WhatsApp FAQ – End-to-End Encryption

End-to-End Encryption

Privacy and security is in our DNA, which is why we have end-to-end encryption in the latest versions of our app. When end-to-end encrypted, your messages, photos, videos, voice messages, documents, and calls are secured from falling into the wrong hands.

End-to-end encryption is available when you and the people you message are on the latest versions of WhatsApp.

WhatsApp’s end-to-end encryption ensures only you and the person you’re communicating with can read what is sent, and nobody in between, not even WhatsApp. Your messages are secured with a lock, and only the recipient and you have the special key needed to unlock and read your message. For added protection, every message you send has a unique lock and key. All of this happens automatically: no need to turn on settings or set up special secret chats to secure your messages.

Important: End-to-end encryption is always activated, provided all parties are using the latest version of WhatsApp. There is no way to turn off end-to-end encryption.

What is the “Verify security code” screen in my contact info/group info?

Each of your chats has its own security code used to verify that your calls and the messages you send to that chat are end-to-end encrypted.

Note: The verification process is optional and is used only to confirm that the messages you send are end-to-end encrypted.

This code can be found in the contact info/group info screen, both as a QR code and a 60-digit number. These codes are unique to each chat and can be compared between people in each chat to verify that the messages you send to the chat are end-to-end encrypted. Security codes are just visible versions of the special key shared between you – and don’t worry, it’s not the actual key itself, that’s always kept secret.

To verify that a chat is end-to-end encrypted

  1. Open the chat.
  2. Tap on the name of the contact or group to open the contact info/group info screen.
  3. Tap Encryption to view the QR code and 60-digit number.

If you and your contact are physically next to each other, one of you can scan the other’s QR code or visually compare the 60-digit number. If you scan the QR code, and the code is indeed the same, a green checkmark will appear. Since they match, you can be sure no one is intercepting your messages or calls.

If the codes do not match, it’s likely you’re scanning the code of a different contact, or a different phone number. If your contact has recently reinstalled WhatsApp, or switched devices, we recommend you refresh the code by sending them a new message and then scanning the code.

Learn more about security codes changing in this FAQ article.

If you and your contact are not physically near each other, you can send them the 60-digit number. Let your contact know that once they receive your code, they should write it down and then visually compare it to the 60-digit number that appears in the contact info screen under Encryption. For Android, iPhone and Windows Phone, you can use the Share button from the QR code/60-digit number screen to send the 60-digit number via SMS, email, etc.

I’m seeing that the messages I send aren’t encrypted

It’s possible that you tap on Encryption in the contact info/group info screen and receive a message that the messages you send are not end-to-end encrypted. If this is the case, it’s likely that you or the person you’re chatting with needs to update to the latest version of WhatsApp. Once all parties in a group, or the person you’re messaging in an individual chat, have updated to the latest version of WhatsApp, a small indicator will appear in the chat informing you that the messages in your chat are end-to-end encrypted.

In The Future, Just How Far Through The Universe Will Humans Be Able To Travel?

If you enjoy really simple explanations to really complicated stuff, then In A Nutshell should be one of your go to YouTube channels. They tackle some of the densest stuff, and when you’re done watching their videos, you always feel smarter.

This video today was one of my favorite. If you know me, you know I love how dope space is. It’s fucking dope, and it’s fucking huge.

Right now, humans have just barely been able to escape the solar system. And if Stephen Hawking is to be believed, in under 100 years, we’ll be able to reach Alpha Centauri.

Could we one day reach the other side of the universe? Watch and find out. Be careful. It gets dark.

In The Future, Just How Far Through The Universe Will Humans Be Able To Travel?

How will the universe end, and could anything survive?

Science has outlined four ways that our universe could meet its doom. They’re called the Big Freeze, the Big Crunch, the Big Change and the Big Rip..

Don’t panic, but our planet is doomed. It’s just going to take a while. Roughly 6 billion years from now, the Earth will probably be vaporized when the dying Sun expands into a red giant and engulfs our planet.

But the Earth is just one planet in the solar system, the Sun is just one of hundreds of billions of stars in the galaxy, and there are hundreds of billions of galaxies in the observable universe. What’s in store for all of that? How does the universe end?

