What Happens In The Pineal Gland When We Use Cannabis?

Pineal gland The pineal gland – mythical seat of spirituality and consciousness, the site of the primordial “third eye” – has been of fascination to humanity since its function and importance were discovered. It is well-known that the pineal gland responds to psychoactive drugs, so what happens when we use cannabis?

What is the pineal gland for?

While undoubtedly important, the pineal gland does not possess mystical or supernatural properties, no matter how much some people would like to believe it. Even some great, renowned thinkers have fallen foul of magical thinking here, such as the scientist and philosopher Descartes, who described the pineal gland as “the seat of the soul”.

Indeed, it is just but one gland among many that comprise the endocrine system in vertebrate animal species, whose function is heavily involved in the regulation of circadian (daily) rhythm and the production of hormones – the most important of which being melatonin, the “sleep hormone”. However, there are a few things that mark out the pineal gland as unique and interesting. Let’s take a brief look at what they are.

Why is the pineal gland so unusual?

The pineal gland is thought of as the “third eye”, and does in fact possess some of the qualities of a simple organ of sight

The idea of the pineal gland being a primordial “third eye” has some basis in fact. The gland is made up of cells known as pinealocytes, which in some non-mammal vertebrate species actually directly respond to light. This ability makes them very similar to the cells of the retina, the part of the eye that receives light from the lens opening.

In some fossil species, scientists have even found holes just like eye sockets in the centre-rear part of the skull, which allowed the pineal gland to receive light directly, just like an eye. In fact, several modern species of reptile and fish still retain a functional “third eye”, such as the New Zealand reptile species the tuatara, whose extra eye actually has a lens, a retina and a cornea of its own! It is thought that these functional third eyes are involved in maintaining daily and seasonal cycles of hormone production.

In mammals, the pinealocytes aren’t known to directly receive light, and there is no evidence of functional “third eyes” existing. However, the pinealocytes of mammals are known to be directly linked to the retina itself, which sends signals in response to changes in light levels in order to regulate circadian rhythms. So in some respects, if one stretches the definition of what constitutes an eye to the limit, one could still say that the pineal gland functions somewhat like a rudimentary third eye even in mammals.

One interesting aspect of the pineal gland that certainly does apply to mammals, including humans, in this: unlike much of the brain, the pineal gland is not separated from the rest of the body by the blood-brain barrier. It receives abundant blood flow directly from the posterior cerebral artery, which may have something to do with its receptiveness to psychoactive substances.

Why do psychoactive substances often affect the pineal gland?

The New Zealand reptile the tuatara retains a functional third eye used for regulating daily cycles

As well as being in a perfect position to receive all kinds of substances not filtered by the blood-brain barrier, the pineal gland is also at the heart of a “cascade” of reactions which fire off when norepinephrine, a well-known neurotransmitter responsible for regulating sleep and wakefulness, binds to its receptors in the pineal gland.

When norepinephrine binds to the receptors (known as adrenergic receptors), the chain of hormonal and enzymatic interactions that results is responsible for signalling when it is time to sleep, and when it is time for the individual to wake and become active. Thus, this cascade is deeply involved in setting up one’s “mood”, and how one perceives and responds to the challenges of the coming day, as well as ensuring that sleep of sufficient quality and duration is regularly achieved.

Clearly, the pineal gland is essential to maintaining a healthy, positive mind state, and is deeply concerned with emotional states in general. When humans consume psychiatric drugs, it affects this complex cascade of activity in the pineal gland, in conjunction with various other parts of the brain, to give a subjectively altered state of perception.

One example of the importance of the pineal gland in terms of psychiatric good-health is its relationship with the “Winter Blues” illness, seasonally affective disorder (often abbreviated to SAD). The fact that bright light is a common treatment for SAD suggests that the pineal gland and its associated light-sensitive hormone, melatonin, is involved. Furthermore, the fact that low light levels can cause such a dramatic set of psychological symptoms indicate that the pineal gland is fundamentally linked with psychiatric good health in general, and that its dysfunction may be behind other mental disorders too.

How does cannabis itself work in the pineal gland?

The pineal gland is so called due to its resemblance to a pine cone

Research on rats has shown that the pineal gland contains a functional endocannabinoid system, in that cannabinoid receptors type 1 and 2, and the endogenous ligands that bind to them, anandamide and 2-AG, are all present.

The study showed that the activity of the CB?-receptors varied according to a daily cycle, with lowest activity levels occurring at the end of the daylight period. It also showed that levels of an enzyme responsible for synthesizing new endocannabinoid molecules, NAPE-PLD, was reduced during the middle of the dark period.

Furthermore, the study showed that presence of THC reduced the activity of an enzyme known as AANAT, and in doing so reduces the synthesis of melatonin itself. An earlier study on rats also showed that THC reduced the activity of AANAT, and suggested that the mechanism that occurred was as follows: the neurotransmitter norepinephrine starts a cascade of reactions, the end result of which is the production of melatonin. THC disrupts this norepinephrine cascade and thereby reduces the production of melatonin.

It is likely that THC’s endogenous analogue anandamide performs the same action of reducing the norepinephrine-induced release of melatonin, and is therefore fundamentally involved in pineal gland function. It seems that low levels of anandamide or THC are therefore needed in order for melatonin production to increase. As melatonin levels increase, as they should normally do at the end of the daylight period, feelings of sleepiness should occur.

