Cannabis Experts Develop THC-A Crystalline: The Strongest Hash in the World at 99.99% THC.


At 99.9% THC, Crystalline is officially the strongest hash on the market, wiping the floor with ice hash, rosin, and BHO which only range from about 50-80% THC.
There are many different forms of cannabis concentration, from shatter to wax to crumble, there’s something for everyone. Many people don’t know that the variety in these concentrates come from purging the solvent out of the final product. 

THC is different because when it is reduced to its purest state, it crystallizes, creating crystal 
‘rocks’ which are very different to any other marijuana concentrate available at the moment.




The appearance of crystalline has put many people off trying it, with many dubious of its meth-like appearance, and this criticism is a valid one. You shouldn’t be put off by it’s looks though, as cannabis crystalline is the purest form of THC and has been providing relief for patients suffering from debilitating and fatal illnesses.

Guild Extracts, a Southern California extraction company, is currently the leader in producing crystalline.. Their crystallizing process is a well kept secret, but they claim they can make THC-A Crystalline out of any starting material from hydrocarbon extract, CO2 extract, and ice water concentrate. They are clear about one thing, however they are not using a solvent to create the hash, its the other way round, they are extracting pure THC from the materials they start with.

Antihydrogen spectroscopy achieved


 

Trapped antihydrogen

 

The spectrum of the hydrogen atom has played a central part in fundamental physics in the past 200 years. Historical examples of its significance include the wavelength measurements of absorption lines in the solar spectrum by Fraunhofer, the identification of transition lines by Balmer, Lyman et al., the empirical description of allowed wavelengths by Rydberg, the quantum model of Bohr, the capability of quantum electrodynamics to precisely predict transition frequencies, and modern measurements of the 1S–2S transition by Hänsch1 to a precision of a few parts in 1015. Recently, we have achieved the technological advances to allow us to focus on antihydrogen—the antimatter equivalent of hydrogen2,3,4. The Standard Model predicts that there should have been equal amounts of matter and antimatter in the primordial Universe after the Big Bang, but today’s Universe is observed to consist almost entirely of ordinary matter. This motivates physicists to carefully study antimatter, to see if there is a small asymmetry in the laws of physics that govern the two types of matter. In particular, the CPT (charge conjugation, parity reversal, time reversal) Theorem, a cornerstone of the Standard Model, requires that hydrogen and antihydrogen have the same spectrum. Here we report the observation of the 1S–2S transition in magnetically trapped atoms of antihydrogen in the ALPHA-2 apparatus at CERN. We determine that the frequency of the transition, driven by two photons from a laser at 243 nm, is consistent with that expected for hydrogen in the same environment. This laser excitation of a quantum state of an atom of antimatter represents a highly precise measurement performed on an anti-atom. Our result is consistent with CPT invariance at a relative precision of ~2 × 10−10.For the first time, researchers have probed the energy difference between two states of the antimatter atom.

The best known research at CERN centers on collisions of particles accelerated to higher and higher energies. But for the past 30 years, the lab has also hosted several research teams working to decelerate antiprotons, combine them with positrons, and cool and trap the resulting atoms of antihydrogen. A main goal of that research is to perform precision spectroscopic measurements that might reveal differences between matter and antimatter—and help to explain why the universe contains so much more of the former than the latter. (See the Quick Study by Gerald Gabrielse, Physics Today, March 2010, page 68.) Now CERN’s ALPHA collaboration has achieved the first spectroscopic success: observing the transition between antihydrogen’s 1S and 2S states.

The standard technique for atomic spectroscopy—exciting atoms with a laser and detecting the photons they emit—is unsuitable for antihydrogen. First, the coils and electrodes required to magnetically trap the antihydrogen, as shown here, leave little room for optical detectors. Second, the researchers trap only 14 antihydrogen atoms at a time, on average, so the optical signals would be undetectably weak.

Happily, antimatter offers an alternative spectroscopic method that works well for small numbers of atoms. When an antihydrogen atom is excited out of its 1S (or ground) state, it can be ionized by absorbing just one more photon. The bare antiproton, no longer confined by the magnetic field, quickly collides with the wall of the trap and annihilates, producing an easily detectable signal.

When the researchers tuned their excitation laser to the exact frequency that would excite atoms of hydrogen, about half of the antihydrogen atoms were lost from the trap during each 10-minute trial. When they detuned the laser by just 200 kHz—about 200 parts per trillion—all the antihydrogen remained in the trap. By repeating the experiment for many more laser frequencies, the ALPHA team hopes to get a detailed measurement of the transition line shape. But that will have to wait until the experiment resumes in May 2017.