The science is much less settled on how that will happen. We’re not even sure if the universe will come to a firm, defined end, or just slowly tail off. Our best understanding of physics suggests there are several options for the universal apocalypse. It also offers some hints on how we might, just maybe, survive it.

 Our first clue to the end of the universe comes from thermodynamics, the study of heat. Thermodynamics is the wild-eyed street preacher of physics, bearing a cardboard placard with a simple warning: “THE HEAT DEATH IS COMING”.

The heat death is far worse than being burnt to a crisp

Despite the name, the heat death of the universe isn’t a fiery inferno. Instead, it’s the death of all differences in heat.

This may not sound scary, but the heat death is far worse than being burnt to a crisp. That’s because nearly everything in everyday life requires some kind of temperature difference, either directly or indirectly.

For instance, your car runs because it’s hotter inside its engine than outside. Your computer runs on electricity from the local power plant, which probably works by heating water and using that to power a turbine. And you run on food, which exists thanks to the enormous temperature difference between the Sun and the rest of the universe.

 However, once the universe reaches heat death, everything everywhere will be the same temperature. That means nothing interesting will ever happen again.

Heat death looked like the only possible way the universe could end

Every star will die, nearly all matter will decay, and eventually all that will be left is a sparse soup of particles and radiation. Even the energy of that soup will be sapped away over time by the expansion of the universe, leaving everything just a fraction of a degree above absolute zero.

In this “Big Freeze”, the universe ends up uniformly cold, dead and empty.

After the development of thermodynamics in the early 1800s, heat death looked like the only possible way the universe could end. But 100 years ago, Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity suggested that the universe had a far more dramatic fate.

 General relativity says that matter and energy warp space and time. This relationship between space-time and matter-energy (stuff) — between the stage and the actors on it — extends to the entire universe. The stuff in the universe, according to Einstein, determines the ultimate fate of the universe itself.

The universe began as something incredibly small, and then expanded incredibly quickly

The theory predicted that the universe as a whole must either be expanding or contracting. It could not stay the same size. Einstein realized this in 1917, and was so reluctant to believe it that he fudged his own theory.

Then in 1929, the American astronomer Edwin Hubble found hard evidence that the universe was expanding. Einstein changed his mind, calling his previous insistence on a static universe the “greatest blunder” of his career.

If the universe is expanding, it must once have been much smaller than it is now. This realization led to the Big Bang theory: the idea that the universe began as something incredibly small, and then expanded incredibly quickly. We can see the “afterglow” of the Big Bang even today, in the cosmic microwave background radiation – a constant stream of radio waves, coming from all directions in the sky.

 The fate of the universe, then, hinges on a very simple question: will the universe continue to expand, and how quickly?

If there’s too much stuff, the expansion of the universe will slow down and stop

For a universe containing normal “stuff”, such as matter and light, the answer to this question depends on how much stuff there is. More stuff means more gravity, which pulls everything back together and slows the expansion.

As long as the amount of stuff doesn’t go over a critical threshold, the universe will continue to expand forever, and eventually suffer heat death, freezing out.

But if there’s too much stuff, the expansion of the universe will slow down and stop. Then the universe will begin to contract. A contracting universe will shrink smaller and smaller, getting hotter and denser, eventually ending in a fabulously compact inferno, a sort of reverse Big Bang known as the Big Crunch.

 For most of the 20th century, astrophysicists weren’t sure which of these scenarios would play out. Would it be the Big Freeze or the Big Crunch? Ice or fire?

Dark energy pulls the universe apart

They tried to perform a cosmic census, adding up how much stuff there is in our universe. It turned out that we’re strangely close to the critical threshold, leaving our fate uncertain.

That all changed at the end of the 20th century. In 1998, two competing teams of astrophysicists made an astonishing announcement: the expansion of the universe is speeding up.

Normal matter and energy can’t make the universe behave this way. This was the first evidence of a fundamentally new kind of energy, dubbed “dark energy”, which didn’t behave like anything else in the cosmos.

Dark energy pulls the universe apart. We still don’t understand what it is, but roughly 70% of the energy in the universe is dark energy, and that number is growing every day.

 The existence of dark energy means that the amount of stuff in the universe doesn’t get to determine its ultimate fate.

Instead, dark energy controls the cosmos, accelerating the expansion of the universe for all time. This makes the Big Crunch much less likely.