But smoking cannabis makes me sleepy! Why?

The pineal gland has long been seen as the seat of consciousness in humans

If low levels of anandamide are required for melatonin production to increase, and levels of cannabinoid receptor activity are lowest at the end of the daylight period, that seems to imply that using cannabis would cause melatonin to be reduced, which should mean that sleepiness is also reduced. But many people report feeling sleepy after using cannabis. Why is this?

It may simply be that the mechanisms relating to cannabinoids and pineal gland hormones work differently in rats than in humans. Indeed, while the studies on rats clearly showed that THC reduced melatonin levels, there is evidence to suggest that the reverse is true in humans. An 1986 study showed that in eight out of nine healthy male volunteers, THC caused melatonin levels to dramatically increase, peaking around 120 minutes after administration. Interestingly, however, one subject showed a decline in melatonin in response to THC, just as was seen in rats.

Whether or not cannabis makes one feel sleepy may depend on dose, tolerance and a whole range of other factors, and may even depend on the time of day that the user consumes cannabis in relation to typical circadian rhythms. Furthermore, there may also be a genetic element controlling individual response to cannabinoids, as genetic differences in expression of cannabinoid receptors have been noted in multiple studies.

It is also now thought that many of the subjective effects of cannabis are not derived from THC per se, but rather from THC in combination with various other cannabinoids and terpenes. For example, myrcene is now thought to affect the “high” of pure THC, giving an overall more “couch-lock” effect to the user. Furthermore, pure THC has been shown on a number of occasions to have either a sedative or stimulant effect, depending on dose.

But how does the pineal gland actually affect the process of getting “high”?

The pineal gland is heavily involved with the regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms in humans .

This is is not entirely clear, and in any case, we know that multiple different regions of the brain are involved in the subjective experience of being high. The pineal gland is just one tiny link in an extremely long and complicated chain, which stretches between some of the most basic and fundamental parts of the brain (and the pineal gland can definitely be classed as basic and fundamental, as almost every living vertebrate possesses one) and some of the most advanced, such as the neocortex, which only exists in mammals.

However, the pineal gland has repeatedly been associated with the biosynthesis of important natural compounds related to sleeping, dreaming, and dream imagery. The presence of these compounds in the pineal gland is one of the most important reasons that so many view it as the “seat of the soul”, or a key to “spiritual enlightenment”. Without a doubt, the most famous of these compounds is N,N-Dimethyltryptamine, more commonly known as DMT.

It’s actually somewhat controversial as to whether or not the pineal gland is responsible for synthesizing DMT in humans, but there is significant evidence to suggest that it is the case. DMT and related compounds tryptamine and bufotenin have been found in human urine, and DMT itself has been shown to be synthesized in the pineal gland of the rat brain. A closely related compound, 5-MeO-DMT has been found to be synthesized in the human pineal gland, but thus far, it has not been proven that DMT itself is too.

In any case, it certainly appears that the pineal gland is very much involved in the production and/or processing of substances that are well-known to be involved in helping to create “dream states” when we are asleep. Thus, there are many theories that the subjective experience of getting “high” from cannabis, hallucinogens and other psychoactive drugs also involves this subjective creation of a “dream-like” or otherwise altered reality.

The pineal gland is part of a complex and fascinating system

DMT is an ingredient in ayahuasca, a powerful hallucinogen whose users often produce art like this.

While we are far from having a complete understanding of the complex network of chemical compounds that interact in the brain, we are beginning to build a simple map of how all these interrelated processes fit together. It is increasingly clear that the endocannabinoid system is a fundamentally important messaging system that helps to link together various parts of the brain, many of which work together to give us the subjective experience of being “high”.

The pineal gland itself is crucial to this process, and has undeniable importance as a source of consciousness-altering compounds. It works with the endocannabinoid system and various other regulatory systems to control our subjective daily experience of mood, wakefulness and sleepiness, and when we introduce external psychoactive compounds, this process can be altered in fundamental ways, some of which can be greatly enjoyable to the individual!

How to make fire with a lemon

If you ever find yourself in need of a flame but are lacking the combustibles, consider tapping into the electrical power of a lemon.

After plugging 6 copper braids and 6 zinc nails into the lemon, you can wrap wires around them diagonally, as displayed in this image

Once hooked up, you run wires from the 2 unwired corners, using one as a positive node (anode) and another as the negative node (cathode).  These are the live wires.

Touch them both to a piece of steel wool and run the current through it.  This will set it on fire.  Throw some paper, tissue, kindling or any other simple combustible material you can find to get the fire going, then add your wood (or whatever else you’re using as fuel).

Before long, you’ll have a 5 Volt lemon and a raging fire.

Watch the  video. URL:https://youtu.be/Bv2vT665bGI

257 Earthquakes Over Magnitude 5 In 9 Days- What Are We Not Being Told About This Energy Influx.

Firstly I would just like to say, this article is not being put here to instill fear in anyone, it is hard not to be a little shaken by what has been discovered, but there are people who understand what is happening and we have the power as the people to give those who have this knowledge a platform.

The problem with a lot of mainstream media is they speak from a fear based perspective and offer very little in the way of solutions, and while I don’t claim to have the solution to this issue, if we band together and unite we can certainly attempt to find one.

