What are the most terrifying horror movies?

The VVitch

The VVitch is a more psychological horror that deals with life in new England during the 1600’s. The movie draws you in with a unsettling feeling of violation, like you are intruding on a story that was never supposed to be brought to light. It has some slight gore but it is used carefully and sparsely.

With a 91% on rotten tomatoes and as one of my favorites i highly recommend the movie, especially if your just beginning the great journey into the horror genre.

The Women In Black

The women in black is a good place to start in the supernatural/jumpscare side of horror. The movie is about a lawyer that has to put a recently deceased persons affairs in order. When he arrives in the town where the person died it is obvious that the village is hiding something. Its has a good take on the thriller/mystery side of horror which we sometimes rarely see.

It sadly only has a 67% rating by rotten tomatoes

The Boy

Lets make something clear, absolutely hate dolls and creepy/weird kids. Lucky for me this movie has both combined into one entity. The boy follows a nanny that was called to babysit a child while his parents are out of town. To her surprise the kid is a doll with a rather strict set of rules she must follow in order to avoid his consequences. Sounds heartwarming right?

It has a 60% rating by rotten tomatoes but its all about personal preference really.

Now time to get to the good stuff

The Conjuring

The Conjuring Series is based off of the real life investigations of Lorraine and Ed warren who (if you’re like me and waste too much time on the internet you know who I’m talkin’ about) are world famous paranormal investigators. I prefer the second conjuring but to understand a little bit more about the characters i recommend watching the first one as well.

The conjuring has an 86% rating on rotten tomatoes

(finally a horror movie that doesn’t begin with ‘the’)

Lets talk about Sinister

Where to begin with this movie? The plot focuses on a true crime writer who hasn’t written a book in years. So he does the obvious thing, solve the murder tapes he found in his houses attic. With a combination of gore, the supernatural, and mystery a fan favorite was born.

The critics aren’t fond of this movie though, giving it a rating of 67%

The Silence of The Lambs

The Silence of The Lambs is a classic for a reason. With enough violence to go around and then some, this movie has stolen the hearts of many horror fans. An FBI agent named Clarice Starling is granted the unfortunate privilege of a interview with everyone’s favorite cannibal Dr. Hannibal Lecter. Her job is to try and get any information he may have about an on going case.

Sadly, memes have kinda ruined the movie for me

hehehehe… sorry

The movie has a 95% rating. If you have a faint heart i dont suggest eating while watching this movie.

Poltergeist (1982)

Again with people moving into a new house poltergeist takes place in California. As kids communicate with spirits in their house through the TV. Eventually the at first playful and friendly communications turn more sinister. When the youngest (depicted above) goes missing the family reaches out to parapsychologist and eventually an exorcist for help.

The movie was rated at 88% and is admired by most horror fans

Paranormal Activity

Hello paranormal activity my old friend. Ive come to talk about you again. As one of my first horror movies it is near and dear to my heart. Though its not very scary it is well done and was a original concept when it was released.

The first movies were rated around 80% but as the series continues the ratings have dropped significantly dropping to 14%



Gore…. Its just Gore…. All of it….

Gore aside the saw franchise has a very loyal fanbase and continues to rake in those ever treasured green dollar bills. If you dont mind alot of blood and gut wrenching decisions this movies for you. If you’ve already seen it I suggest being brave and attempting to eat something while watching.

so…. im too lazy to write a hundred more reviews so here’s a list of some favorites

Honorable Mentions and Classics


What are the top 10 movies of 2017?


The big sick was probably the funniest movie I saw this year. It managed to bring a smile on my face throughout the movie. I loved Kumail Nanjiani’s performance in this movie, I think he did a very good job. Also Ray Romano, who plays the girl’s father was terrific and incredibly funny in his role. This is a kind of movie which I think anyone can watch and enjoy a lot. I highly recommend this one.


I am not a fan of action movies involving big car chase sequences. But I really loved this movie a lot and the reason is probably Edgar Wright’s Direction. He directed the shit out of this movie. It is so fast paced, not a single moment in this movie seems to drag and I was invested in the characters throughout. The music of this movie is incredible. The first thing I did after seeing this film was to download the soundtrack, it’s so amazing.


I was really confused whether to put this at 8 or 7. I think it was one of the first movies of 2017 that I saw and its memories are now a bit fuzzy for me. This movie was amazing. I loved every second of this film. It was so satisfying to see a good M. Night Shyamalan movie after a long time. It was a brilliant psychological thriller plus its ending was just mind blowing. But I think the best part of this film was James Mcavoy, his performance in this movie was probably my favourite of the year. I think he is a very underrated actor and deserves a lot of recognition for his work in this movie.

7 IT

Well when it comes to movies with kids in the lead roles, I think I become a little biased. IT was probably one of the most fun experiences I had watching a movie this year. The kids in this movie did a very great job and I loved the Losers club. Bill Skarsgård who played the role of Pennywise the clown was scary as hell and did a fantastic job. The thing that I love the most about this film was how it presents that real life horrors can be as much terrifying as the supernatural ones. I loved IT


After Batman, Spider Man is my favourite superhero of all time. I loved this movie much more than I thought would. I wasn’t very excited to watch this film, I am a big fan of Sam Rami’s first two spider man films and thought marvel would ruin my childhood superhero. But I was wrong, this movie blew me away. I was smiling throughout the film, it really captured the essence of spider man beautifully, being the superhero we all relate to. This movie wasn’t just a good superhero movie but also a great coming of age story. Also this movie finally gave us a good villain in a Marvel film after a long time. Michael Keaton as Venom was freaking awesome.


Wind River was the most surprisingly good film of this year. I loved every minute of this film. It was not just a very good murder mystery but more than that a great drama. The movie’s theme about loss and how to deal with it by accepting it was brilliant and was executed very well. Jeremy Renner’s performance in this movie was probably the his best performance I have ever seen, he was so amazing. The dialogues in this film were phenomenal, the cinematography was brilliant and also the score was just amazing. I think this film is one of the most overlooked films of the year. I strongly recommend this film.


Ever since I heard Denis Villeneuve was gonna direct the sequel to the original blade runner, I was damn excited for this movie. It was my most awaited films of the year and man this movie was amazing. Denis Villeneuve is one of my favourite directors working today. This movie was a visual treat from start to finish, you can literally take any shot of this film and can set it as your wallpaper. Roger Deakins Cinematography is probably the strongest aspect of this film. Also the themes of humanity presented in this film are phenomenal. Ryan Gosling again gave a very rich performance and his portrayal of his character was brilliant. Harrison Ford also gave a brilliant performance and watching him reprise his old role was amazing. In technical sense I think this movie is probably the best one of this year. This movie will inspire a generation of filmmakers to come.