But that doesn’t mean that the Big Freeze is inevitable. There are other possibilities.

One of them originated, not in the study of the cosmos, but in the world of subatomic particles. This is perhaps the strangest fate for the universe. It sounds like something out of science fiction, and in a way, it is.

 In Kurt Vonnegut’s classic sci-fi novel Cat’s Cradle, ice-nine is a new form of water ice with a remarkable property: it freezes at 46 °C, not at 0 °C. When a crystal of ice-nine is dropped into a glass of water, all the water around it immediately patterns itself after the crystal, since it has lower energy than liquid water.

There’s nowhere for the ice to start forming

The new crystals of ice-nine do the same thing to the water around them, and in the blink of an eye, the chain reaction turns all the water in the glass — or (spoiler alert!) all of Earth’s oceans — into solid ice-nine.

The same thing can happen in real life with normal ice and normal water. If you put very pure water into a very clean glass, and cool it just below 0°C, the water will become supercooled: it stays liquid below its natural freezing point. There are no impurities in the water and no rough patches on the glass, so there’s nowhere for the ice to start forming. But if you drop a crystal of ice into the glass, the water will freeze rapidly, just like ice-nine.

Ice-nine and supercooled water may not seem relevant to the fate of the universe. But something similar could happen to space itself.

 Quantum physics dictates that even in a totally empty vacuum, there is a small amount of energy. But there might also be some other kind of vacuum, which holds less energy.

The new vacuum will “convert” the old vacuum around it

If that’s true, then the entire universe is like a glass of supercooled water. It will only last until a “bubble” of lower-energy vacuum shows up.

Fortunately, there are no such bubbles that we’re aware of. Unfortunately, quantum physics also dictates that if a lower-energy vacuum is possible, then a bubble of that vacuum will inevitably dart into existence somewhere in the universe.

When that happens, just like ice-nine, the new vacuum will “convert” the old vacuum around it. The bubble would expand at nearly the speed of light, so we’d never see it coming.

 Inside the bubble, things would be radically different, and not terribly hospitable.

Humans, planets and even the stars themselves would be destroyed

The properties of fundamental particles like electrons and quarks could be entirely different, radically rewriting the rules of chemistry and perhaps preventing atoms from forming.

Humans, planets and even the stars themselves would be destroyed in this Big Change. In a 1980 paper, Physicists Sidney Coleman and Frank de Luccia called it “the ultimate ecological catastrophe“.

Adding insult to injury, dark energy would probably behave differently after the Big Change. Rather than driving the universe to expand faster, dark energy might instead pull the universe in on itself, collapsing into a Big Crunch.

 There is a fourth possibility, and once again dark energy is at centre stage. This idea is very speculative and unlikely, but it can’t yet be ruled out. Dark energy might be even more powerful than we thought, and might be enough to end the universe on its own, without any intervening Big Change, Freeze, or Crunch.

Dark energy has a peculiar property. As the universe expands, its density remains constant. That means more of it pops into existence over time, to keep pace with the increasing volume of the universe. This is unusual, but doesn’t break any laws of physics.

However, it could get weirder. What if the density of dark energy increases as the universe expands? In other words, what if the amount of dark energy in the universe increases more quickly than the expansion of the universe itself?

This idea was put forward by Robert Caldwell of Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. He calls it “phantom dark energy”. It leads to a remarkably strange fate for the universe.

 If phantom dark energy exists, then the dark side is our ultimate downfall, just like Star Wars warned us it would be.

Atoms themselves would shatter, a fraction of a second before the universe itself ripped apart

Right now, the density of dark energy is very low, far less than the density of matter here on Earth, or even the density of the Milky Way galaxy, which is much less dense than Earth. But as time goes on, the density of phantom dark energy would build up, and tear the universe apart.

In a 2003 paper, Caldwell and his colleagues outlined a scenario they called “cosmic doomsday“. Once the phantom dark energy becomes more dense than a particular object, that object gets torn to shreds.

First, phantom dark energy would pull the Milky Way apart, sending its constituent stars flying. Then the solar system would be unbound, because the pull of dark energy would be stronger than the pull of the Sun on the Earth.

Finally, in a few frantic minutes the Earth would explode. Then atoms themselves would shatter, a fraction of a second before the universe itself ripped apart. Caldwell calls this the Big Rip.