I recently watched a video, which I have to be honest I struggled to understand with any real clarity to start with. But as I went over it it made a little more sense. I will summarize for those of you who don’t want to sit through the whole video.

There has been a large wave of energy that was unintentionally picked up by the MIMIC TPW microwave background imagery.

The glitchy curved lines that appear across the screen are the large waves of energy in question. In the video from Dutchsinse.Com he has said-

“This system usually only shows precipitation / water vapor , yet in some rare instances large energy returns can be seen when solar, spaceweather, and other energy events impact the planet.

We have seen examples of X class flares, and large Earth facing Coronal Mass Ejections cause large disruptions of this very same feed — however this “wave” of energy produces a return that crosses the same bandwidths detected (and used by) the MIMIC microwave background system.

The energy spans the planet on both (all) sides over several hours time. This wave of energy started to form on 12/18 at about 15:00 UTC, and is currently ongoing.

A check of the X-ray flux monitors from GOES shows low activity, minor solar winds, no major solar storms, Total Electron Content in the ionosphere shows “minimal”…. thus the source / cause of this event is still “unknown”.

If this “event” really occurred (if it’s “real”) then we’re looking at a huge amount of energy impacting the planet causing a planet wide microwave return going off the scales.

Microwaves convert to DC energy in a natural “rectenna” process when the waves become trapped in the Earth’s magnetosphere– the radio waves convert to DC power, and are taken to ground. Ground ultimately being the core of the Earth.

If the event is really occurring, then the potential amount of energy going to the core of the planet would be tremendous — this of course could increase volcanic activity, and cause large earthquakes.

I don’t know what to make of this — this is the first time I’ve ever seen something this large over such a vast area show up on MIMIC like this.”

The website which picked up this activity has issued a notice saying “2016 Dec 22: We’re seeing a long segment of bad data being wrapped into this product every few days. This comes from a glitch in the incoming satellite data. For a more accurate representation during those times, try the MIMIC-TPW2 product .”

However since this event there has been an influx of earthquakes over the globe with the latest being a 7.6 magnitude earthquake in Chile at 14:22 Christmas day local time. But this is not the only event since this activity has been picked up-

There have been 257 earthquakes over magnitude 5 and many more very close to this number. Just to put this into perspective on average there is an estimated 3.6 earthquakes  of a magnitude of 5-5.9 a day, in the last 9 days there have been an average of 24.8 nearly 7 times what is usual. It is estimated there is a  6-6.9 magnitude earthquake every 3 days, we have had 2.6 a day for the last 9 days. Lastly for the big earthquakes of magnitude 7-7.9 you usually get 1 every 25 days (estimate) there have been an average of 1 a day for the last 9 days.

Obviously there are going to be moments when activity is higher, but given the fact that this video predicted it before hand and on the date of this video there was 71 earthquakes over a magnitude 5, we have to question the statement. Perhaps it is a type of energy they do not understand.

Watch the video. URL:

You can view the earthquake reports here. URL:http://earthquake-report.com/category/daily-important-quakes/


It will be interesting to see how the next few days unfold and we will keep you updated on the progress. Much love, Luke

I am Luke Miller the author of this article and creator of Potential For Change. I like to blend psychology and spirituality to help you create more happiness in your life.

It will be interesting to see how the next few days unfold and we will keep you updated on the progress.

This Is How Soon You’d Die Around The Solar System

Earth is a beautiful place—and you’ll certainly appreciate it more when you look at how long you would survive unprotected around the Solar System. Hint: There’s nowhere besides Earth where you could survive any longer than two minutes. Mercury and Mars are the only places in the Solar System where you could survive as long as you could hold your breath. On the other planets and the sun, you would either instantly vaporize (on the sun and on Venus), or be crushed by the pressure of a gas planet.

Sounds lovely!


Scientists May Have Finally Cracked The Greatest Mystery Behind The Bermuda Triangle

The mystery behind the Bermuda Triangle may have finally been cracked.

The 500,000km square stretch in the North Atlantic Ocean has been blamed for the disappearance of at least 75 planes and hundreds of ships over the centuries.

But scientists claim the truth behind the ‘deadly triangle’ is all down to hexagonal clouds that create terrifying 170mph winds air bombs.

It is believed these deadly blasts of air can flip over ships and bring planes crashing into the ocean.

Researchers also noted that massive clouds were appearing over the western tip of Bermuda Island – ranging from 20 to 55 miles across.

Hexagon clouds over the Bermuda Triangle

Dr Steve Miller, satellite meteorologist at Colorado State University, told Science Channel’s What on Earth: “You don’t typically see straight edges with clouds.

“Most of the time, clouds are random in their distribution.”

Using radar satellites to measure what was happening beneath the clouds, they found that sea level winds were reaching almost 170mph.

The winds are powerful enough to generate waves of more than 45ft high

The Bermuda Triangle is situated roughly between The Bahamas and Bermuda Island

These winds are powerful enough to generate waves of more than 45ft high as “air bombs” are forced to come crashing down towards the ocean.

Meteorologist Randy Cerveny added: “These types of hexagonal shapes over the ocean are in essence air bombs.

“They are formed by what are called microbursts and they’re blasts of air that come down out of the bottom of a cloud and then hit the ocean and then create waves that can sometimes be massive in size as they start to interact with each other.”