 

Magnetic wormhole created for first time


Scientists in the Department of Physics at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona have designed and created in the laboratory the first experimental wormhole that can connect two regions of space magnetically. The device could have applications in medicine, opening up ways to make MRIs more comfortable for patients.

Experimental magnetic wormhole

“Wormholes” are cosmic tunnels that can connect two distant regions of the universe, and have been popularised by the dissemination of theoretical physics and by works of science fiction like Stargate, Star Trek or, more recently, Interstellar. Using present-day technology it would be impossible to create a gravitational wormhole, as the field would have to be manipulated with huge amounts of gravitational energy, which no-one yet knows how to generate. In electromagnetism, however, advances in metamaterials and invisibility have allowed researchers to put forward several designs to achieve this.

Scientists in the Department of Physics at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona have designed and created in the laboratory the first experimental wormhole that can connect two regions of space magnetically. This consists of a tunnel that transfers the magnetic field from one point to the other while keeping it undetectable – invisible – all the way.

The researchers used metamaterials and metasurfaces to build the tunnel experimentally, so that the magnetic field from a source, such as a magnet or a an electromagnet, appears at the other end of the wormhole as an isolated magnetic monopole. This result is strange enough in itself, as magnetic monopoles – magnets with only one pole, whether north or south – do not exist in nature. The overall effect is that of a magnetic field that appears to travel from one point to another through a dimension that lies outside the conventional three dimensions.

The wormhole in this experiment is a sphere made of different layers: an external layer with a ferromagnetic surface, a second inner layer, made of superconducting material, and a ferromagnetic sheet rolled into a cylinder that crosses the sphere from one end to the other. The sphere is made in such a way as to be magnetically undetectable – invisible, in magnetic field terms – from the exterior.

The magnetic wormhole is an analogy of gravitational ones, as it “changes the topology of space, as if the inner region has been magnetically erased from space”, explains Àlvar Sánchez, the lead researcher.

These same researchers had already built a magnetic fibre in 2014: a device capable of transporting the magnetic field from one end to the other. This fibre was, however, detectable magnetically. The wormhole developed now, though, is a completely three-dimensional device that is undetectable by any magnetic field.

This means a step forward towards possible applications in which magnetic fields are used: in medicine for example. This technology could, for example, increase patients’ comfort by distancing them from the detectors when having MRI scans in hospital, or allow MRI images of different parts of the body to be obtained simultaneously.

6 more mysterious radio signals have been detected coming from outside our galaxy


They’re all coming from the one place.

Back in March, scientists detected 10 powerful bursts of radio signals coming from the same location in space. And now researchers have just picked up six more of the signals seemingly emanating from the same region, far beyond our Milky Way.

These fast radio bursts (FRB) are some of the most elusive and explosive signals ever detected from space – they only last milliseconds, but in that short period of time, they generate as much energy as the Sun in an entire day. But despite how powerful they are, scientists still aren’t sure what causes them.

Until the detection of the 10 repeating signals back in March, it was thought that the bursts were only ever one-off events, coming from random locations around space. And without a discernible pattern to them, researchers were left stumped as to what could be causing them.

The reason we’re so in the dark about FRB isn’t that they’re that uncommon – researchers have estimated that there are around 2,000 of these FRBs firing across the Universe every single day – but that they’re so incredibly short-lived that we struggle to detect them.

It was only in 2007 that we discovered FRB, and it wasn’t until earlier this year that researchers were quick enough to see one happening in real time. Usually we have to study the events long after the fact.

But now that we’ve detected 16 of the signals all coming from the same place, scientists might finally begin to narrow down options for what could be causing the powerful bursts.

The first 10 radio bursts detected coming from this one region were first identified in March this year, but they actually occurred in May and June 2015.

Not only were these the first FRB ever detected outside our galaxy – the rest all appeared to originate in the Milky Way – but they also created a repeating pattern of signals unlike anything we’d seen before.

Six of the bursts were recorded arriving at the Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico within just 10 minutes of each other, and then four more spread out signals were detected over the next month, all coming from the same place.

When the team looked back over the data, they also saw a FRB from 2012 that appeared to come from the same location, too, making a total of 11 FRB from the one spot, and indicating that there was something out there beyond the Milky Way that was regularly producing the extremely short and intense signals.

Now a team of researchers from McGill University in Canada has found six more of the mysterious signals coming from the same spot, which has become known as FRB 121102, after the first FRB detected there.

“We report on radio and X-ray observations of the only known repeating fast radio burst source, FRB 121102,” the team wrote in The Astrophysical Journal.

“We have detected six additional radio bursts from this source: five with the Green Bank Telescope at 2 GHz, and one at 1.4 GHz with the Arecibo Observatory, for a total of 17 bursts from this source.”