 The Big Rip is, by Caldwell’s own admission, “very outlandish” – and not just because it sounds like something out of an over-the-top superhero comic.

This is a remarkably grim portrait of the future

Phantom dark energy flies in the face of some fairly basic ideas about the universe, like the assumption that matter and energy can’t go faster than the speed of light. There are good reasons not to believe in it.

Based on our observations of the expansion of the universe, and particle physics experiments, it seems much more likely that the ultimate fate of our universe is a Big Freeze, possibly followed by a Big Change and a final Big Crunch.

But this is a remarkably grim portrait of the future — aeons of cold emptiness, finally terminated by a vacuum decay and a final implosion into nothingness. Is there any escape? Or are we doomed to book a table at the Restaurant at the End of the Universe?

 There’s certainly no reason for us, individually, to worry about the end of the universe. All of these events are trillions of years into the future, with the possible exception of the Big Change, so they’re not exactly an imminent problem.

Also, there’s no reason to worry about humanity. If nothing else, genetic drift will have rendered our descendants unrecognizable long before then. But could intelligent feeling creatures of any kind, human or not, survive?

If the universe is accelerating, that’s really bad news

Physicist Freeman Dyson of the Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton, New Jersey considered this question in a classic paper published in 1979. At the time, he concluded that life could modify itself to survive the Big Freeze, which he thought was less challenging than the inferno of the Big Crunch.

But these days, he’s much less optimistic, thanks to the discovery of dark energy.

“If the universe is accelerating, that’s really bad news,” says Dyson. Accelerating expansion means we’ll eventually lose contact with all but a handful of galaxies, dramatically limiting the amount of energy available to us. “It’s a rather dismal situation in the long run.”

The situation could still change. “We really don’t know whether the expansion is going to continue since we don’t understand why it’s accelerating,” says Dyson. “The optimistic view is that the acceleration will slow down as the universe gets bigger.” If that happens, “the future is much more promising.”

But what if the expansion doesn’t slow down, or if it becomes clear that the Big Change is coming? Some physicists have proposed a solution that is solidly in mad-scientist territory. To escape the end of the universe, we should build our own universe in a laboratory, and jump in.

 One physicist who has worked on this idea is Alan Guth of MIT in Cambridge, Massachusetts, who is known for his work on the very early universe.

You would jump-start the creation of an entirely new universe

“I can’t say that the laws of physics absolutely imply that it’s possible,” says Guth. “If it is possible, it would require technology vastly beyond anything that we can foresee. It would require huge amounts of energy that one would need to be able to obtain and control.”

The first step, according to Guth, would be creating an incredibly dense form of matter — so dense that it was on the verge of collapsing into a black hole. By doing that in the right way, and then quickly clearing the matter out of the area, you might be able to force that region of space to start expanding rapidly.

In effect, you would jump-start the creation of an entirely new universe. As the space in the region expanded, the boundary would shrink, creating a bubble of warped space where the inside was bigger than the outside.

 That may sound familiar to Doctor Who fans, and according to Guth, the TARDIS is “probably a very accurate analogy” for the kind of warping of space he’s talking about.

We don’t really know if it’s possible or not

Eventually, the outside would shrink to nothingness, and the new baby universe would pinch off from our own, spared from whatever fate our universe may meet.

It’s far from certain that this scheme would actually work. “I would have to say that it’s unclear,” says Guth. “We don’t really know if it’s possible or not.”

However, Guth also points out that there is another source of hope beyond the end of the universe – well, hope of a sort.

 Guth was the first to propose that the very early universe expanded astonishingly fast for a tiny fraction of a second, an idea known as “inflation”. Many cosmologists now believe inflation is the most promising approach for explaining the early universe, and Guth’s plan for creating a new universe relies on recreating this rapid expansion.

The multiverse as a whole is genuinely eternal

Inflation has an intriguing consequence for the ultimate fate of the universe. The theory dictates that the universe we inhabit is just one small part of a multiverse, with an eternally inflating background continually spawning “pocket universes” like our own.

“If that’s the case, even if we’re convinced that an individual pocket universe will ultimately die through refrigeration, the multiverse as a whole will go on living forever, with new life being created in each pocket universe as it’s created,” says Guth. “In this picture, the multiverse as a whole is genuinely eternal, at least eternal into the future, even as individual pocket universes live and die.”