Episode 8 of Star Wars was probably the most divisive movie of 2017. There are people who absolutely hate this film and people who think this is the best star wars film since the Empire Strikes Back. I belong to the latter part of the spectrum. The Last jedi was the most fun experience I had watching a film in theatre this year. I literally clapped when the movie ended. Now see I have never been a huge star wars fan, since I didn’t grew up watching star wars films. I watched the original trilogy in a day or two and then watched Force Awakens and Rogue one, never saw the prequels. This movie made me fall in love with the franchise. This movie did nothing that I was expecting to happen in this movie, and it was so amazing to see a film taking a lot of risks to tell a fresh story, probably the reason it pissed off the fans. The underlying message that the film tries to tell that there will never be a last jedi, that the heroic stories will continue to inspire a generations to come was I think very beautiful.


I think I am one of the very few people who enjoy X Men movies more than the MCU movies. I think the success of the first X Men movie was the reason we see so many superhero movies today. Wolverine played by Hugh Jackman has always been my favourite superhero character of all time. His last portrayal of this character in this film was one of the best portrayal of a comic book character (after heath ledger’s joker) I have ever seen. This movie I think is easily the best superhero movie since The Dark Knight. Hugh Jackman’s performance in this movie was so amazing and heartbreaking at the same time. Patrick Stewart also gave a mesmerizing performance in this film. It was great to see such a different look in the superhero genre, since most of the superhero movies we see today are action comedies. I think logan was one of the most emotional films of the year. I literally teared up in the end. There isn’t single flaw I could find in this movie and I have watched this movie now 2 times. I wish Hugh Jackman gets nominated for an Academy Award for this film but that probably won’t happen


Greta Gerwig directorial debut, Lady Bird is my favourite movie of 2017. I think it is the best coming of age film I have ever seen, and trust me I have seen a lot of such films. This movie was so beautiful. It occupied my full attention from start to finish and for a person like me its quite rare. I think everyone who sees this film can relate to its characters. The relationship between the mother and daughter portrayed in this film is incredible. Saoirse Ronan really killed it with her performance, she was just amazing. Also Laurie Metcalf who plays her mother was as good as her in this movie. Really the worst part of this film was that it ended, I wanted to see more of this movie as I was so much invested in the characters. I hope it wins the oscar for best film this year.


The urge to fight one decisive battle has undone countless real-world rebellions—and those in the Star Wars universe as well.
OVER THE COURSE of the Star Wars franchise, we’ve been treated to some epic battles: dogfights between X-Wings and TIE fighters at Yavin-4, AT-ATs on the frozen wastes of Hoth, jungle warfare on Endor, and Rogue One’s epic battles on the beaches of Scarif. The Last Jedi offers no shortage of skirmishes, either. Except this time, the Resistance’s consistently bad military tactics finally catch up with it.

From a military perspective, one thing has always stood out: The Empire, and now the First Order, have nearly limitless ships, equipment, and manpower, while the Rebels/Resistance have scant resources. With every engagement, this band of rebel fighters grows ever smaller, while there seems to be no lack of available Stormtroopers. At least previously, though, those engagements ended with the destruction of Death Stars and a Starkiller Base, even if unsound Rebel strategic thinking got them there. Now those bad choices are playing out more realistically—and tragically—than ever.

Spoilers ahead.

Win It All

While The Last Jedi mainly focuses on the Jedi order and its fate, perhaps the most striking feature of the film is that the Resistance has finally played its last card. The Resistance—and the Rebels before them—sought the decisive battle, that one moment that would destroy the enemy’s will to fight and bring about peace in the Galaxy. That seemed to be the case after Return of the Jedi, and yet somehow in the intervening 30 years the Republic squandered away all that they had won.

But history shows that decisive battles do little to further a rebel cause. During the American Civil War, Confederate General Robert E. Lee spent years pursuing a decisive battle versus the United States Army. Yet, even after one-sided Confederate successes such as Fredericksburg in 1862 and Chancellorsville in 1863, the US Army of the Potomac remained in the field, inflicting losses that the Confederates could not afford. Lee’s search for decisive battle led to his force being winnowed away to nearly nothing. The truly great generals throughout history have realized that seeking a decisive battle only puts one’s force in more peril than the risk is worth.

In The Last Jedi, the Resistance lacks truly great generals. Commander Poe Dameron is a skilled fighter pilot but hardly a strategic thinker; he’s a hammer who sees a world full of nails. He gambles the Resistance bomber fleet on a shot to take out a First Order dreadnought-class star destroyer. Not only that, but he does so in violation of a direct order from General Leia Organa. The mission succeeds in knocking out the enemy ship, but at the cost of the entire Resistance bomber fleet, for which Poe is reduced in rank.

Seeking that decisive battle with the First Order only resulted in dead pilots and lost resources. It solved nothing in the long term. And as the rest of The Last Jedi makes clear, for every enemy star destroyer or frigate the Resistance accounts for, the First Order can replace it without blinking an eye.

Rather than making massive sacrifices to blow up one big ship, the real strength of the Resistance rests in its ability to survive. The presumed heroics of individuals like Poe and Finn make it hard for them to do even that.

In many ways, the Resistance shares that trait with real-world rebellions throughout history. Most are worn down through the sheer lack of resources and through attrition; a decisive battle becomes their best way to make a grand statement.

In The Last Jedi, the Resistance lacks truly great generals.

The successful counterexample, and a model the Resistance would have been better served following, is the American Revolution. George Washington’s genius lay less in his ability to take the fight to the British—although he excelled at that—and more in the way that he prioritized preservation of troops over seeking out a singular moment of triumph. His ability to exfiltrate units from near-disaster mattered just as much as his offensive strategies.

But just as General Organa finally recognizes the importance of preserving her force—too late, one could argue—she enters a coma after the First Order begins its bombardment of the last Resistance Frigate. (RIP Admiral Ackbar.) Command devolves to Vice Admiral Amilyn Holdo, who recognizes the strategic need to protect their force, but has what proves to be a fatal flaw: She fails to communicate well.

