Genetic Testing for the Healthy. 


Randomized trial examines genome sequencing in healthy patients

However, the use of genome sequencing in healthy individuals is controversial because no one fully understands how many patients carry variants that put them at risk for rare genetic conditions and how they and their doctors will respond to learning about these risks.

In a new paper published June 26 in the Annals of Internal Medicine by investigators at Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, along with collaborators at Baylor College of Medicine, report the results of the four-year, NIH-funded MedSeq Project, the first-ever randomized trial conducted to examine the impact of whole genome sequencing in healthy primary care patients.

In the MedSeq Project, 100 healthy individuals and their primary care physicians were enrolled and randomized so that half of the patients received whole genome sequencing and half did not.

Nearly 5,000 genes associated with rare genetic conditions were expertly analyzed in each sequenced patient, and co-investigators from many different disciplines, including clinical genetics, molecular genetics, primary care, ethics and law, were involved in analyzing the results.

Researchers found that among the 50 healthy primary care patients who were randomized to receive genome sequencing, 11 (22 percent) carried genetic variants predicted to cause previously undiagnosed rare disease.

Two of these patients were then noted to have signs or symptoms of the underlying conditions, including one patient who had variants causing an eye disease called fundus albipunctatus, which impairs night vision.

This patient knew he had difficulty seeing in low-light conditions but had not considered the possibility that his visual problems had a genetic cause.

Another patient was found to have a genetic variant associated with variegate porphyria, which finally explained the patient’s and family members’ mysterious rashes and sun sensitivity.

The other nine participants had no evidence of the genetic diseases for which they were predicted to be at risk. For example, two patients had variants that have been associated with heart rhythm abnormalities, but their cardiology workups were normal. It is possible, but not at all certain, that they could develop heart problems in the future.

“Sequencing healthy individuals will inevitably reveal new findings for that individual, only some of which will have actual health implications,” said lead author Jason Vassy, an HMS assistant professor of medicine at Brigham and Women’s and primary care physician at the VA Boston Healthcare System.

“This study provides some reassuring evidence that primary care providers can be trained to manage their patients’ sequencing results appropriately, and that patients who receive their results are not likely to experience anxiety connected to those results. Continued research on the outcomes of sequencing will be needed before the routine use of genome sequencing in the primary care of generally healthy adults can be medically justified,” Vassy said.

Primary care physicians received six hours of training at the beginning of the study regarding how to interpret a specially designed, one-page genome testing report summarizing the laboratory analysis.

Consultation with genetic specialists was available, but not required. Primary care physicians then used their own judgment about what to do with the information, and researchers monitored the interactions for safety and tracked medical, behavioral and economic outcomes.

The researchers noted that they analyzed variants from nearly 5,000 genes associated with rare genetic diseases. These included single genes causing a significantly higher risk for rare disorders than the low-risk variants for common disorders reported by direct-to-consumer genetic testing companies. No prior study has ever examined healthy individuals for pathogenic (high-risk) variants in so many rare disease genes.

“We were surprised to see how many ostensibly healthy individuals are carrying a risk variant for a rare genetic disease,” said Heidi Rehm, HMS associate professor of pathology at Brigham and Women’s and director of the Laboratory for Molecular Medicine at Brigham and Women’s.

“We found that about one-fifth of this sample population carried pathogenic variants, and this suggests that the potential burden of rare disease risk throughout our general population could be far higher than previously suspected,” said Rehm, a co-investigator on the study who directed the genome analysis. “However, the penetrance, or likelihood that persons carrying one of these variants will eventually develop the disease, is not fully known.”

Additionally, investigators compared the two arms of the study and found that patients who received genome sequencing results did not show higher levels of anxiety. They did, however, undergo a greater number of medical tests and incurred an average of $350 more in health care expenses in the six months following disclosure of their results. The economic differences were not statistically significant with the small sample size in this study.

“Because participants in the MedSeq Project were randomized, we could carefully examine levels of anxiety or distress in those who received genetic risk information and compare it to those who did not,” said Amy McGuire, director of the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy at Baylor College of Medicine.

“While many patients chose not to participate in the study out of concerns about what they might learn, or with fears of future insurance discrimination, those who did participate evinced no increase in distress, even when they learned they were carrying risk variants for untreatable conditions,” said McGuire, who supervised the ethical and legal components of the MedSeq Project.

There has also been great concern in the medical community about whether primary care physicians can appropriately manage these complicated findings. But when a panel of expert geneticists reviewed how well the primary care physicians managed the patients with possible genetic risk variants, the experts determined that only two of the 11 cases were managed inappropriately and that no harm had come to these patients.

