some unsettling testing. (Think about stuff like MK Ultra mind control experiments or the US allowing Nazi scientists to quietly continue their work in America after WWII.) It goes on to provide a compelling case against the official explanation.

One such example is the weaponization of extremely allergenic natural substances.

Were the citizens in Melbourne just specimens in a petri dish during a grand-scale test of a biological weapon?

Watch the video.URL:https://youtu.be/VhhI9KWa_zc

Australia Becomes First Country To Begin Microchipping Its Public


Australia may become the first country in the world to microchip its public. NBC news predicted that all Americans would be microchipped by 2017, but it seems Australia may have already beaten them to it.

 
Back in 2010, CBS news reported that the Australian government had a potential RFID microchipping plan in the works related to the health care system. 

Flesh-eating disease could spread throughout Australia


It is believed the bug is spread by either mosquitoes, or through possums after they have been bitten by the insect. Photo / AP
It is believed the bug is spread by either mosquitoes, or through possums after they have been bitten by the insect. 

A flesh-eating zombie bug is spreading in Australia, gnawing at skin and causing amputations in extreme cases.

The Bairnsdale ulcer has been around for decades but its prevalence in the country is growing, with parts of Victoria and Queensland becoming hot spots.

And NSW could be next.

Tens of thousands of people are at risk of catching the gruesome flesh-eating bug, and doctors aren’t sure where it comes from or what causes it.

It is believed the bug is spread by either mosquitoes, or through possums after they have been bitten by the insect.

A woman got the Bairnsdale Ulcer on her ankle. Photo / News Corp Australia
A woman got the Bairnsdale Ulcer on her ankle.

It starts out looking like any normal mosquito bite but months later a volcano-like wound will develop and start eating through the flesh.

It’s easily curable if caught early but, if not, it can lead to further complications. Some sufferers need surgery, some endure extreme scarring and others even need to have limbs amputated.

The bug is aggressive and ulcer can be transmitted to a person as soon as they step into one of the hot spots.

Austin Health infectious diseases physician and medical researcher Professor Paul Johnson said the bug should not be ignored.

He said more research needed to be done into the spread of the disease, to stop it seeping into other states.

Breast implant patients at The Cosmetic Institute knocked out without consent, report reveals.


Patients at one of Australia’s most popular cosmetic surgery clinics are being knocked out without their consent, an explosive leaked report has revealed.

Report’s key findings:

  • Patients given high levels of anaesthetic without their consent
  • Drugs given in excess of the safe limits
  • Patients suffered rapid heart beat, seizure, cardiac arrest
  • Clinics placed the health and safety of the public at risk

The ABC can reveal women getting breast implants at The Cosmetic Institute (TCI) were given dangerously high doses of drugs that can cause cardiac arrests.

According to the NSW Health Care Complaints Commission (HCCC) report, in the last 12 months six patients suffered potentially life-threatening complications while getting breast implants, including rapid heartbeat, seizures and cardiac arrest.

High doses of anaesthetics used at the clinic appear to be to blame.

“Adrenaline was used routinely (in combination with local anaesthetic agents) … at well above the accepted upper limit of safe dosage,” the report found.

It found the clinics “placed the health and safety of members of the public at risk”.

Merrilyn Walton, a professor of Medical Education, Patient Safety at the University of Sydney, said the findings were “extremely worrying”.

“It’s hard for me to imagine in 2016 that this is actually occurring,” she said.

The Cosmetic Institute is Australia’s largest provider of cosmetic surgery.

It has clinics in Sydney and the Gold Coast with plans to open in Victoria.

The company’s annual projected turnover for 2014-15 was $35 million to $40 million.

The highly critical report found patients were being given high doses of anaesthetic cocktails, to the point where they were “under a general anaesthetic”.

But the clinics are only licensed to provide “conscious sedation”.

Patients had not given their consent to be put under a general anaesthetic.