Holdo knows that she can jettison the escape transports and they will be cloaked from the First Order, but doesn’t share the plan with Poe. She instead belittles him, and leaves him eager to take action. Left out of the loop, Poe and Finn concoct a hare-brained scheme to save the last three Resistance ships from First Order bombardment, another all-or-nothing gambit that not only fails, but gets the majority of transports destroyed in the process.

Some Like It Hoth

When what remains of the Resistance lands on Crait, a planet that houses an musty old Rebel Alliance outpost, they yet again seek a decisive engagement, this time with only a handful of fighters and some infantry left. Crait is a terrible spot for a last stand. The rebellion stuffs itself into a cave, with only one entry and egress point, and little in the way of protection.

They’re shielded from planetary bombardment, so the First Order lands a ground force. Now you’ve got massive new AT-M6 walkers facing off against the serried trenches and rusting turret guns of the Resistance.

Sound familiar? Yes, it’s looking like we’re about to get a repeat of The Empire Strikes Back‘s battle of Hoth, where resistance fighters just barely manage to escape after suffering grave losses.

Back then, Imperial armor cut through the Rebels’ linear defenses, brushed past Luke Skywalker’s head-on air attack with snow speeders, and blasted apart the shield generator. However, the plucky Rebel troopers had managed to buy enough time for the main force to escape off planet, under the protective fire of the ion cannon.

  • Fast-forward 30 years to Crait. The Resistance, clearly, has learned nothing in the interim. Their dismounted troopers charge into World War I-like trenches, gamely looking down blaster scopes at armored vehicles they can’t even hope to touch. Poe Dameron, while a wizard in the air, can’t muster two tactical brain cells as he flies his sortie of incredibly ancient craft directly into the guns of the First Order’s armor.

Much like Luke Skywalker in Empire, Poe doesn’t seem to realize that the AT-series has no firepower on its sides or rear. Nope, it’s straight up the middle for Poe, with predictable carnage for the last handful of Resistance pilots that remain. At least Poe, unlike Luke, eventually realizes it’s a suicide mission, and pulls back after taking losses.

Of course, they’re not much better off back in the cave. Only the arrival of Luke Skywalker in full Jedi power mode saves the Resistance from being snuffed out in entirety. But only just barely; all that’s left can fit inside the Millennium Falcon.

By consistently refusing to learn the rules of unity of command, communication across the chain of command, and the necessity of preserving their force, the Resistance has fought itself nearly out of existence. If rebellions are built on hope, then they survive through skilled withdrawals—which almost never happens in the Star Wars saga. And in The Last Jedi, that failure has brought what was once a promising rebellion to the brink.


ANOTHER DECEMBER, ANOTHER massive opening for a Star Wars movie—this time to the tune of $450 million worldwide. That alone isn’t really surprising; Star Warsfans tend to be the See It Opening Weekend type. What is surprising, though, is how divisive the film turned out to be. (Star Wars fans also tend to be the Argue About Changes to Their Fave Franchise type, too, apparently.)

What’s at issue? Largely, according to the reviews below the film’s Luke-warm 56 percent audience score on Rotten Tomatoes, folks didn’t like that writer-director Rian Johnson’s chapter veered in deeper and darker directions than The Force Awakens and didn’t love what the movie did with Skywalker (and many of the characters in general).

We here at WIRED, though, are on board with Johnson’s version. But the dust-up does have us thinking. A lot. To work through our feelings, we assembled writers and editors Peter Rubin, Jason Tanz, Angela Watercutter, Brendan Nystedt, and Jordan McMahon to talk it out. Let’s get started. May the Force be with us, always.

(Spoiler alert: There will be spoilers here. You’ve been warned.)

Angela Watercutter: First off, I deeply enjoyed The Last Jedi. I’ve seen it twice already and am not ruling out seeing it again with childhood friends when I’m home at the holidays. I got earnestly choked up a couple different times. (Some of this was mourning Carrie Fisher/Leia Organa. When she and Laura Dern’s Vice Admiral Holdo were discussing the losses the Resistance had suffered? Full waterworks.) The lightsaber battle with Rey (Daisy Ridley) and Kylo Ren (Adam Driver) in Snoke’s throne room might end up being my new favorite lightsaber battle of all time. And there were just so many beautiful, wonderful shots and moments. When the whole movie went silent as Holdo destroyed the First Order’s ship? Who even does that? Rian Johnson does that.

Which is why I’m so surprised it’s turned out to be so divisive. I was prepared for it to upset a few fans mad at the inclusion of so many women and people of color, but this is something else. This is just folks thinking the filmmaking is bad. Which seems odd. Am I alone here? Is there anyone here who wants to take the side that it’s garbage? Or perhaps offer theories as to why people are insisting on dragging this movie?

Jason Tanz: I will take up that challenge, Angela—well, partly. I fully enjoyed the movie and expect to see it again. That said, I can’t say I left wanting… more. In fact, I wanted less. Less Dameron/Holdo drama. (I’m not a “What’s the plan?” stan.) Less Finn/Rose MacGuffin-chasing on Planet Baccarat. A little less Luke-Skywalker-scaling-a-hill. (Though I could have used a little more beast-milking, tbh.) There are movies—including some Star Wars movies!—that zip by. This was not one of them. And the endless series of climactic scenes had me grabbing my coat prematurely, only to sit back down after realizing that no, we still had 30 more minutes of lightsaber-rattling ahead of us. My response was certainly flavored by the fact that I caught the 11pm show (which previews pushed back a full half hour) and thus left the theater at TWO IN THE FREAKING AYEM. So, Angela, perhaps some people are dragging this movie because it dragged.

Now look, fans don’t necessarily come to Star Wars for efficient storytelling, which is why I still give this film a thumbs-up. The last hour was a cascade of pleasure—I particularly loved the crimson under-tundra in that climactic battle. But some of the film’s best moments were, in retrospect, head-scratchy. Rey’s Malkovich moment in the Dark Side was audio-visually arresting, but the metaphor didn’t fully track for me—why is her flirtation with evil illustrated by a domino rally of snaps and gasps? Likewise, the (BIGTIME SPOILERS FOR REAL) revelation that Luke was holo-apparating into his showdown with Kylo Ren was genuinely thrilling… but his death felt tacked on. We hadn’t seen Force-Pushing (or whatever we’re calling this) deplete anyone’s power before, so why should it kill him?

As I say, none of this bothered me, not really. I don’t come to Star Wars for narrative cohesion or metaphysical rigor. I come to be emotionally manipulated and visually overwhelmed, and boy howdy was I! By the standards of Star Wars (which are super-high standards), I thought Last Jedi more than accomplished what it set out to do. Are the haters wrong? Not exactly. They just wanted the wrong movie.