MedSeq Project investigators note that the study’s findings should be interpreted with caution because of the small sample size and because the study was conducted at an academic medical center where neither the patients nor the primary care physicians are representative of the general population. They also stressed that carrying a genetic risk marker does not mean that patients have or will definitely get the disease in question. Critical questions remain about whether discovering such risk markers in healthy individuals will actually provide health benefits, or will generate unnecessary testing and subsequent procedures that could do more harm than good.

“Integrating genome sequencing and other -omics technologies into the day-to-day practice of medicine is an extraordinarily exciting prospect with the potential to anticipate and prevent diseases throughout an individual’s lifetime,” said senior author Robert C. Green, HMS professor of medicine at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, associate member of the Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT and leader of the MedSeq Project. “But we will need additional rigorously designed and well-controlled outcomes studies like the MedSeq Project with larger sample sizes and with outcomes collected over longer periods of time to demonstrate the full potential of genomic medicine.”

The MedSeq Project is one of the sites in the Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium and was funded by the National Human Genome Research Institute, part of the National Institutes of Health.

The Genomes2People Research Program at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, the Broad Institute and Harvard Medical School conducts empirical research in translational genomics and health outcomes. NIH-funded research within G2P seeks to understand the medical, behavioral and economic impact of using genetic risk information to inform future standards. The REVEAL Study has conducted several randomized clinical trials examining the impact of disclosing genetic risk for a frightening disease. The Impact of Personal Genomics (PGen) Study examined the impact of direct-to-consumer genetic testing on over 1,000 consumers of two different companies. The MedSeq Project has conducted the first randomized clinical trial to measure the impact of whole genome sequencing on the practice of medicine. The BabySeq Project is recruiting families of both healthy and sick newborns into a randomized clinical trial where half will have their baby’s genome sequenced. Green directs the Program.

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New material temporarily tightens skin. 


“Second skin” polymer could also be used to protect dry skin and deliver drugs.

Scientists at MIT, Massachusetts General Hospital, Living Proof, and Olivo Labs have developed a new material that can temporarily protect and tighten skin, and smooth wrinkles. With further development, it could also be used to deliver drugs to help treat skin conditions such as eczema and other types of dermatitis.

The material, a silicone-based polymer that could be applied on the skin as a thin, imperceptible coating, mimics the mechanical and elastic properties of healthy, youthful skin. In tests with human subjects, the researchers found that the material was able to reshape “eye bags” under the lower eyelids and also enhance skin hydration. This type of “second skin” could also be adapted to provide long-lasting ultraviolet protection, the researchers say.

“It’s an invisible layer that can provide a barrier, provide cosmetic improvement, and potentially deliver a drug locally to the area that’s being treated. Those three things together could really make it ideal for use in humans,” says Daniel Anderson, an associate professor in MIT’s Department of Chemical Engineering and a member of MIT’s Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research and Institute for Medical Engineering and Science (IMES).

Anderson is one of the authors of a paper describing the polymer in the May 9 online issue of Nature Materials. Robert Langer, the David H. Koch Institute Professor at MIT and a member of the Koch Institute, is the paper’s senior author, and the paper’s lead author is Betty Yu SM ’98, ScD ’02, former vice president at Living Proof. Langer and Anderson are co-founders of Living Proof and Olivo Labs, and Yu earned her master’s and doctorate at MIT.

Scientists at MIT and elsewhere have developed a new material that can temporarily protect and tighten skin, and smooth wrinkles. With further development, it could also be used to deliver drugs to help treat various skin conditions.

Mimicking skin

As skin ages, it becomes less firm and less elastic — problems that can be exacerbated by sun exposure. This impairs skin’s ability to protect against extreme temperatures, toxins, microorganisms, radiation, and injury. About 10 years ago, the research team set out to develop a protective coating that could restore the properties of healthy skin, for both medical and cosmetic applications.

“We started thinking about how we might be able to control the properties of skin by coating it with polymers that would impart beneficial effects,” Anderson says. “We also wanted it to be invisible and comfortable.”

The researchers created a library of more than 100 possible polymers, all of which contained a chemical structure known as siloxane — a chain of alternating atoms of silicon and oxygen. These polymers can be assembled into a network arrangement known as a cross-linked polymer layer (XPL). The researchers then tested the materials in search of one that would best mimic the appearance, strength, and elasticity of healthy skin.