In other words, Franz Kafka may have been right on the money when he said that there is “plenty of hope, an infinite amount of hope—but not for us.”

This is a bit of a bleak thought. If it upsets you, here is a picture of a cute kitten.

Would medical marijuana have been a better pain relief option for singer Prince?

Prince was a famed American singer, songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, record producer and actor, who enjoyed huge success and popularity. He died on April 21, 2016.

Prince is well-known to have suffered from debilitating pain in his hips, which has been attributed to years of dancing on stage in high-heels. The recipient of double hip replacement surgery in 2010, he is said to have relied heavily on opiate pain medications to provide him with relief from his chronic pain. Although was no sign of suicide or foul play regarding his death, the icon had struggled with opioid dependence, and in fact, was scheduled to meet with an opioid addiction specialist the day after he was found dead.

Chronic pain management requires, in many cases, the taking of strong, often-opiate based medications. Patients who take these pain killers on a daily basis can become seriously dependent on pain killers over an extended amount of time. Withdrawals from pain killers are not pleasant to go through or see anyone go through, with severe body aches for hours as a result of withdrawal.

There is a long list of side effects of Percocet, the pain-killer Prince was apparently taking, which include: chills, dizziness, fever, itching, tiredness, headaches, muscle tremors, numbness in the hands, pains in the abdomen, vomiting and more. One can easily overdose on Percocet, and complications include liver damage, liver failure and death.

How can marijuana manage pain and is it possible to overdose on marijuana?

There is scientific evidence that cannabinoids possess pain-relieving properties and some clinical evidence to support their medical use for patients suffering from painful conditions. More and more influential medical associations support cannabis and its derivatives for pain management and other medical conditions because research has shown it to be effective.

Is it possible to overdose on weed? The answer is no, according to the National Cancer Institute who state: “Because cannabinoid receptors, unlike opioid receptors, are not located in the brainstem areas controlling respiration, lethal overdoses from Cannabis and cannabinoids do not occur.”

Perhaps, had Prince taken medical marijuana to treat his chronic pain, he may have enjoyed a better quality of life and found an effective way to manage his condition.


Silent Canopies

A spate of howler monkey deaths in Nicaragua, Panama, and Ecuador has researchers scrambling to identify the cause.

 Image No 1

n late September, Kimberly Williams-Guillén, an assistant professor at the University of Washington Bothell and a conservation scientist for the Nicaraguan environmental NGO Paso Pacífico, received a report that a handful of howler monkeys (genus Alouatta) had been found dead at an ecoresort in Nicaragua. Bizarrely, the monkeys showed no signs of trauma or disease. “They seemed to be in fairly good condition,” she recalls.Over the next couple of months, Williams-Guillén and her colleagues continued to receive news that howler monkeys were dying. Then, around mid-January, the reports really started to flood in. Landowners, farmers, and other members of local communities in southwestern Nicaragua were all finding dead howler monkeys. Soon, the researchers began hearing of howler monkeys dying in certain areas of Ecuador and Panama as well. Williams-Guillén estimates that, in Nicaragua alone, at least 280 howler monkeys spread over an 800-square-kilometer area died in the first three months of 2016, and some Nicaraguan locals speculate that this may be an underestimate.

When it became clear that the die-offs were not just an isolated incident, Williams-Guillén hopped on a plane to Nicaragua to see for herself. “I saw many healthy-looking monkeys, but I also saw many visibly unwell monkeys,” she says. “They were thin and very lethargic, often solitary and nonresponsive. There were several that I was able to walk up to and grab them out of a bush.” Some witnesses reported seeing monkeys convulsing as if they were having seizures.

Although the mortality rate seems to have slowed since mid-February, the researchers are anxious to understand what’s going on. Williams-Guillén speculates that the deaths may be linked to the drought that has struck Nicaragua and other areas of Central and South America this year. “The deaths are all really concentrated in the areas worst hit by drought,” she says. “Even just going to the other side of the mountain, where it’s slightly more humid, there’s a lot fewer deaths, and there’s visibly more potential howler monkey food, whereas the areas that have the highest rates of mortality, the trees are just bare—there’s hardly a leaf or flower to be eaten.”