So, let’s ignore them and think about where this film rests in the canon. Where does it place in your ranking? Which film does it remind you most of? Which elements were you most excited to watch them remix?

Brendan Nystedt: I totally agree with Angela. This movie challenges our notion of what Star Wars is while also paying homage to all of its many facets. TLJ is far from perfect but when a big-budget two-and-a-half-hour, 200-million-dollar Christmas release can have an audience cheering for a guy stuck on a faraway island meditating at its climax, there’s something special going on. The collective gasp of the audience when Holdo jumps to lightspeed, slicing the First Order fleet to ribbons, as Angela already brought up, sends chills down my spine when I think about it.

This isn’t the comfort-food casserole that J.J. Abrams brought to the Star Wars potlatch with The Force Awakens—it’s challenging, flawed filmmaking with big ideas I think the franchise hasn’t had since the prequels. It’s a defter hand at work here (as much as I love and appreciate the work of George Lucas) but still.

I’ve seen this movie twice and I’ll be lining up more viewings to come. To answer one of Jason’s questions, I think that this film resembles no other single Star Warsfilm—there are shades of Hoth towards the end on Crait, and Snoke’s chambers resemble the Emperor’s Throne Room scene in Return of the Jedi, which itself was already nodded to at the beginning of Revenge of the Sith, and many of the gags this film reminded me of humorous asides throughout the saga (whether it’s R2-D2 lighting battle droids on fire in ROTS or the various critters in Jabba’s palace). Most of these callbacks are superficial, I feel, and Johnson takes every opportunity he gets to turn the audience’s expectations upside-down.

Another thing he turns upside-down is J.J.’s beloved Mystery Box. Rian gleefully throws out the annoying questions raised by TFA regarding the backgrounds of Snoke and Rey. Snoke’s dead and Rey’s a nobody.

Having thought about the backlash from the fans, I can only imagine that it’s something to do with the somewhat toxic relationship people have with criticism and the studio system. If a film’s too on-the-nose? You’re being pandered to! Get angry! Film isn’t what you expected? Rage against Rotten Tomatoes! There’s no pleasing some people either way. For what it’s worth, the fans I routinely interact with on Star Wars Twitter either respectfully had issues or absolutely loved this film for its character arcs, bold decisions, and emotional sensitivity.

I think if I had anything bad to say about the movie, it’d be that there are a lot of characters and I think not everyone gets what they deserved. Poor Phasma yet again gets relegated to metallic villain-of-the-week status, this time getting engulfed in flames after a showdown. At least her beef with Finn seems to have been concluded. Maz Kanata appears so briefly that you’d be forgiven for missing her entirely during a bathroom break.

I don’t rank Star Wars films any more, but I know for sure that I’ll be enjoying The Last Jedi for years to come, and I love the polarizing reaction. It’s going to be a long two years until Episode IX

Jordan McMahon: I’ve only seen The Last Jedi once so far, but I’m already anxious to see it again. Brendan’s absolutely right, this doesn’t feel like any other Star Wars movie. That can be polarizing, but Johnson’s willingness to toy with audience expectations at every turn paid off.

It’s been mentioned before, but Holdo’s jump to lightspeed was a standout scene for me. I’ve never experienced an entire theater go silent for that long, especially on opening weekend when some buster is always eager to crack a sub-par joke. It wasn’t just a spectacular shot, it was a nice payoff in a movie where it felt like the good guys were taking L’s at every turn.

I went in without reading too many reviews, and I was hopeful that we’d get some answers as to who Rey’s parents were, or find out more about Snoke. On that front, the criticisms make sense, but Johnson’s handling of those questions felt more rewarding than any other answer could have. By ditching those plotlines, we got one of the most spectacular lightsaber fights we’ve seen, backed by Ridley’s and Driver’s excellent performances. That’s sort of where I land. Johnson’s decisions aren’t always a home run, but by subverting our expectations he was able to bring some new concepts into the Star Wars universe that made it feel new and exciting.

I do wish we had gotten more time with Holdo, Maz Katana, and Captain Phasma, which we maybe could have gotten if the scenes Jason pointed out had been cut down, but I walked out of the theatre with a smile on my face. What more can you ask for in a Star Wars movie?

Peter Rubin: More time? You wanted to take more time? I love Rian Johnson’s movies, and I love Star Wars, but the last thing this movie needed was more time. Maybe we can work out a trade, though. We can add in more Holdo and Phasma, as long as we streamline the paper-thin parable that was Rose and Finn’s much-adieu-about-nothing digression, and relegate half the new creatures to the standalone movies, where they can work on their charisma and narrative function before slapsticking their way into a saga feature. (I say this as a fan who had an Ewok thermos as a third-grader: Porgs are bad.)

I liked The Last Jedi. I liked it a lot, even. But—and I recognize that this casts me as Darth Grumpious—it stirred nothing within me. Its thrilling moments weren’t dessert, but salvage. It felt unremittingly self-conscious; every tiny drunk casino-goer stuffing BB-8 with chips, every Hux-Kylo odd-couple bicker, every Thor-pool that Rey fell into on her journey to nowhere felt like another smoke-puff or mirror that I had to fight through to connect with the movie’s heart.

And that heart was there! Luke and Leia, both apart and together, kept a smile on my face whenever they were on screen; Rose, with her familial legacy and bone-deep Resistance, feels like a Rogue One infusion to the saga in the best way possible. Even the kids on Canto Bight—yes, even the kid who I thought was about to re-enact Turbo’s magical-sweeping sequence from Breakin’—gave me hope for the galaxy. I just wish the saga’s core quadrangle did the same. Thankfully, Johnson is the perfect writer-director to take the universe in new directions. All the Porgs in the galaxy can’t dim the glimmer of that brief Hardware Warseaster egg.

But rather than rehash the movie all over again, Angela, let me instead play the opportunist like DJ and ask you this: if we’ve got one movie left in this part of the saga cycle, what would you like to see J.J. Abrams do with Episode IX? (And for extra credit, what do you want to see Johnson do with his new trilogy?)