The Bermuda Triangle is roughly mapped out to the east of The Bahamas and the west of Bermuda Island in the North Atlantic Ocean.

Researchers noted that massive clouds were appearing over the western tip of the islands – ranging from 20 to 55 miles across.

Some of the most mysterious disappearances blamed on the Bermuda Triangle:

1. Reports go back all the way to 1492 when Christopher Columbus reported strange lights and strange compass readings in the area.

2. The first logged shipwreck attributed to the triangle came in 1609 when English voyage The Sea Venture was destroyed on the eastern end of Bermuda Island, bringing the first human settlement in the island.

3. One of the spookier tales comes from The Ellen Austin voyage in 1881. The crew reportedly came across another ship that was sailing without a single soul on board, so transferred some of its crew and attempted to sail with it to New York. The other ship suddenly disappeared – only to then reappear without a person on board before disappearing without trace.In 1918 the widely debated disappearance of the USS Cyclops and its 309 crew, was also attributed to the phenomenon. It was the single largest loss of life in the history of the US Navy after it went missing without a trace with a crew of 309 after leaving Barbados.

4. One of the most famous disappearances was in 1945 . Flight 19 vanished when five torpedo bombers lost contact during a US Navy training flight. All 14 airmen were lost, as were all 13 crew members of a flying boat that was on of two search planes sent out.

5. In 1991 the pilot of a Grumman Cougar jet made a routine radio request to increase altitude. While ascending, the aircraft gradually faded from radar and vanished.

6. The latest tragedy to be attributed is the cargo ship El Faro disaster in 2015 . The ship was reported missing, with all 33 crew on board, after being caught in a hurricane off the southern coast of the Bahamas in November.

Yes, you CAN die of a broken heart.

Yes, you CAN die of a broken heart: How the shock of losing a loved one can cause physical changes that put those left behind at serious risk

  • Debbie Reynolds suffered a stroke just hours after the death of her daughter
  • Carrie Fisher, who played Princess Leia, died on December 27 when she was 60
  • Her mother and fellow actress died the following day after suffering a stroke.

Just hours before Debbie Reynolds suffered a stroke after the death of her daughter Carrie Fisher, she told her family: ‘I miss her so much. I just want to be with her.’

When her son, Todd, said the ’emotion and stress’ from the loss of Carrie had ‘pretty much triggered’ her death, it confirmed the instinctive reaction of many — that she had died of a broken heart.

Most of us have heard stories of long- married couples dying weeks or days apart. Examples include Johnny Cash who died in 2003, five months after his wife, June.

A decade ago such double deaths would have been put down to coincidence, or a need to seek solace in the belief that love lasts beyond the grave, but a growing body of scientific studies by various universities and hospitals is finding ‘broken-hearted’ to be more than just a turn of phrase.

Indeed, research is finding that the shock of losing a loved one, be it a spouse or a child, can cause physical changes which put those left behind at serious risk.

Dr Derek Connolly, consultant cardiologist at Birmingham City Hospital, says Debbie Reynolds was a prime candidate for Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy or ‘Broken Heart Syndrome’.

‘This usually happens in the 48 hours after a bereavement,’ he says. ‘We see this in older ladies who have lost their husbands, but it’s as likely to happen in older parents who have lost children.’ At first the symptoms — arm and chest pain, dizziness and shortness of breath — are so similar to those of a normal heart attack it is difficult for doctors to tell the difference, says Dr Connolly.

Billie Lourd, Carrie Fisher and Debbie Reynolds pose during TNT’s 21st Annual Screen Actors Guild Awards on January 25, 2015 in Los Angeles, California

Just hours before Debbie Reynolds (pictured with her daughter Carrie in 1965) suffered a stroke after the death of Carrie Fisher, she told her family: ‘I miss her so much’

On closer investigation, scans reveal that patients do not have the cholesterol build-up of classic heart attacks. ‘The shock and stress release huge amounts of hormones like adrenaline,’ says Dr Connolly. ‘This squeezes the muscle in the walls of the arteries, which starves some parts of the heart of blood.

‘This means the left ventricle balloons, making it look similar in shape to a type of octopus pot in Japan, where the syndrome was named.’

It is 25 years since it was identified but only now is the condition more widely diagnosed. Studies by Imperial College have estimated two per cent of the 300,000 ‘heart attacks’ each year in the UK are caused by the syndrome.

Most at risk are women who have been through the menopause. One study found that of 1,750 patients with Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy, 89.8 per cent were women with an average age of 67 — possibly because female sex hormones release more stress hormones than in men.

If caught early, patients can be given such drugs as beta blockers to stop adrenaline compressing the arteries, allowing the heart to return to normal within a week or so. Yet even if you absorb the initial shock, other studies have found it is essential to look for other after-shocks.

While older women are most in danger of Broken Heart Syndrome, young people can experience a raised risk of developing irregular heartbeat, or atrial fibrillation in the weeks after a death.

The study, published in the journal Open Heart, found risk was highest eight to 14 days after a sudden loss. After a year it fell to normal levels.

There is another threat to the old. The loss of a loved one is more likely to affect the immune system and the body’s ability to fight infection.

A University of Birmingham study on the effect of bereavement on white defender blood cells (neutrophils) which fight off major killers of the elderly like pneumonia, took blood samples from recently bereaved men and women aged 65 and over and looked at how effective their neutrophils were.