“It has to have the right optical properties, otherwise it won’t look good, and it has to have the right mechanical properties, otherwise it won’t have the right strength and it won’t perform correctly,” Langer says.

The best-performing material has elastic properties very similar to those of skin. In laboratory tests, it easily returned to its original state after being stretched more than 250 percent (natural skin can be elongated about 180 percent). In laboratory tests, the novel XPL’s elasticity was much better than that of two other types of wound dressings now used on skin — silicone gel sheets and polyurethane films.

“Creating a material that behaves like skin is very difficult,” says Barbara Gilchrest, a dermatologist at MGH and an author of the paper. “Many people have tried to do this, and the materials that have been available up until this have not had the properties of being flexible, comfortable, nonirritating, and able to conform to the movement of the skin and return to its original shape.”

The XPL is currently delivered in a two-step process. First, polysiloxane components are applied to the skin, followed by a platinum catalyst that induces the polymer to form a strong cross-linked film that remains on the skin for up to 24 hours. This catalyst has to be added after the polymer is applied because after this step the material becomes too stiff to spread. Both layers are applied as creams or ointments, and once spread onto the skin, XPL becomes essentially invisible.

High performance

The researchers performed several studies in humans to test the material’s safety and effectiveness. In one study, the XPL was applied to the under-eye area where “eye bags” often form as skin ages. These eye bags are caused by protrusion of the fat pad underlying the skin of the lower lid. When the material was applied, it applied a steady compressive force that tightened the skin, an effect that lasted for about 24 hours.

In another study, the XPL was applied to forearm skin to test its elasticity. When the XPL-treated skin was distended with a suction cup, it returned to its original position faster than untreated skin.

The researchers also tested the material’s ability to prevent water loss from dry skin. Two hours after application, skin treated with the novel XPL suffered much less water loss than skin treated with a high-end commercial moisturizer. Skin coated with petrolatum was as effective as XPL in tests done two hours after treatment, but after 24 hours, skin treated with XPL had retained much more water. None of the study participants reported any irritation from wearing XPL.

“I think it has great potential for both cosmetic and noncosmetic applications, especially if you could incorporate antimicrobial agents or medications,” says Thahn Nga Tran, a dermatologist and instructor at Harvard Medical School, who was not involved in the research.

Living Proof has spun out the XPL technology to Olivo Laboratories, LLC, a new startup formed to focus on the further development of the XPL technology. Initially, Olivo’s team will focus on medical applications of the technology for treating skin conditions such as dermatitis.

Experts are studying a mysterious aluminum object that could date back to 250,000 years: Some speculate it might be a part from a UFO


A fragment of aluminum that appears to have been made by hand is being claimed as 250,000-year-old evidence that aliens once visited Earth in the long distant past.

 Metallic aluminum was not being produced by mankind until about 200 years ago, so this find of a large chunk that could be around 250,000 years old is held as a sensational discovery. The exact details of the find were never made public at the time for the reason that the metal was excavated in communist Romania in 1973.
 The discovery was made when builders that were working on the shores of Mures River found three objects that were 33 feet (10 meters) underground. This river is not far from the central Romanian town of Aiud. The pieces look unusual and very old, and archaeologists were brought to view them immediately and identified two of the objects as fossils. But the third piece seemed to be a man-made metal, and even though it is very light, it was suspected that it may be the end of an axe.

All three objects were sent together to be further analyzed by archaeologists in Cluj, the main city of the Romanian region of Transylvania. They quickly determined that the two large bones had belonged to an extinct mammal that died out around 90,000 years ago. The third object stunned the experts since it was a piece of lightweight metal, and seemed to have been manufactured.

According to tests, the object is made out of 12 different metals, but it was 90% aluminum. The Romanian officials dated the object as being 250,000 years old. The first results were later confirmed by a lab located in Lausanne, Switzerland. Later, other experts conducted tests and said that could be wrong – the age could range between 400 and 80,000 years old. Even if the object is 400 years old, that would still be 200 years before aluminum was known to have been first produced.

The object is 7.8 inches (20 centimeters) long, 4.9 inches (12.5 centimeters) wide and 2.8 inches (7 centimeters) thick. The experts were puzzled by the fact that the piece of metal has concavities that make it seem that it was manufactured as a component of a more complex mechanical system.

 Now there is a heated debate around whether the object is part of a UFO and is evidence of aliens having visited our civilisation in the past.