They were thin and very lethargic, often solitary and nonresponsive. There were several that I was able to walk up to and grab
them out of a bush.—Kimberly Williams-Guil­lén,
University of Washington Bothell

Kenneth Glander of Duke University agrees that limited food availability is likely a contributing factor, though the cause of death may not be starvation per se. Rather, the lack of food may drive the monkeys to consume plants with high levels of certain toxins that aren’t part of their normal diet. In the 1970s, Glander witnessed a handful of dead or dying howler monkeys in Costa Rica, including two that displayed convulsions similar to those reported in Nicaraguan monkeys this year. “When we did autopsies on them, I was able to determine [that] their stomachs were full of leaves that they’d never eaten before.” He then collected a sample of those leaves from trees at his study site and brought them back to Duke for analysis, finding that they were chock-full of toxic alkaloids.

A good test of this hypothesis would be to see how other animals in the areas are faring, says Pedro Américo Dias of the University of Veracruz in Mexico. “If there are no reports of deaths in other frugivorous primates and other frugivorous animals, perhaps [food availability] doesn’t have to do with it,” he says. There haven’t been reports of unusual deaths in other monkey species so far, says Katharine Milton of the University of California, Berkeley, but because howler monkeys are by far the most abundant monkey species at many sites in Central America, die-offs in their populations might be most obvious. “Death in howlers might be noticed in particular, especially if other monkey species were scarce and low in number.”

 Image No 2

HANGING IN THERE: Researchers are struggling to determine why members of howler monkey species, such as Alouatta palliata (above), are dying in such great numbers in Nicaragua.HAL BRINDLEYAnother possible cause for the howler monkey die-offs is disease. Although Nicaragua is currently believed to be free of yellow fever, Dias points out that outbreaks of the viral disease devastated howler monkey populations in the late 1940s and into the 1950s. Some researchers even speculate that yellow fever may be a cause of the relatively low genetic diversity among Central American howler monkeys, Dias says. “Yellow fever in the past could have caused important bottlenecks.”

Williams-Guillén thinks that disease is an unlikely cause of the recent monkey deaths, however. While she and her colleagues are still waiting to export blood and tissue samples to US labs for further analysis, she notes that a Nicaraguan researcher has done virus diagnostics on some of the samples. And so far none have tested positive for yellow fever, Zika, chikungunya, or dengue viruses. “Between that and the lack of any necrosis of the liver in the dead animals, [disease] is unlikely,” Williams-Guillén says.

In addition to monitoring animals in the affected areas and continuing to collect samples when possible, the team is reaching out to primatologists in unaffected areas within the monkeys’ range that might serve as good control sites, and to establish protocols for collecting data so that the information is comparable across sites. “I think this is a really critical component,” says Williams-Guillén’s colleague Liliana Cortés Ortiz, an evolutionary primatologist at the University of Michigan. Dias, for one, has agreed to share data from his study sites in Mexico, where no howler monkey deaths have been reported.

For now, however, the cause of the recent howler monkey deaths remains a mystery. Williams-Guillén suspects that no one hypothesis will be correct. “There’s probably an interaction of factors,” she says. “Animals that might have had some clinical or secondary infections that normally aren’t that problematic. . . got into a situation where they were extremely food- and water-stressed, and that might have been enough to tip them into mortality.”

6 Yoga Poses To Avoid During Pregnancy

Pregnancy is not the time to push yourself to new yoga heights or to even do what you were capable of before getting pregnant. The goal of yoga during pregnancy is to maintain flexibility, alleviate aches like lower back pain, reduce stress and anxiety, develop breath control and to give you bonding time with your baby.

Don’t forget that your body is working hard to nurture and allow your baby to grow.  Do as much as you can, and don’t feel bad if you choose to take a nap instead!

Yoga Poses To Avoid During Pregnancy

Avoid these types of Yoga poses during pregnancy:

1. Fast Flowing Poses Or Jumping From One Position To Another

Conception is followed by a whole whirlwind of events to form complicated organ systems and body structures. In the first trimester, the upward moving energy gets disturbed and many women experience nausea.

During this time, avoid doing yoga asanas or sequences quickly. Grounding and more restorative postures are better for supporting the growing fetus and will help with the complications that could arise during this time.