Debbie Reynolds with Gene Kelly when they appeared in Singin’ In The Rain

While grieving young people’s neutrophils were not affected by such distress, those of pensioners were far less effective. Researchers said the body’s reaction to grief may also make it harder to fight off other illnesses, like cancer.

Psychiatrist and Mail columnist Dr Max Pemberton says the effect of mental health on our bodies is now known to be more powerful than previously thought. He says studies show that in the first year after a spouse dies, the surviving partner is at a 67 per cent higher risk of a heart attack.

Dr Pemberton says: ‘I suspect this is down to a combination of factors. During bereavement, key hormones and other chemicals are released which have a knock-on effect.

‘Until recently, we thought it was anecdotal to hear about people dying of broken hearts. It flew in the face of medical thinking, but when I worked on cardiac wards you would see people who had heart attacks after difficult events or after depression.

Dr Pemberton added: ‘One elderly man was depressed after a heart attack. I introduced myself as the resident psychiatrist and he broke down. His wife had died eight months before and he didn’t see the point in living any more. ‘It broke my heart,’ he told me. ‘

Dr Pemberton says research highlights how vital it is for those left behind to look for signs of illness:

‘People often forget to look after themselves. They stop eating and exercising. Those around them need to make sure they look after themselves, not just in the first few weeks but also in the months afterwards.

‘We are starting to appreciate the vital link between patients’ physical and mental health, particularly at bereavement.’

Sushi leaves Chinese man’s body riddled with tapeworm parasites.

  • Chinese man went to his doctor with stomach ache and itchy skin
  • Scans revealed his entire body had been infected with tapeworm
  • Doctors say this is due to the large amount of raw fish he had eaten 
  • Cases such as this have increased due to the soaring popularity of sushi 

It is the most expensive – and many would argue delicious – part of a sushi menu.

But one man’s love of sashimi nearly killed him after it led to his body becoming riddled with tapeworm.

The Chinese man had gone to his doctor complaining of stomach ache and itchy skin.

To his horror, scans revealed his entire body had been infected with tapeworm after eating too much sashimi – raw slices of fish.

Scroll down for video 

One man’s love of sashimi nearly killed him after it led to his body becoming riddled with tapeworm

The Chinese man had seen his doctor complaining of stomach ache and itchy skin. Scans revealed his entire body had been infected with tapeworm parasites after eating too much sashimi - raw slices of fish

The Chinese man had seen his doctor complaining of stomach ache and itchy skin. Scans revealed his entire body had been infected with tapeworm parasites after eating too much sashimi – raw slices of fish


Humans contract tapeworm infections from sushi by eating raw fish that has been infected with the worm in its larvae stage.

When fish eat tapeworm eggs, the hatching larvae attach themselves to the intestinal wall of the fish and the worms infect the fish flesh.

Because sushi is not cooked, the larvae can in turn transfer into the flesh of any human that eats the fish.

Once a human is infected, a tapeworm will grow inside the intestine to a length of up to 15metres over a period of weeks. It can survive for years and go undetected for weeks or months, in turn releasing its own eggs that infect other parts of the human body.

Symptoms include fatigue, constipation and abdominal discomfort – which can be so mild the victim may not notice anything is wrong.

If larvae begin to migrate to other parts of the body they can start to eat away at the liver, eyes, heart or brain and cause life-threatening conditions.

Doctors believe some of the uncooked Japanese delicacy of raw meat or fish must have become contaminated.

He was treated at the Guangzhou No. 8 People’s Hospital in Guangdong Province, in eastern China.

Research has shown that eating raw or undercooked fish can lead to a variety of parasitic infections.

Tapeworm infections occur after ingesting the larvae of diphyllobothrium, found in freshwater fish such as salmon, although marinated and smoked fish can also transmit the worm.

While cases have increased in poorer areas due to improved sanitation, cases have increased in more developed countries,.

Study author Nancy Craig wrote: ‘The widespread popularity of Japanese sushi and sashimi (slices of raw fish) is a contributor.

‘But other popular dishes might also be implicated, such as raw salted or marinated fillets – which originate from Baltic and Scandinavian countries – carpaccio – very thin slices of raw fish common in Italy, raw salmon and ceviche – lightly marinated fish.’

Dr Yin, of Guangzhou No. 8 People’s Hospital, told the website that’smags.com that eating uncooked food contaminated with tapeworms’ eggs could eventually cause cysticercosis, when the adult worms enters a person’s blood stream.

This type of infection is life-threatening once it reaches the brain.

Research has shown that eating raw or undercooked fish can lead to a variety of parasitic infections

Eating uncooked food contaminated with tapeworms’ eggs could eventually cause cysticercosis, when the adult worms enters a person’s blood stream – and can be fatal

Yes, you can grow new brain cells. Here’s how.

It’s called neurogenesis.  Your brain’s hippocampus is capable of creating new neurons and certain environmental factors make it speed up and slow down.

The creation of new brain cells, once thought impossible, is related to memory.  Things like eating healthy food and exercising can enhance your body’s ability to create new ones while stress, high levels of sugar and other negatives can slow it down.

Here’s a cross-section; you can see where the new neurons incubate

This is one of those “under the radar” pieces of information that has made its way into the main-stream.  You are constantly regrowing and regenerating your body.