The Deputy Director of the Romanian Ufologists Association, Gheorghe Cohal, told the local media that lab tests concluded that it’s an old UFO fragment, given that the materials could not have been combined with the technology that’s available on Earth. The local historian Mihai Wittenberger has claimed that the item is actually a metal piece from a WWII German aircraft. However, this does not explain the actual age of the artifact, Daily Record reported.

The metal object is now on public display inside the History Museum of Cluj-Napoca with the full history that was the cause of the heated debate. It was noted that museum officials added a sign that states the origin is still unknown. Maybe one day we will be able to find out exactly where this mysterious object originated.

 Burial pit discovered in France speaks of violence that is uncharacteristic of Neolithic society
May 4, 2017 Ian Harvey
 

A 5,500-6,000-year-old pit has been unearthed in Bergheim, France, a village near to the German border.

 The pit was discovered by chance in 2012 by an archaeological surveying company doing work on excavations on a property development in Bergheim.  The area of 5 acres was covered in ancient pits called silos.  Out of the 60 silos discovered, 14 of them contain human bones.
 One of the silos contains the gruesome remains of what is thought to be a family.  Under the skeletal remains are seven severed left upper limbs, including some without hands or fingers.  One of these is thought to be from a 12 to 16-year-old child.  All the limbs show the marks of a knife or axe.

Some of the bones have been chopped up further, and it is unknown if torture was involved.  On top of the limbs lay two adults and four children.  The last remains are of a middle-aged man who is missing an arm.  It is thought he died due to head injuries as his skull clearly shows damage.  Long after the layers of bones had settled, another body was laid in the silo, a woman who shows no signs of violence on her remains at all.

This pit differs from those around it, as those have remains that show little or no signs of violence.  The damage on some of the remains in the other pits can be attributed to everyday life, as farm life has always been hard and accidents do happen.

 Such circular pits having been used for burial is a common occurrence across Western Europe.  But the finding of the pit with the brutalized remains has caused puzzlement among scientists, as it confuses the effort of working out what Neolithic daily life was actually like, Mail Online reported.

There are two theories as to why this pit is different.  The first is that there could have been a judicial sentence on these people.  The second is that there had been a war.  Neolithic communities were not known for their violence, which is why the find is so surprising.

They are thought of as farmers.  It is more commonly thought that the remains are from a war.  There is clear evidence of violence by Neolithic people in Germany in wars and general fighting amongst communities, but nothing has been found in France before.  However, this pit is unique in its level of violence, and it is unknown whether this was an isolated incident or indicative of something that was wider spread than scientists have so far discovered.

Singapore scientists uncover how neural stem cells are activated intrinsically by spindle matrix proteins


Neural progenitor cells (green) in the rat olfactory bulb 

Neural stem cells (NSCs) are self-renewing and multipotent cells that give rise to the neurons and glia of the nervous system during an animal’s embryonic development. In a mammalian brain, only a small fraction of the adult NSCs are proliferative and a majority are in a nondividing state, also known as quiescence.

The balance between NSC proliferation and quiescence is essential for brain development and emerging evidence suggests that its imbalance is linked to neurodevelopmental disorders, such as microcephaly. On the other side, the population of quiescent NSCs in the brain increases with ageing, which is associated with declining brain function.

Understanding how endogenous NSCs can be activated has huge potential in regenerative medicine. However, it is poorly understood as to how NSCs switch between proliferation and quiescence in vivo.

A multicentre research team led by Duke-NUS Medical School (Duke-NUS)’s Neuroscience and Behavioural Disorders Programme has uncovered that spindle matrix proteins can play an intrinsic role in regulating neural stem cell (NSC) reactivation and proliferation.

This discovery is an early important step towards opening up avenues for further research that could lead to potential stem cell-based therapies for neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders such as microcephaly and Alzheimer’s disease.

Study

The study, published in Nature Communicationsis a first of its kind conducted on fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) that demonstrates a critical role of the spindle matrix complex containing chromator (Chro) functioning as an essential nuclear factor for controlling gene expression during NSC reactivation. The study suggests that Chro plays an important role in maintaining the balance between NSC proliferation and quiescence, as it is not only critical for NSC reactivation (exit from quiescence) but also essential for preventing re-entry into inactivation.

“In this study, we have uncovered that spindle matrix proteins play a novel role in regulating reactivation of neural stem cells. It may be in its early stage, but this should help to open up avenues for further research and the development of potent therapies for neurodevelopmental disorders in the future,” said lead author Hongyan Wang, an Associate Professor and Deputy Director of Duke-NUS’ Neuroscience and Behavioural Disorders Programme.

