Changes in exhaled 13CO2/12CO2 breath delta value as an early indicator of infection in intensive care unit patients


BACKGROUND We have developed a new, noninvasive predictive marker for onset of infection in surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients. The exhaled 13CO2/12CO2 ratio, or breath delta value (BDV), has been shown to be an early marker for infection in a proof of concept human study and in animal models of bacterial peritonitis. In these studies, the BDV changes during onset and progression of infection, and these changes precede physiological changes associated with infection. Earlier diagnosis and treatment will significantly reduce morbidity, mortality, hospitalization costs, and length of stay. The objective of this prospective, observational, multicenter study was to determine the predictive value of the BDV as an early diagnostic marker of infection.

METHODS Critically ill adults after trauma or acute care surgery with an expected length of stay longer than 5 days were enrolled. The BDV was obtained every 4 hours for 7 days and correlated to clinical infection diagnosis, serum C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin levels. Clinical infection diagnosis was made by an independent endpoint committee. This trial was registered at the US National Institutes of Health (ClinicalTrials.gov) NCT02327130.

RESULTS Groups were demographically similar (n = 20). Clinical infection diagnosis was confirmed on day 3.9 ± 0.63. Clinical suspicion of infection (defined by SIRS criteria and/or new antibiotic therapy) was on day 2.1 ± 0.5 in all infected patients. However, 5 (56%) of 9 noninfected subjects also met clinical suspicion criteria. The BDV significantly increased by 1‰ to 1.7‰ on day 2.1 after enrollment (p < 0.05) in subjects who developed infections, while it remained at baseline (± 0.5‰) for subjects without infections.

CONCLUSION A BDV greater than 1.4‰ accurately differentiates subjects who develop infections from those who do not and predicts the presence of infection up to 48 hours before clinical confirmation. The BDV may predict the onset of infection and aid in distinguishing SIRS from infection, which could prompt earlier diagnosis, earlier appropriate treatment, and improve outcomes.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Diagnostic test, level III.

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.