Doctor Sandrine Thuret, neural stem cell researcher at the King’s College of London, has examined the power and potential of the human body to grow new brain cells.  Her research has uncovered a slew of activities that are good for regrowth.  She has also isolated some very dangerous behavior that will slow down the production of new brain cells, including excessive sugar, stress and lack of sleep.


Earth Scientists Are Freaking Out. NASA Urges Calm.

Earth Scientists Are Freaking Out. NASA Urges Calm.

“We don’t do policy in NASA,” said Michael Freilich, head of the agency’s Earth Science Division.

At a time when NASA earth scientists are concerned their research may be scuttled by the incoming Trump administration, the space agency’s top science official is preaching pragmatism and unity.

The names of the two key Trump administration figures who will have the most significant impact on NASA’s future — the new NASA administrator and the director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy — have not been announced. To put that in scientific terms, all the rumor and discussion swirling around the scientific community about NASA’s future under a Trump presidency is noise, “not signal,” said Thomas Zurbuchen, who took over as the leader of NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in October.

“You are leaders in your community, please be a source of signal, not a source of noise,” Zurbuchen said Dec. 12 during the annual Earth Science Town Hall meeting at the American Geophysical Union conference in San Francisco. [Analysis: The Biggest Space Issues Facing the Trump Administration]

Although it is possible that NASA’s Earth Science program “might get somewhat smaller in the new administration, it is not at all obvious to me that is going to happen,” said Michael Freilich, NASA Earth Science Division director. “I am actually optimistic the benefits will be recognized as they have in the past.”

“You have earned tremendous credibility from your work over the years,” Freilich said through a two-way internet link that allowed him to interact with people at the town hall from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida, where he was awaiting the launch of NASA’s Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System. “You earned that credibility by being good scientists, by being logical, attacking problems and letting the data speak for themselves. We don’t do policy in NASA. We provide the information for all the policymakers to draw their own conclusions.”

Even if NASA’s Earth science program shrinks, scientists should focus diligently on their work instead of “spending time pining for what could have been,” Freilich said.

Zurbuchen also emphasized the importance of producing high-quality research. “Let’s behave like scientists and deal with absolute ethics with our science,” he said. “At the end, history will judge us by whether we did the right thing.”

Funding for NASA’s Earth science program has traditionally waxed and waned with changing administrations. Funding as a percent of NASA’s overall budget declined sharply from 2001 to 2006, the early years of the George W. Bush presidency, dipping from about 11 percent of NASA’s budget to six percent. It was not until NASA’s first Earth science decadal survey published in January 2007 declared that the space agency’s Earth-observing satellite system “was in danger of collapsing” that funding began to rise, Freilich said.

Since 2007, NASA’s Earth science budget has climbed back up to comprise about 10 percent of the agency’s budget, nearly $1.93 billion in 2016. With the money appropriated since 2007, NASA has “truly revitalized our space-based Earth-observation system,” Freilich said.

NASA has 19 major Earth science missions flying on satellites and instruments mounted on the International Space Station. The space agency plans to launch about 20 Earth science missions between late 2016 to 2023, including small satellites, cubesats and space station instruments. “We will continue launching several missions per year on average,” Freilich said. [50 Years of Presidential Visions for Space Exploration]

NASA’s Earth Science Division also is working with other U.S. government agencies to identify Earth-observation data they are interested in acquiring in 2017 through a new program, Interagency Satellite Needs-Collection Process, led by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy.

“We have embraced that process,” Freilich said, noting that agencies have submitted requests for 77 data products that NASA might be able to obtain from Earth-observation satellites. “Perhaps subtle changes to our programs could address the needs of other federal agencies,” Freilich said. “In a time of transition, demonstrating that we do support other agencies is of paramount importance.”

That type of comment was a clear indication that this was no ordinary town hall, which traditionally is a relatively well-attended meeting of scientists keeping tabs on NASA’s Earth science portfolio. This year, many scientists claimed seats in the meeting room before the previous session ended. By the time Freilich began to speak, every seat was filled and latecomers lined the walls.

Scientists in the room clearly recognize their work could be affected by the incoming administration, which includes cabinet nominees skeptical of climate change and a space policy adviser, Robert Walker, former chairman of the U.S. House of Representatives Science Committee, who has publicly questioned the value of NASA’s Earth science work.

While NASA officials did not mention any names or specific threats to the future of the agency’s Earth science program, Zurbuchen preached unity. “United communities are a lot harder to beat,” he said Dec. 13, during NASA’s Planetary Science Town Hall. “Lets stick together and stick up for each other. Together our narrative is a lot stronger than any small narrative any one of us could come up with in a small segment of the community.”

Since it is not clear how NASA programs will fare in the coming years, it is natural for scientists to feel worried, Zurbuchen said. Nevertheless, he is operating under the assumption that “when everything is said and done, we will have a community that does Earth science.”

“Earth is a planet that is worthy of scientific investigation and discovery,” Zurbuchen said. “The research not only teach us about nature, but it also affects our lives directly on a daily timescale, a yearly timescale or beyond.”

NASA’s Earth science research also ties in with much of the agency’s other work. “When we are thinking about other planets or the early solar system, the Earth is an important part,” Zurbuchen said. “The instruments that we are flying elsewhere were invented to look at the Earth first.”