Watercutter: Well, I know what I don’t want Abrams to do, and that’s remake Return of the Jedi. Considering the arcs folks are on, that might be hard regardless, but as our colleague Brian Raftery pointed out in his review The Force Awakens often stuck too closely to the New Hope playbook and while that worked fine for a movie that was trying to reboot a whole franchise, I hope he doesn’t borrow too much from the past. I’d like to see him take some chances. I’m not saying it should end with the First Order ruling the galaxy (although that might actually be fun?), I just think he should really dig in on the half-dozen characters we’ve come to love over these last two movies—Rey, Kylo, Poe, Finn, Rose, BB-8—and focus there. Give them something to dig in on. Rey doesn’t have to go into another sphincter of evil and self-discovery, but letting these characters stay conflicted is a good place to start.

As for Johnson’s new trilogy, I hope he completely throws out the playbook and starts from scratch. Shoot me. I just feel like every fight we have about Star Wars now revolves around whether some new movie follows some rulebook that no one in the conversation wrote. It’s no wonder making these things ends up being so painfully difficult for directors—they’re trapped in carbonite from the second they sign their contract. If he’s clear from the start that this won’t be like other Star Wars movies, no one can say it wasn’t what they wanted. Start from scratch, Rian. Galaxies are big. Jason, would that make you happy or nah?

Tanz: I totally agree. Let the past die. Kill it, if you have to. That’s the only way to become what you’re meant to be. That’s what I say.

Oh, whoops, no it isn’t! That’s what Kylo Ren says, in the closest we get to a “No-Mr.-Bond-I-expect-you-to-die” soliloquy. Of course the fact that it’s the most malevolent character making this point, at the apex of his crumminess, suggests that Johnson doesn’t fully endorse this idea. But The Last Jedi is all about leaving the past behind—check the title of the goddamn movie, for crying out loud! When Yoda waves away Luke’s attachment to the sacred Jedi texts as “not exactly page-turners,” and then sets his library aflame, I could hear Johnson signaling to his fans that the coming films are about to get a lot less slavish in their doctrinal devotion.

As long as we’re overturning doctrine, I’d love to see Johnson complicate the simple morality that has defined these tales so far. In the Star Wars universe, you are a good guy or a bad guy. Some times you are a good guy who turns bad. Occasionally, you are a bad guy who flirts with turning good. But you are always either one or the other—never both simultaneously. I’d love to see future episodes work through a character who is neither all-good nor all-bad, but lets both sides coexist within them. That might be a stretch for Star Wars but not for Johnson, who helmed some of the best-loved episodes of Breaking Bad, a series all about a man whose light and dark sides are in constant conflict. He could be the perfect director to take Star Wars beyond the binary.

Brendan, what do you think? Where does the Force go from here?

Nystedt: Well, I think you nailed Rian’s intent with many moments in the film: this is where things change. I don’t think we’ll get grey Jedi, but Rian’s opened things up for further change in the future. That said, J.J. Abrams is returning to the galaxy and it could either work out brilliantly for a sweeping, energetic conclusion to the new trilogy…or it could end up giving us another somewhat safe film like The Force Awakens. Whatever happens, I’m hopeful that Kathleen Kennedy and the LFL Story Group stick to their guns, because the franchise needs to change in order to survive. Some core fans might kvetch, but it’s more valuable to the long-term health of Star Wars that new fans are brought into the fold.

As far as what’s actually next in the story, I know what I want at the bare minimum: I want a few years to elapse in the galaxy before the events of IX take place. I think one of the strengths of Star Wars is that, at least until the last two episodes, there’s time between chapters that let the storytellers take the next episode in surprising new directions. Advance the story, age up the characters, tell some side stories in the comics and novels, and surprise the audience.

I think it’s also high time that more legacy characters get sidelined further; R2-D2 and C-3PO both deserve a relaxing retirement. Perhaps Leia perishes in a battle offscreen, so we don’t have to suffer through a CGI’d Carrie Fisher. Angela gets it—our new heroes are Rose, BB-8, Rey, Finn, and Poe…long live the young leaders of the Resistance! They are the spark that will light the fire that will burn the First Order down and deserve to fully carry the next film.

And long live Rian Johnson! It’s a savvy move to keep this guy in the Lucasfilm fold for three more films. I can’t wait to see where he takes us next. What do you think TLJ means for the future of the franchise, Jordan?

McMahon: I think my hopes for the franchise can be wrapped up in TLJ’s final moments, with the boy on Canto Bight doing a Force grab of his broom. By the end of the movie, the Resistance isn’t left with much—their army’s taken a big hit, and they’re going to be facing a more reckless foe in Kylo Ren than they did in Snoke.

Brendan, you’re right that our heroes are Rose, BB-8, Rey, Finn, and Poe, but I think that last scene shows that they’ll need more than that for what’s coming. Obviously you can’t have a bunch of younglings facing off against the New Order’s army, so a time jump would be welcomed here. We’ve had two movies of Rey and Kylo’s internal conflicts, let’s wrap that up without dragging it on throughout the movie. If we see an older Rey training a new wave of Jedi, that opens some really interesting doors for the future of Star Wars.

Luke made it clear that the Jedi had a lot of problems. I’d like to see Rey struggle with tackling those problems before taking on a new generation of Force users, lest they repeat the mistakes of their ancestors. If Star Wars has shown us anything, it’s that this battle is ongoing. To avoid telling the same story over and over with a fresh coat of paint, they could open up the world to more characters like the boy on Canto Bight, because the battles they’re fighting affect more than just the main crew — I’d like to see more of those stories, both in the main franchise and in their side stories.

Peter, Porgs aside, how do you see them wrapping this all up nicely before going off into their next adventure?

Rubin: Honestly, my hope is that it doesn’t. A big part of me really wanted Rey to take Kylo’s hand when he offered a galaxy-leading partnership. TLJ gave the story group a huge opportunity for a more complex, layered psychology, and while it wasn’t (yet) to be, I’d still savor some fraught, uneasy power struggles in the universe.

Assuming we’ve only got one movie left with our young Resistance-stoking heroes, I suspect that Abrams will make sure they all get their place in the pantheon; my real hope is that Finn does it without spending 75 percent of the movie incapacitated. The question is, will the movie serve as an exclamation point, or a comma? Given the uncertainty of the Resistance in practical terms—the Canto Bight junior brigade has a decade before they’re ready to pull a Biggs and run off to enlist, leaving us the skeletal crew that made it off Crait—we’ll need some new characters either way. (Those Outer Rim allies got some ’splainin’ to do.)