The team can’t pinpoint the exact location of FRB 121102, but based on the specific way their lower frequencies are slowed, they can tell they came from a long way away, far beyond the Milky Way. And that gives us some pretty important clues about what could be causing the events.

Interestingly, it also contradicts the evidence we have on FRB coming from within our own galaxy.

Currently, the leading hypothesis for the source of the Milky Way’s FRB is the cataclysmic collision of two neutron stars, which forms a black hole. The idea is that as this collision happens, huge amounts of short-lived radio energy are blasted out into space.

But the repeating nature of these distant signals, all coming from the same place, suggest that can’t be the case – at least for these particular FRB.

Instead, the 17 radio bursts detected from FRB 121102 indicate that something less dramatic is going on – the most likely hypothesis at the moment for these outer-galactic FRB is that they’re coming from an exotic object such as a young neutron star, that’s rotating with enough power to regularly emit the extremely bright pulses.

The good news is that the two types of FRB don’t necessarily contradict each other – a more likely prediction is that there’s more than one type of FRB out there, both with different origins.

This is supported by the fact that the repeating FRB 121102 radio burst signals appear to be wider than the one-off events detected coming from within the galaxy.

But without more evidence to go on, researchers still can’t say for sure what’s going on.

“Whether FRB 121102 is a unique object in the currently known sample of FRBs, or all FRBs are capable of repeating, its characterisation is extremely important to understanding fast extragalactic radio transients,” the team writes.

The race is now on to detect more of these FRB, either from within or outside our galaxy, and try to nail down once and for all where they’re coming from. Because the strange events could also provide insight into the other mysteries happening within our Universe.

The ‘placebo effect’ is getting even stronger with time, study finds


In clinical trials designed to test the effects of drugs, researchers randomly assign one of two courses of treatment to study participants. The first group gets the experimental medication, and the second group (called the control group) is unwittingly given a placebo – a pill that intentionally does nothing at all.

The method is supposed to help researchers measure the effects of the real drug being studied, by distinguishing the effects of taking the medication from the effects of not taking it. Placebos have no inherent effect of their own, except for a phenomenon called the ‘placebo effect’ – in which some participants imagine they’re getting the benefits of the real medication.

This happens because patients mistakenly believe they’re taking the trial drug, unaware that they’ve been placed in a control group. What’s amazing about the placebo effect is it can lead to actual physiological responses from the body – as if the patient had been taking a real drug all along – for which medical literature offers a range of possible explanations.

And it only gets weirder. A new study conducted by researchers at McGill University in the US has found that the placebo effect is actually getting stronger as the decades go by, fooling more people into perceiving illusory medical benefits that shouldn’t be there at all.

Analysing the results of 84 clinical trials of drugs conducted around the world between 1990 and 2013, the researchers found that pain inhibition experienced by patients taking placebos in control groups increased steadily over the period, culminating in a 30 percent decrease in pain levels by 2013.

In other words, it’s a better time than ever for patients to take completely fake pills, as our capacity to dupe ourselves into thinking we’re taking the real thing is at an all-time high! But why?

The first factor to consider is that the researchers found this phenomenon is only occurring in the US. The placebo effect happens everywhere, but this documented increase in placebo responses has only showed itself in comparatively recent American clinical trials, with trials conducted in Europe and Asia revealing no such changes over the period.

The most likely reasons for the change are that trials in the US – but not elsewhere – are now being run for longer and also involve more people than they used to. Since 1990, the average clinical trial in the US has jumped from four weeks to 12 weeks long, and from fewer than 50 patients to over 500. These are big changes, and they seem to be having a significant effect on results.

“The data suggest that longer and larger trials are associated with bigger placebo responses,” said Jeffrey Mogil, a professor of pain studies and senior author of the study. “This, in turn, tends to result in the failure of those trials – since it makes it harder for pharmaceutical companies to prove that the drug being tested is more effective than treatment with a placebo.”

Other singular factors that may be causing increased responses to placebos in the US could be the effects of direct-to-consumer drug advertising (which only takes place in the US and New Zealand); the emergence of commercial research bodies; or greater exposure to the idea of placebos in the media, the researchers suggest.

In any case, it’s something the medical industry will want to get on top of, as the move to conducting longer and larger drug trails – ostensibly for the purposes of testing efficacy – seems to be backfiring when it comes to getting new therapeutic solutions onto the market.

“The greater the improvement in patients treated with placebo in clinical trials, the more difficult it can be to demonstrate the beneficial effects of pain-relieving medications,” said Robert H. Dworkin, a professor of anesthesiology, neurology, and psychiatry at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, who was not involved in study.

“This important study increases our understanding of these placebo-group responses, and thereby provides a basis for improving the design of clinical trials and accelerating the development of analgesic medications that can bring greater relief to patients suffering from chronic pain.”