Instead of speaking in general terms about the benefits of NASA’s Earth science program, Zurbuchen told scientists to point to concrete contributions of their work. On Nov. 29, for example, Louisiana experienced severe thunderstorms and tornadoes while wildfires broke out in Tennessee. Space-based sensors developed by NASA helped firefighters battle the Tennessee blazes and assisted forecasters in Louisiana.

Pointing to that type of vivid example helps people understand the value of Earth science instruments such as the the Geostationary Lightning Mapper developed by NASA and flying on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R. “That instrument is on that GOES-R spacecraft because NASA invests in these kinds of instruments and matures them until the day when they change our lives,” Zurbuchen said.

Zurbuchen told SpaceNews that his emphasis on making NASA’s scientific work concrete is not a reaction to the changing presidential administration, but rather a reflection of his background.

Before becoming NASA’s associate administrator for science, Zurbuchen was a scientist whose research focused largely on solar and heliospheric physics. As a professor at the University of Michigan, he also established the Center for Entrepreneurship in the College of Engineering.

Entrepreneurs focus on solving a problem for a community in a way that changes lives, Zurbuchen said. When he looks at NASA programs, Zurbuchen said he wants to see the data showing how the agency’s work is solving programs for farmers or helping other groups.

“That’s how I look at the world,” he said.


The only way you can describe how you feel is that you feel minimized.  You feel crushed and smothered.  You’re constantly second-guessing yourself; your feelings, your perceptions, your memories, and a small, suffocated part inside of you wonders whether you are actually going crazy.

You feel neurotic, you feel hyper-sensitive and you feel an overwhelming sense of alienation.

What is wrong with you?

If you can identify with what I just wrote, you are most likely experiencing a sophisticated manipulation technique known as Gaslighting.  This technique undermines your entire perception of reality and can slowly creep into your relationships, friendships, family life and work life.

Although you might feel crazy, although you might feel imbalanced and irrational, there is still hope.


Inspired by the 1940 and 1944 films “Gas Light,” where a husband systematically manipulates his wife in order to make her feel crazy, the term “Gaslighting” is now commonly used to describe behavior that is inherently manipulative.

Gaslighting, at its core, is a form of emotional abuse that slowly eats away at your ability to make judgments.  Essentially, a Gaslighter spins their negative, harmful or destructive words and actions in their favor, deflecting the blame for their abusive deeds and pointing the finger at you.  This is often done by making you feel “overly sensitive,” “paranoid,” “mentally unstable,” “silly,” “unhinged,” and many other sensations which cause you to doubt yourself.

 Commonly adopted by psychopathic, sociopathic and narcissistic types of people, Gaslighting tends to eat away at you slowly until you realize that you’re a shell of the former person you were.


Let’s take a look at some examples of Gaslighting.

In a family scenario:  Andrew’s father is an angry, bitter man.  Every day Andrew is afraid to “tip the balance” of his father’s mood because he often bursts out in fits of rage calling Andrew a “bastard” and a “worthless little loser,” among many other hurtful names.  When Andrew confronts his father about this aggressive name calling, Andrew’s father laughs and tells him “to stop being so sensitive.”

In a relationship scenario:  Jade has been married for 5 years and has two small children with her husband Mike.  For the past few months Jade has been trying to establish a small art shop, but when she asks for her husband’s assistance his mood darkens: “I can’t believe you’re spending so much time on this shop—don’t you care about me—don’t you care about your kids?  You’re supposed to be mothering them!” he exclaims.  Jade is shocked, “But I just wanted you to help me with setting up the store!  And I haven’t been neglecting anyone!”  Mike comes up very close to Jade’s face: “You see!   Now you’re denying it.  When I married you I thought you’d be there for your family.  I should just take the kids and go already!”  Mike storms off.  Later, when Jade sits down to talk with Mike about his threat, Mike says, “Honey, you know you were over reacting, and you know that you’ve been obsessing over this shop too much.  That makes the rest of us feel very ignored and excluded, I hope you understand that.”

At work scenario:  Sophie has been working in her department for the past five years when she is given a promotion to migrate to another level of the company that pays a higher salary.  However, Sophie has been given a trial period to determine whether she is capable of fulfilling her duties or not.  Nervously, she meets with her new supervisor, Kelly. At first, Sophie likes her supervisor and fulfills all of her tasks on time.  However, her supervisor begins to ask her to do belittling chores and favors here and there with increasing frequency.  While Sophie is fine with helping out, she finds that Kelly is becoming more and more demanding.  Finally, as Sophie’s work piles up to an unbearable level, she tells Kelly that she needs to focus on completing her work, but she can help another time.  Later, in a staff meeting, Kelly introduces Sophie to everyone and says, “Although she’s not keeping up with us yet, I’m sure she’ll learn to embody our hard-working ethics soon!”  Immediately, Sophie blushes and feels publicly insulted and humiliated, fearing for the security of her new job.  Later when Sophie asks her supervisor why she thinks that “she is not embodying their hard-working ethic,” her supervisor says: “I think you misunderstood me.  I just said that you’re not used to our pace of work so that other people can help you out.”  From then on Sophie accepts all extra demands and chores, no matter how much work she has, or how demeaning the tasks are.