I’m not enough of an Expanded-Universe person to even consider who might be imported to the saga a la Kylo, but I’d hope that with so many of our beloved non-human characters gone (rest in power, Ackbar!) Abrams stocks the story with some compelling, cogent new allies. And last on the list, as a popcorn-shoveling pulp-escapist of the highest order, I assume he’ll find a way to give General Hux the grand (moff) comeuppance he so desparately.

What I’m really waiting for, like it sounds so many of you are, is Johnson’s big-arc trilogy. After all, he set an interesting table for Abrams, even if J.J. does nothing but stacks them neatly back in the cabinet. With three movies to plan out, and with the ambition he’s already shown, I can see the universe’s new ruler plotting a course for some emotional territories both Lucas and Abram left uncharted.

Physicists Say the Epic Hyperdrive Scene in ‘The Last Jedi’ Is Plausible

The quietly commanding Vice Admiral Amilyn Holdo (Laura Dern) may be the true hero of Star Wars: The Last Jedi. And physicists are here to back her up.


In one of the most dramatic scenes from The Last Jedi — and possibly all of Star Wars — Vice Admiral Holdo rams the Resistance’s last remaining star cruiser through Supreme Leader Snoke’s flagship in a sacrifice that buys the fleeing members of The Resistance enough time to escape to the surface of Crait. Visually, the scene is breathtaking. But in terms of logistics, it might leave you wondering whether this feat is possible.

Don’t worry, though: We’re not here to give a Neil deGrasse Tyson-style “well, actually” debunk of this scene. Rather, we want to figure out whether Star Wars follows our rules of physics. And if it doesn’t then, well, what would it take?

the raddus
The Raddus, a Mon Calamari star cruiser, is much smaller than the Supremacy. But faster-than-light travel is a great equalizer.

Let’s start with some numbers.

The Raddus, a Mon Calamari star cruiser, is 11,280.74 feet (2.14 miles) long, 2,318.08 feet (0.44 miles) wide, and 1,514.84 feet (0.29 miles) tall. It’s a massive starship, but onscreen, you can see just how much smaller it is than the hulking Supremacy, which Wookieepedia, the ultimate source for Star Wars minutiae, says is 43,437.27 feet (8.22 miles) long, 37.6 miles wide, and 13,042 feet (2.47 miles) tall. Despite its comparably puny size, the immense energy generated by the Raddus’s forward momentum becomes a great equalizer in this showdown, and physics tells us it’s plausible that the smaller ship could cut through the First Order’s Star Dreadnought.

“If jumping to hyperspace is just super-quick acceleration where you instantaneously — or close to instantaneously — hit light speed, then what is depicted in the film would be approximately what would happen,” physics professor Patrick Johnson, the author of The Physics of Star Wars, tells Inverse.

supremacy star wars dreadmaught
The Supremacy, a First Order Mega-class Star Dreadnought, is bigger than a city.

As an example of this phenomenon, Johnson asks us to imagine something a little easier to picture: a car running into the side of an eighteen-wheeler truck.

“At a slow speed, it would dent it,” he says. “At a higher speed, [the truck] would really start to bow. And then if the car is going fast enough and is solid enough, it could cut right through it in the way that Snoke’s ship is cut along the path [the Raddus] went through.” It would take an awful lot of energy to get the starship going this fast, which Johnson has attempted to calculate for us.

Estimating the mass of the Raddus, assuming it’s 40 percent steel — or durasteel, more likely — and 60 percent air, Johnson tells us how much energy it would take to accelerate the ship. And since accelerating to the speed of light requires infinite energy, at least based on the way we understand jet propulsion, we’ll settle for a significant portion of light speed in this scenario.

“The force involved in accelerating the Raddus to just 90 percent of the speed of light would be ~6.8•10^21 Newtons,” says Johnson. This is a massive amount of energy, which increases with every tiny increment closer to light speed that the Raddus accelerates.

Once the ships collide, though, Newton’s third law says that the Supremacy exerts an equal and opposite force against the Raddus.

“The moment the Raddus started to make contact, it would experience an extra force going backward,” says Johnson. “Now presumably, that hyperdrive is exerting a force forward, pushing it forward, so there’s a thrust force and a resistance force from the Supremacy. I would guess, based off of the way that it is depicted, that the Raddus is essentially at light speed by the time it makes contact. At that point, there’s only slowing down: Laws of physics dictate that you can’t go faster than the speed of light.” Of course, he notes, the hyperdrive adds a little asterisk: Maybe you can go faster than the speed of light.

Regardless of what speed the Raddus is traveling at when it collides with the Supremacy, Johnson says all of the energy the smaller ship carries with it is spent in cutting through the Supremacy — and some smaller star destroyers — and in completely demolishing the Raddus.

star wars cockpit hyperspace
Part of judging whether Vice Admiral Holdo’s gambit is credible depends on how we define hyperspace.

Of course, this is all moot if hyperspace travel means the Raddus would have been in another dimension altogether — which some works in the Star Wars Expanded Universe (now “Legends”) seem to confirm. As Inverse has previously reported, hyperspace travel seems to incorporate some elements of string theory. But ships in the Star Wars universe still need to accelerate beyond light speed to enter hyperspace.

For our purposes, let’s assume the Raddus is traveling at or beyond the speed of light. Leia calls hyperdrive “lightspeed” in The Empire Strikes Back, so that’s good enough for us. With that in mind, it seems most likely that a starship accelerating into hyperspace is going at the speed of light but is also still present in the same physical dimension as everything else around it. And even if it’s not, it’s still in the same physical dimension as other space when it comes out of lightspeed.

We have evidence of this in Star Wars: A New Hope, in which Han Solo brings the Millennium Falcon out of hyperspace right in the middle of the field of debris that used to be Alderaan. Since the ship didn’t hit any of the rocks until it came out of hyperspace, this suggests that a ship is susceptible to colliding with objects in physical space once it decelerates out of hyperspace, which also suggests that a ship could still collide with something while it’s accelerating into hyperspace.

To put it simply, Holdo does on purpose what Han Solo did by accident.

“If that’s the way you go to hyperspace, it’s perfectly accurate,” says Johnson.

Jorge Ballester, on the other hand, is not totally sure that the Raddus is tall enough to make it all the way through the Supremacy. Ballester, physics department head at Emporia State University in Kansas, points out that the Raddus is about 1,500 feet tall, while the Supremacy is over 13,000 feet tall.