“TCI’s consent procedures were inadequate — as patients are being placed under either deeper sedation or general anaesthetic with no consent provided for this,” the report found.

Patients not aware of TCI procedure’s risk

Professor Walton said she was very concerned that patients had not given proper, informed consent.

“If doctors are honest about the level of drugs they’re using, they would have to expose the serious risk these women face during this procedure,” she said.

“I can’t imagine anyone would consent to having these procedures done in such circumstances.”

Doses were not being adjusted for individual patients’ size and body weight.

“Local anaesthetic drugs were used at TCI in excess of safe doses and dose calculations were not individualised according to patients’ weight,” experts said.

Media player: “Space” to play, “M” to mute, “left” and “right” to seek.

 Daniel Fleming from the Australasian College of Cosmetic Surgeons said the doctors involved needed to be held to account for their actions.

“All of these unlawful anaesthetics, all of these dangerous complications occurred at the hands of medical practitioners, anaesthetists and surgeons. We would like to know if the HCCC is taking action against those doctors who have acted unlawfully, misled patients and put their lives at risk,” Dr Fleming said.

The ABC first raised concerns about The Cosmetic Institute last year, when it was revealed TCI was under investigation for alleged inappropriate use of anaesthetic.

The company now performs procedures at Concord Private Hospital in Sydney and another private hospital in Southport, Queensland.

Patients tell of botched breast implant surgery

Narelle Bayon

Narelle Bayon has been in constant pain since getting breast implants at The Cosmetic Institute in Sydney.

“In my arm, there’s constant pain, it’s like a burning. As soon as I elevate my arm, my arm goes numb and I have to shake my arm because it goes numb. It just tingles,” she said.

Plastic surgeons have told Ms Bayon the pocket her surgeon cut for the implant in her left breast was too small and narrow.

“The pain is permanent. It’s the result of basically the implant, because it’s pushing on the nerves in my arm. It’s probably going to be there for life,” she said.

The experience has had a devastating impact on the young mother.

I wish I never went to The Cosmetic Institute.

Narelle Bayon

“I’ve actually had to see a psychiatrist because it’s just too much to deal with. You do this for yourself, thinking you might be able to feel better for yourself,” Ms Bayon said.

“I get sore and I get tired, and it just burns around my neck.”

She regrets having surgery at the cut-price cosmetic clinic.

“I wish I never went there. Simple as that. I wish I never went to The Cosmetic Institute,” she said.

Dr Fleming said patients should be wary of clinics offering cut-price or cheap surgery.

“Cosmetic surgery is no different to anything else. You usually get what you pay for. The problem with surgical procedures is that when you find out the true cost of the procedure, you may have paid for it with your health and safety, or even your life,” he said.

TCI has taken action to address concerns

The Cosmetic Institute general manager Andrew Gill said the clinics had already taken action to address the issues investigated by the HCCC.

“Effective from last year, all TCI surgeries in NSW are now carried out at licensed premises at Concord Private Hospital,” he said.

Mr Gill said the procedures were done under deep sedation or general anaesthetic.

“TCI is also reviewing consent procedures and documentation to ensure that patients are fully aware of the level of sedation under which they will placed,” he said.

Mr Gill said the clinics had reviewed their procedures to ensure safe upper limits for adrenaline and local anaesthetic usage.

He said TCI had performed more than 15,000 breast augmentation procedures since 2012.

Reform of cosmetic surgery stalls

In Australia, doctors do not need to be experienced as a surgeon to perform cosmetic surgery.

The NSW Government is considering whether there should be a new class of “cosmetic surgery”, so that cosmetic procedures could only be undertaken in a licensed private health facility or hospital.

The HCCC report recommended a major overhaul of procedures including the clinic only perform breast augmentation at “licensed facilities”.

Growing complaints about cosmetic surgery have also prompted the Medical Board to conduct a widespread review of the cosmetic surgery industry in Australia.