Chromator is required for activation of neural stem cells (NSCs). Upper panels show wild-type control Drosophila larval brains with proliferating NSCs (EdU+; in red). Lower panels show NSCs from chromator- mutant brains stay in a quiescent stage (EdU-). Note that cellular extension, a hallmark of quiescent NSCs, is indicated by a yellow arrowhead. NSCs are marked by nuclear Dpn (in blue) and cortical Mira (in green).

The team employed the state-of-art genomic technique for transcriptome analysis in vivo and identified binding-sites of Chro in NSCs. The main findings from these experiments suggest that Chro is a master nuclear factor that reactivates NSCs through regulating gene expression of key transcription factors that either promote or repress the proliferation of NSCs. The study also suggests that Chro functions downstream of Insulin/PI3k pathway, which is known to promote NSC reactivation and mutations of which are found in microcephalic patients.

“Our study demonstrates that some of the players such as transcription factors Grainy Head and Prospero act downstream of Chro and identifies the likely pathway by which NSCs are activated,” added Professor Wing-Kin Sung, who is from the National University of Singapore (NUS) School of Computing and a Senior Group Leader at A*STAR’s Genome Institute of Singapore (GIS).

Artificial intelligence helps stroke patients walk again


Researchers have developed an algorithm designed with a robot-assistive rehabilitation approach, to help people learn to walk again after neurological injuries such as stroke.

  The new method to assist patients who have suffered severe neurological injuries is going through the clinical trial stage. The research comes from the Center for Neuroprosthetics and Brain Mind Institute, School of Life Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland. The regathers behind the development are hopeful it will lead to better outcomes for patients undergoing rehabilitation following incidences like a stroke or a spinal cord injury or strokes. With strokes, for example, many people experience weakness or stiffness in some of their muscles after a stroke. This happens because the brain sends signals to the muscles, through the nerves, to make them move. A stroke can damage the brain and affect these signals.
Recovery plans for spinal cord injuries and strokes typically require usually many hours of supported walking, using devices like treadmills, with the walking aid pre-programmed by a medic to provide a steady pace. This one-size-fit-all approach does not account for each patient moving around in different directions and having different gaits, both varying according to the individual.

With a new approach, a team led by Dr. Jean-Baptiste Mignardot have used digital technology to operate a robotic harness to help resist the downward force of gravity while also permitting patients to walk forwards, backwards, and side-to-side. This robotic harness is aided by an algorithm which can give personalized support to address patient-specific motor defects. In other words, recognizing that each patient is different.

The system is controlled by an artificial neural network that is capable of assessing by how much the upward and forward force needs to be varied, and to use this information to program the cable harness. The machine is able to assess 120 different variables relating to body movement and to apply the optimum requirements for the individual patient. This device has been tested, so far, on 26 patients (either recovering from spinal cord injuries or strokes). The participants were tested on four tasks—standing on two separate plates, walking on a straight path, walking on a wavy path, or walking on a ladder with irregularly positioned rungs. Each patient who took part in the first trial was able to walk with motor abilities comparable to healthy individuals.

It is hoped this practical framework, following further assessment, will be commercialized for use in the healthcare sector. The new development has been described in the journal Science Translational Medicine, with the research paper headed “A multidirectional gravity-assist algorithm that enhances locomotor control in patients with stroke or spinal cord injury.”

Researchers Have Found a Drug That Can Help Slow the Spread of Multiple Cancers


IN BRIEF

Scientists working with Cancer Research UK have discovered that a drug developed to treat organ fibrosis can block an enzyme that assists in the spread of cancer cells. In tests conducted on mice, it was able to reduce the size of tumors by up to 50 percent.

SLOWING DOWN CANCER

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, according to the World Health Organization, claiming 8.8 million victims in 2015. While researchers have made significant progress in the battle against the disease, it remains notoriously difficult to treat. This is due, in part, to the wide variety of cancers known to exist today, but the matter is further complicated by our difficulty preventing cancer cells from spreading.

While treatments such as chemotherapy and immunotherapy are available, they are often rendered ineffective by the fast rate at which cancer cells spread. Now, researchers from the University of Southampton in the United Kingdom, working in partnership with Cancer Research UK, may have found a way to aid such treatments by slowing down the spread of many different types of cancer.

In a study published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, the researchers focused on the enzyme NOX4 and a kind of cell called cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs). When healthy, fibroblasts keep different kinds of organs together. When infected by cancer and turned into CAFs, however, they are known to help tumors grow, spread, and even evade treatment.