Gaslighting is so harmful because it promotes anxiety, depression, and with enough frequency in our lives, can sometimes trigger nervous breakdowns.  So the question now it: are you being gaslighted?  How can you know whether you’re experiencing this subtle form of manipulation in your life?  Review the following tell-tale signs:

  1. Something is “off” about your friend, partner, son, daughter, mother, father, sister, brother, colleagues, boss, or other person in your life … but you can’t quite explain or pinpoint what.
  2. You frequently second-guess your ability to remember the details of past events.
  3. You feel confused and disorientated.
  4. You feel threatened and on-edge, but you don’t know why.
  5. You feel the need to apologize all the time for what you do or who you are.
  6. You never quite feel “good enough” and try to live up to the expectations and demands of others, even if they are unreasonable or harm you in some way.
  7. You feel like there’s something fundamentally wrong with you, e.g. you’re neurotic or are “losing it.”
  8. You feel like you’re constantly overreacting or are too sensitive.
  9. You feel isolated, hopeless, misunderstood and depressed.
  10. You find it hard to trust your own judgment, and given a choice, you choose to believe the judgment of another.
  11. You feel scared and as though “something is terribly wrong,” but you don’t know what or why.
  12. You find it hard to make decisions.
  13. You feel as though you’re a much weaker version of yourself, and you were much more strong and confident in the past.
  14. You feel guilty for not feeling happy like you used to.
  15. You’ve become afraid of “speaking up” or expressing your emotions, so you stay silent instead.


Gaslighters use a variety of subtle techniques to undermine your reality and portray you as the disturbed and messed up one.  These include, for example:

  • Discrediting you by making other people think that you’re crazy, irrational or unstable.
  • Using a mask of confidence, assertiveness, and/or fake compassion to make you believe that you “have it all wrong.” Therefore, eventually, you begin to doubt yourself and believe theirversion of past events.
  • Changing the subject. The gaslighter may divert the topic by asking another question, or making a statement usually directed at your thoughts, e.g. “You’re imagining things—that never happened!”  “No, you’re wrong, you didn’t remember right.”  “Is that another crazy idea you got from your (family member/friend)?”
  • Minimizing.  By trivializing how you feel and what you think, the gaslighter gains more and more power over you, e.g. “Why are you being so sensitive?” “You don’t need to get angry over a little thing like that!” “I was just joking around, why are you taking things so seriously?”
  • Denial and avoidance. By refusing to acknowledge your feelings and thoughts, the gaslighter causes you to doubt yourself more and more.  For example, “I don’t remember that, you must have dreamt it!” “You’re lying, I never said that.” “I don’t know what you’re talking about, you’re changing the subject.”
  • Twisting and reframing. When the gaslighter confidently and subtly twists and reframes what was said or done in their favor, they can cause you to second-guess yourself—especially when paired with fake compassion, making you feel as though you are “unstable,” “irrational,” and so forth.  For example, “I didn’t say that, I said _____” “I didn’t beat you up Johnny, I just gave you a smack around the head—that’s what all good fathers do.”  “If you remember correctly, I was actually trying to help you.”


Gaslighting causes us to doubt our own memories, perceptions, and judgments, throwing us emotionally and psychologically off balance.

If you feel as though your self-esteem, confidence, and independence has withered under the flame of gaslighting you are not alone … and there certainly is hope!

Almost all of us, including myself, have experienced one form of Gaslighting or another throughout life.  The problems arise when Gaslighting is a frequent shadow that trails behind our relationships and partnerships.  The good news is that knowledge and awareness is the first step to healing your life and rebuilding the strong, perceptive person you are … and you have already taken it!

While it is true that in some situations we genuinely might be overreacting, or might genuinely be exhibiting irrational behavior, it is also important for you to listen to your instinct or intuition.  Do you have a heavy feeling in the pit of your stomach?  Do you feel weighed down and oppressed?  Do you feel depressed?  These are signs that you have unconsciously picked up on deception and “foul play.”  While we can consciously be fooled, unconsciously we can’t, and often we will have a lingering feeling that “something just isn’t right.”  Make sure that you listen to this feeling and seek help, either professionally or socially (i.e. a trusted group of friends or a support network).

In summary, here are some ways to support yourself in the face of gaslighting:

  • Firstly clarify to yourself how, when and who is gaslighting you. Think about what ways they make you feel unhinged and like you’re losing it. Write down whatever you can think of. You must be able to confirm that you’re being gaslighted before you can move on with your life.
  • Pay attention to the signs of being gaslighted, like feeling confused, belittled, “crazy” or manipulated. Take a deep breath, clear your mind, and center yourself. Set aside regular time for grounding each day through meditation or a mindfulness practice. These techniques will help you to stay objective even in difficult circumstances.
  • Decide whether it’s worth continuing your friendship or relationship. If you’re in a working relationship, think about whether it’s worth staying in your job or not. If you want to stay, think about ways to minimize interaction with the gaslighter until you feel grounded and confident.
  • Talk to trusted friends or loved ones about your problem. Alternatively, seek help from a mentor or therapist.
  • Shift your perspective from being a victim to being a warrior/winner or whatever word feels the most empowering. You don’t have to remain a victim for the rest of your life, and by reclaiming your personal power, you’ll also be able to help others in similar circumstances.
  • Read my emotional abuse article to deepen your understanding of this topic.

I hope these actions can help you regain a sense of personal clarity, confidence, and empowerment once again as you recover from the gaslighter’s mind games.

Are you experiencing Gaslighting?  Do you know someone else who is?  Do you have any recommendations that would help others?