Changes could include mandatory cooling-off periods for all patients before cosmetic surgery procedures, with a three-month cooling off period for patients younger than 18, and mandatory assessment by a registered psychologist or psychiatrist.

 

Domestic pets to be replaced by robotic imposters by 2025?


Robotic pets could replace the real things in a few decades, according to an Australian based researcher. An increasingly urbanized population could mean real animals remain only for the super-rich, and robotic imitations could become the norm.

The paper was published by Dr Jean-Loup Rault, an animal welfare researcher from the University of Melbourne, who says the market for robotic pets will take off in the next 10 to 15 years, with large tech companies already jockeying for position in the new market.

“Pet robotics has come a long way from the Tamagotchi craze of the mid-90s. In Japan, people are becoming so attached to their robot dogs that they hold funerals for them when the circuits die,” Rault wrote in the paper published in the Frontiers in Veterinary Science journal.

The reasons for the possible shift from real pets to robotic versions are likely to be caused by the increasing urbanization of the planet. Currently, over half those in the Western world own a pet, with rapid growth in Asia, where having a domestic animal is seen as an example of one’s social status. However, with the global population expected to rise to almost 10 billion by 2050, Rault doesn’t see how keeping domesticated pet can remain viable.

“A more realistic future is that pets may become a luxury possession for people who can afford to sustain their cost and fulfill their needs in terms of space, social, and mental needs according to possibly higher ethical standards raised by future societies,” he said.

Dr Rault is predicting a move from real pets to robotic replacements could herald a seismic shift on a par with changes that came in “the industrial revolution.”

“We are possibly witnessing the dawn of a new era, the digital revolution with likely effects on pet ownership, similar to the industrial revolution which replaced animal power for petrol and electrical engines,” the animal welfare researcher wrote.

However, the researcher believes the possible explosion in popularity of virtual pets could be a double edged sword. On the one hand, it would allow the elderly and those with allergies to experience having a ‘pet.’ But if the population gets used to not having to feed or exercise a robotic pet, this could have a detrimental effect on the treatment of domesticated animals.

“If artificial pets can replicate the human benefits obtained from live pets, does that mean that the human–animal emotional bond is solely dependent on ourselves and the image that we project on a live or artificial interactive partner? Does it ethically matter if the benefits of keeping artificial pets outweigh the risks, sparing other live pets’ potential animal welfare issues?”

Dr Rault also cited the example of the Paro robot. This is a robotic baby seal, which has been designed to engender positive responses from those using it. It has even been classed as a medical device in the US, with the designers deliberately using an unfamiliar animal to overcome expectations people may have had from a popular domestic pet.

“Patients using the Paro robot reported that they “know it is not real but still love it,” and talk to it as a living being. Hence, robots can without doubt trigger human emotions.”

The development and advancement of robotic pets could also have unforeseen dangers. Bill Gates has warned that artificial intelligence poses a real threat to mankind, while Professor Stephen Hawking adds that due to the slow evolution of humans, they may not be able to compete and would be superseded by artificial intelligence.

“Are animals what make us humans? Or are we witnessing a leap into what domestication always was: to select animals to be perfect pets, with a need to update the definition of pets as an animal or an artificial device kept for pleasure?” Dr Rault concluded.

watch the video. URL: https://youtu.be/oJq5PQZHU-I

FDA to assist pharma in developing abuse-deterrent opioids


The US FDA is to assist the pharmaceutical industry in developing abuse-deterrent opioids and in making these safer formulations available sooner, according to a final guidance document issued on 1 April 2015.

These safer opioids are to be formulated in ways that make it more difficult to snort or inject the medications.