“By looking at many types of cancer, we have identified a common mechanism responsible for CAF formation in tumors,” lead research Gareth Thomas said in a press release. “These cells make cancers aggressive and difficult to treat, and we can see exciting possibilities for targeting CAFs in many patients who don’t respond well to existing therapies.”

IMPROVED CHANCES

The researchers found that CAFs decrease patient survival for a number of cancer types, including head, neck, and bowel cancers. “[E]ffective methods to manipulate these cells clinically have yet to be developed,” the researchers wrote. Thankfully, through their research, they discovered that NOX4 and CAFs have a peculiar dynamic.

In many types of cancer, NOX4 enzymes are required for CAFs to form and subsequently facilitate tumor growth. In tests conducted on mice, blocking NOX4 reduced the size of tumors by up to 50 percent. This blocking was made possible using a drug that’s being developed to treat another kind of disease called organ fibrosis.

The Future of Pain Management
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“Some cancers are incredibly difficult to treat and can use the body’s own cells to help them grow, evade treatment, and spread around the body,” explained Áine McCarthy at Cancer Research UK in the press release. “Researchers have been trying to unlock the secrets behind this for many years, and this study is a big step forward in understanding how some cancers achieve this.”

“These findings show that CAFs can be targeted with a drug and their ‘pro-tumor’ effects can be reversed in mice, giving researchers a starting point to develop new and potentially more effective treatments in the future,” she added.

Thomas and his team believe that their work could help improve a patient’s chances of reacting positively to chemo and immunotherapy. At the very least, it could help slow down the spread of cancer, dealing a critical blow to the disease that affects so many people.

Life After Death CONFIRMED: Man’s Soul “left body and traveled across the universe”


According to a man who insists on having traveled through other dimensions since the age of five, a man’s soul can leave the body and exist independently in the universe. Curiously, in recent years scientists have investigated the possibility of life after death and said how consciousness is maintained in the cosmos after death.

 

 Whether or not Out of body experiences are real is something that has gained popularity among many people in recent years. In fact, it has become so popular among many people that scientists have begun investigating the possibility.

However, a man named Todd Acamesis claims he has been having out of body experiences for 42 years, ever since a near death experience when he was five.

 Out of body experiences are described as the feeling that you get as if you were floating outside of your body. Some say this can be achieved via meditation, and how during an OBE you can even see your own body externally.

The mystery behind OBE’s was discussed at the 27th annual Glastonbury Symposium—a conference held in the Somerset town—where various researchers and authors discuss several topics ranging from the paranormal, conspiracy theories, alternative thought, to new age philosophies.

 Acamesis, who was present at the symposium says how he now teaches out of body exploration to anyone who is interested in experiencing the phenomenon.

“Like with anything in life the distinct thing is to be clear about what you want to do,” said Mr. Acamesis , who believes in a form of OBE referred to as Astral Projection—a willful separation of the soul, or our astral body from the physical body, which can travel across the universe.

And while this may sound fascinating to some, there is no scientific evidence to prove the existence of out of body traveling.

Claims like those made at the 27th annual Glastonbury Symposium remain a matter of the paranormal and pseudoscientific arenas.

 “If you know the purpose of why you are doing it and the ritual side – astral projection – from my own view we are dealing with metaphors and what explains existence. My belief state changes rapidly. I am no longer looking at physical reality. It is not just out of the body, we are consciousness. We are very grounded in this reality, but we are not exclusively physical bodies,” explained Mr. Acamesis at the Symposium.

Dr. Acamesis has made unbelievable claims saying that he has even managed to explore buildings through “remote viewing,” and even had the ability to walk through walls, all of which is possible since we are dealing with a multi-dimensional reality.

Furthermore, Acamesis claims how our “nonphysical minds” are all interconnected through a massive human consciousness network, “all minds are joined – interconnected on a certain level.”

Strangely, some scientists have said how reincarnation exists, and that consciousness is contained in the universe after death, pointing to the possibility of other dimensions coexisting with ours.

According to Dr. Jim Tuccker author of the book “Life After Life: A Scientific Investigation of Children’s Memories of Previous Lives,” reincarnation is real thanks to consciousness being energy on the quantum, subatomic level which is held in our bodies during life and is not a part of them.

Also, not long ago have experts concluded how the soul does not DIE: It returns to the UNIVERSEScientists are convinced how the human brain is in fact a ‘biological computer’ and the ‘consciousness of humans’ can be considered as a program run by the quantum computer located inside the brain that continues to exist after death.