“The widest part of the Raddus is about one-sixth of the height of the Supremacy,” he tells Inverse. “So I don’t know how the Raddus could extend its interaction out far enough to slice through.” To put it another way, you probably couldn’t use a single pebble to split an entire boulder, since the force wouldn’t spread far enough above and below, even if the pebble had enough force to pass all the way from front to back. He also points out an issue that arises as a result of Newton’s third law.

“I don’t know why the Raddus wouldn’t be completely destroyed after penetrating one or two of its own length into the Supremacy,” says Ballester. “Presumably both sides use roughly similar materials and technologies to build their ships. Similarly, I would not expect a bullet made of wood to penetrate deeply into a wooden block because the bullet itself would be destroyed. The block might explode but I would not expect the wooden bullet to rip through making a narrow hole.”

bullet impact
Would the Raddus go through the Supremacy? Or simply explode after penetrating a couple ship lengths? It’s hard to say for sure.

These points certainly shed some doubt on whether this collison could go down the way it did in the film, if we’re judging based on our universe’s laws of physics.

Whether or not the Raddus could make it all the way through the Supremacy, it’s worth taking a second to consider the passage of time as it’s depicted in The Last Jedi. There’s a cinematic effect to slowing down the action right as the ships collide so the audience can experience the emotional weight of the moment.

Leia: “Don’t forge the secret plan. Drop out of hyperspace right on their faces. Got it? Nod sternly if you understand me.”

And while an observer in the Star Wars universe would see the events unfold at full speed, “from her perspective, time would actually slow down for her compared to everybody else because she is traveling super fast,” says Johnson.

So to sum up: Though there are some variables we simply can’t calculate, such as how ship shields interact in the event of a crash, Vice Admiral Holdo’s gambit to save her people is pretty plausible. And, damn, it looks so good.

US scientists launch world’s biggest solar geoengineering study.

Research programme will send aerosol injections into the earth’s upper atmosphere to study the risks and benefits of a future solar tech-fix for climate change

 The sun from space
Scientists say the planet could be covered with a solar shield for as little as $10bn a year. 

The $20m (£16m) Harvard University project will launch within weeks and aims to establish whether the technology can safely simulate the atmospheric cooling effects of a volcanic eruption, if a last ditch bid to halt climate change is one day needed.

Scientists hope to complete two small-scale dispersals of first water and then calcium carbonate particles by 2022. Future tests could involve seeding the sky with aluminium oxide – or even diamonds.

Janos Pasztor, Ban Ki-moon’s assistant climate chief at the UN who now leads ageoengineering governance initiative, said that the Harvard scientists would only disperse minimal amounts of compounds in their tests, under strict university controls.

“The real issue here is something much more challenging,” he said “What does moving experimentation from the lab into the atmosphere mean for the overall path towards eventual deployment?”

Geoengineering advocates stress that any attempt at a solar tech fix is years away and should be viewed as a compliment to – not a substitute for – aggressive emissions reductions action.

But the Harvard team, in a promotional video for the project, suggest a redirection of one percent of current climate mitigation funds to geoengineering research, and argue that the planet could be covered with a solar shield for as little as $10bn a year.

Kevin Trenberth, a lead author for the UN’s intergovernmental panel on climate change, said that despair at sluggish climate action, and the rise of Donald Trump were feeding the current tech trend.

“But solar geoengineering is not the answer,” he said. “Cutting incoming solar radiation affects the weather and hydrological cycle. It promotes drought. It destabilizes things and could cause wars. The side effects are many and our models are just not good enough to predict the outcomes”

Natural alterations to the earth’s radiation balance can be short-lasting, but terrifying. A 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption lowered global temperatures by 0.5C, while the Mount Tambora eruption in 1815 triggered Europe’s ‘year without a summer’, bringing crop failure, famine and disease.

A Met Office study in 2013 said that the dispersal of fine particles in the stratosphere could precipitate a calamitous drought across North Africa.

Frank Keutsch, the Harvard atmospheric sciences professor leading the experiment, said that the deployment of a solar geoengineering system was “a terrifying prospect” that he hoped would never have to be considered. “At the same time, we should never choose ignorance over knowledge in a situation like this,” he said.

“If you put heat into the stratosphere, it may change how much water gets transported from the troposphere to the stratosphere, and the question is how much are you [creating] a domino effect with all kinds of consequences? What we can do to quantify this is to start with lab studies and try to understand the relevant properties of these aerosols.”

Stratospheric controlled perturbation experiments (SCoPEX) are seen as “critical” to this process and the first is planned to spray water molecules into the stratosphere to create a 1km long and 100m wide icy plume, which can be studied by a manoeuvrable flight balloon.

If lab tests are positive, the experiment would then be replicated with a limestone compound which the researchers believe will neither absorb solar or terrestrial radiation, nor deplete the ozone layer.

Bill Gates and other foundations are substantially funding the project, and aerospace companies are thought to be taking a business interest in the technology’s potential.

The programmme’s launch will follow a major conference involving more than 100 scientists, which begins in Washington DC today.

Solar geoengineering’s journey from the fringes of climate science to its mainstream will be sealed at a prestigious Gordon research conference in July, featuring senior figures from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and Oxford University.

Pasztor says that most scientific observers now see the window to a 1.5C warmed world as “practically gone” and notes that atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations will continue rising for many decades after the planet has reached a ‘net zero emissions’ point planned for mid-late century.

But critics of solar radiation management approach this as a call to redouble mitigation efforts and guard against the elevation of a questionable Plan B.

“It is appropriate that we spend money on solar geoengineering research,” said Kevin Anderson, the deputy director of the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research. “But we also have to aim for 2C with climate mitigation and act as though geoengineering doesn’t work, because it probably won’t.”


‘The Matrix’ Reboot in the Works at Warner Bros

The 1999 sci-fi movie is coming back.
More Matrix? Bet on it.It’s still not clear what shape the project will take, but sources tell The Hollywood Reporter that Warner Bros. is in the early stages of developing a relaunch of The Matrix, the iconic 1999 sci-fi movie that is considered one of the most original films in cinematic history, with Zak Penn in talks to write a treatment.Sources say there is potential interest in Michael B. Jordan to star, but much must be done before the project is ready to go.

At this point, the Wachowski siblings, who wrote and directed the original and its two sequels, are not involved and the nature of their potential engagement with a new version has not been determined. Certainly, Warners would want the two filmmakers to give at minimum a blessing to the nascent project. The studio had no comment.