The document, titled “Abuse-Deterrent Opioids – Evaluation and Labelling Guidance for Industry”, is part of the FDA’s efforts to curb the escalating misuse or abuse of prescription opioids in the US, which has become a public health concern. [http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/UCM334743.pdf;Addiction 2014;109:177-181; Addiction 2014;109:185-186]

“The science of abuse-deterrent medication is still relatively new and rapidly evolving. The FDA is eager to engage with manufacturers to support advancements in this area and make these medications available as quickly as possible,” said FDA Commissioner, Dr. Margaret Hamburg.

In the Asia-Pacific region, Australia takes the lead in the opioid epidemic and the development of measures against abuse.

“The prescription of oxycodone and tramadol in Australia saw dramatic increases between 1992 and 2007,” said William Chui, President of the Society of Hospital Pharmacists of Hong Kong. “In Victoria, a 21-fold increase was seen in the detection of oxycodone in deaths reported to the Coroner between 2000 and 2009. Almost 54 percent of the death cases were the result of drug toxicity.” [Inj Prev 2011;17:254-259]

“Diversion of prescription opioids to drug abusers or dealers is very common in Australia. To curb the opioid epidemic, a formulation of hydromorphone is enteric-coated with a hard substance to prevent abuse through injection,” he told MIMS Oncology. “Furthermore, community pharmacists actively provide counselling and monitoring for patients on opioid therapy through a government-run programme.”

“In the rest of Asia Pacific, little data is published on the prevalence of opioid diversion,” he continued. “In Hong Kong, opioid diversion is uncommon because these analgesics are generally underused except in oncology settings. Also, our choice of opioid analgesics is limited, and no abuse-deterrent opioids are currently available on the Hong Kong market.”

Although the development of abuse-deterrent opioids can help reduce diversion and abuse, Chui said pharmacists also play important roles in ensuring appropriate use of these medications. “Their roles include opioid prescription monitoring, identification and referral of patients at risk of opioid abuse, and collaborative care with physicians in cases of misuse, abuse or diversion,” he suggested.

“In Hong Kong, opioid registries should be implemented and made mandatory for all prescribers, including those in the private sector,” he added.

Doctors hail melanoma breakthrough with new drug that allows patients to live longer .


Doctors are hailing the results of a new study that shows more patients with advanced melanoma lived longer and had fewer side effects when given a new drug than those on the standard treatment.

More than 70 per cent of patients given the newer drug, Keytruda, lived for one year, whereas only 58 per cent of those on Yervoy lived an extra year.

Associate Professor Georgina Long from the Melanoma Institute of Australia said it was a groundbreaking development for melanoma patients and all cancer patients.

“The results are world-first, where two effective immunotherapies are directly compared, and we significantly improve outcomes for patients even further,” she said.

“This really is important as this new drug works much better. To show such a large improvement is outstanding.”

Australia has the highest incidence of melanoma in the world, with an Australian dying from the disease every six hours.

The results have just been published in the New England Journal of Medicine.

The study, comparing two immune checkpoint inhibitors, demonstrated that pembrolizumab (Keytruda) significantly prolonged progression-free and overall survival.

Keytruda works by boosting the patient’s own immune system so it can kill the cancer cells.

But the trial showed the new drug did not work in 30 per cent of patients.

“This is not a panacea and for everyone,” Professor Long said. “We are now looking at why those patients don’t respond.”

Study results one of the biggest breakthroughs: expert

The results are one of the biggest breakthroughs in treating melanoma, according to cancer expert Professor Rick Kefford, from Macquarie University.

“It’s the most important development in treating this disease,” he said.

Patients tolerated the drug very well, with few serious side effects.

“We found those patients where there was deep shrinkage of the tumour did really well and were alive many years later,” Professor Long said.

The study was funded by the drug manufacturer Merck, Sharp and Dohme, and is likely to be used by the company to argue the drug should be listed on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS).

Eight-hundred-and-thirty-four patients took part in the study from 16 countries, including Australia.

Doctors said the new drug was appropriate to use in patients with advanced melanoma, where cancer has spread or where it cannot be removed by surgery.

The tumour also needs to have an abnormal “BRAF” gene.