Joel Silver, who produced the original trilogy, is said to have approached Warners about the idea of mining The Matrix for a potential new film. However, Silver sold his interest in all his movies to the studio in 2012 for about $30 million, according to sources. Warners is said to be leery of including him in any meaningful role, as he not only has a reputation for budget-control issues, but apparently has a strained relationship with the Wachowskis. The siblings hold much more meaning for fans than the producer. Silver’s reps did not immediately respond to a request for comment.

Written and directed by the Wachowskis, the original movie sees humanity living in a simulated reality, unaware that humans are in pods in which their bodies are being harvested for energy. A computer programmer named Neo (Keanu Reeves) slowly becomes aware of this suppressed existence, eventually becoming humanity’s one true hope (Neo = One) to overthrow the oppressors. The pic also starred Laurence Fishburne, Carrie-Anne Moss and Hugo Weaving.

The Matrix was released in a quiet period of the 1999 release calendar — March 31 — and Warner Bros. didn’t have outsized expectations for an action movie with obvious Manga and comic-book influences. But the story and ground-breaking special effects (including the slow-motion “bullet time” effect, which launched dozens of imitators in the years that followed) became the highest grossing R-rated film of 1999 in North America, and the fourth-highest grossing film of the year worldwide. It also won four Academy Awards.

Two sequels, Matrix Reloaded and The Matrix Revolutions, were not as well received, but Reeves’ deal for those films made him one of the richest actors in Hollywood.

While promoting John Wick: Chapter 2, Reeves said he would be open to returning for another installment of the franchise if the Wachowskis were involved. “They would have to write it and direct it. And then we’d see what the story is, but yeah, I dunno, that’d be weird, but why not?” he told Yahoo Movies. However, it is likely that Warners will look elsewhere to attract an A-list director and star.

While some at Warners consider the title among the studio’s sacrosanct properties, such as Casablanca, others see a need to redevelop it in an environment where studios are desperately looking for ways to monetize their libraries and branded IP is hard to come by.

The idea of adapting The Matrix as a television series was nixed in recent months. But Warner Bros. sees a model in what Disney and Lucasfilm have done with Star Wars, exploring the hidden corners of the universe with movies such as Rogue One: A Star Wars Story or the in-production young Han Solo film. Perhaps a young Morpheus movie could come out of the exploration, as an example.

Penn is a writer with deep roots in the geeky genres in which Matrix travels. He created the Syfy network’s super-powered show Alphas and has been involved in comic book movies ranging from the X-Men franchise to The Avengers.

The Arctic Is a Staggering 36 Degrees Hotter Than What It Should Be

In Brief
  • Temperatures in the Arctic are reaching 20 °C (36 °F) higher than normal above 80 degrees North Latitude.
  • Experts assert that the warmth is a result of a combination of record-low sea-ice and warm/moist air from lower latitudes being driven northward by a jet stream.

Arctic Warmth

Something strange is going on in the Arctic circle right now. Because it’s Polar Night, the region has been experiencing days with no sun. Common sense would dictate that a lack of sun would result in colder temperatures. However, this isn’t what’s happening.

According to Arctic watchers, the region is experiencing temperatures higher than usual, and the amount of sea ice covering the polar ocean is at a record low. Zack Labe, a PhD student at the University of California at Irvine who studies the Arctic, tweeted an image showing that temperatures in the Arctic are reaching 20 °C (36 °F) higher than normal above 80 degrees North Latitude.

The image in the tweet shows that temperatures were around -5 degrees Celsius instead of the typical -25 degrees Celsius.

Changing Seas and Winds

Experts are weighing in on the temperature spike.

Mark Serreze, from the National Snow and Ice Data Center in Boulder, Colorado found unusual temperatures in the sea. “There are some areas in the Arctic Ocean that are as much as 25 degrees Fahrenheit above average now.” This situation leads to less sea-ice forming this time of the year, as measured by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration which is just 6.39 million km(2.47 million mi2), 28.52 percent less than the 1981-2010 average.

Credit: NOAA

Jennifer Francis, an Arctic specialist at Rutgers University said in a statement for The Washington Post:

“The Arctic warmth is the result of a combination of record-low sea-ice extent for this time of year, probably very thin ice, and plenty of warm/moist air from lower latitudes being driven northward by a very wavy jet stream.”

Francis published a study in 2015 that shows how jet stream patterns are slowly shifting northward to the Arctic, leading to the warming of the region. “As emissions of greenhouse gases continue unabated, therefore, the continued amplification of Arctic warming should favor an increased occurrence of extreme events caused by prolonged weather conditions,” the paper states.

These record-low sea levels and temperature spikes will surely add to the mounting evidence for climate change. There’s no denying it anymore.

Inception ending: Christopher Nolan finally discusses the meaning behind that spinning top



Christopher Nolan has discussed the controversial and ambiguous ending to his film Inception, which saw a spinning top rotating and wobbling a little before cutting to black.

Unsurprisingly, he didn’t just say “it was all a dream” and then drop the mic, but gave a more nuanced explanation of what it was intended to symbolise, during a speech made to a graduating Princeton University class.

He started off with a pre-amble about pragmatism:

“In the great tradition of these speeches, generally someone says something along the lines of ‘Chase your dreams,’ but I don’t want to tell you that because I don’t believe that. I want you to chase your reality.

“I feel that over time, we started to view reality as the poor cousin to our dreams, in a sense….I want to make the case to you that our dreams, our virtual realities, these abstractions that we enjoy and surround ourselves with – they are subsets of reality.”

According to The Hollywood Reporter, he then went on to link this idea to the conclusion of Inception:

“The way the end of that film worked, Leonardo DiCaprio’s character Cobb — he was off with his kids, he was in his own subjective reality. He didn’t really care anymore, and that makes a statement: perhaps, all levels of reality are valid. The camera moves over the spinning top just before it appears to be wobbling, it was cut to black.

“I skip out of the back of the theater before people catch me, and there’s a very, very strong reaction from the audience: usually a bit of a groan. The point is, objectively, it matters to the audience in absolute terms: even though when I’m watching, it’s fiction, a sort of virtual reality. But the question of whether that’s a  dream or whether it’s real is the question I’ve been asked most about any of the films I’ve made. It matters to people because that’s the point about reality. Reality matters.”

It’s an elegant and thought-provoking explanation, though perhaps not as clear cut as some would like.

Then again, they never are. Sopranos creator David Chase has been asked to explain his big cut-to-black ending repeatedly for a decade now, and rightly insists that its beauty lies in its ambiguity and lack of closure.

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