Centering poses will balance and regulate the body’s energies to move in their appropriate directions.

Poses To Avoid/Modify: Fast flowing or jumping from one pose to another.

2. Twisting Or Compressing Poses

After the embryo implants itself in the uterus at around week 4 of pregnancy, the placenta begins to form and eventually attaches to the uterine wall. Pay attention now and moving forward in your pregnancy to twisting or compression of the abdominal wall.

As pregnancy progresses, many asanas can start to feel restrictive and uncomfortable. Avoid or modify poses that compress the belly, as this can potentially decrease circulation or compress blood vessels and nerves that connect to the uterus.


Poses To Avoid/Modify: Boat Pose, Spinal Twist towards the Knees, Moon Posture

3. Prone Poses

As you progress during your 9-month journey, it will get harder to not notice your growing bump. As the baby grows, it places pressure on the surrounding organs and squeezes them.

During this time avoid prone postures and do not lie down on your stomach. This would place additional pressure on the stomach and organs.

Poses To Avoid/Modify: Cobra Posture, Locust Posture, Bow Posture, Swan Posture

4. Extreme Stretches

It’s important to pay attention to extreme stretches as you progress into the late second and third trimesters. As the secretion of relaxing increases, the ligaments soften.

In preparation for birth, your body experiences increased flexibility. Because the joints are softer and more malleable, it can lead to pelvic and joint instability and/or pulled ligaments.

Focus on stabilizing your body in each asana. Be especially aware of your knees.

Poses To Avoid/Modify: Wheel Posture, Fish Posture, Camel Posture

5. Inversions

By the third trimester, your baby may have settled into your pelvis. With your growing baby, your center of gravity has changed significantly as well. Doing extreme inversions can cause dizziness in the mother. Be careful when doing these.

There are specific times when extreme inversions can help you and it is recommended that you only do it under the recommendation of an experienced professional.

Poses To Avoid/Modify: Downward facing Dog posture, Shoulder or Headstand, especially if you were not proficient prior to pregnancy

6. Lying Flat On Your Back

Many yoga teachers may say do not lie on your back – even though for some, it may feel lovely! But lying flat on the back for an extended period of time can compress the inferior vena cava.

This is an important vein that returns deoxygenated blood from the lower body back to the heart. It can also aggravate lower back pain, heartburn, and elevate blood pressure.

It is okay to lie on your back for some time, but you should follow how you feel. Change positions if you start to feel nauseous, dizzy, or uncomfortable.

Poses To Avoid/Modify: Corpse Posture

Each person has her own challenges that arise during pregnancy. Depending on what these are, you can either include or avoid certain asanas during your pregnancy. It is always important to consult with a certified yoga teacher or an ayurvedic practitioner during this time.

Evaluating animal threats and human intentions uses common brain network.

evaluating threats

Assessing whether a fluffy bunny or a giant spider poses a threat to our safety happens automatically. New research suggests the same brain areas may be involved in both detecting threats posed by animals and evaluating other humans’ intentions. The study, published in the May 11 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience, offers insight into a basic feature of human cognition: how we understand and evaluate other creatures.

“The idea that animals may be processed in a similar way [to humans] and may piggyback on regions of the brain that have been implicated in social cognition suggests that those regions … are multipurpose,” said study author Andrew Connolly of Dartmouth College.

Previously Connolly’s research group found that hierarchical classes of animals (say, bugs vs. mammals) are represented in an area of the brain called the lateral occipital complex, a region involved in object perception and recognition. What was not known, however, was which brain regions process information about an animal’s “dangerousness.”

To investigate this, the researchers scanned volunteers’ brains while they viewed pictures of bugs, reptiles, and mammals. Half of the animals depicted were classified as “low threat,” such as butterflies and rabbits, and half were “high threat,” such as snakes and cougars. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the researchers determined which areas of the brain were active when participants viewed bugs, reptiles, and mammals, and when they viewed low- and high-threat animals. Researchers used these activity patterns to map how two kinds of information — taxonomic class and threat — are encoded in the brain.

As before, they found taxonomic class was represented in the lateral occipital complex. Surprisingly, a different area of the brain represented threat. This area, called the superior temporal sulcus, is a fold in brain tissue running just above the ear, and previous research has implicated the region in understanding facial expressions and deciphering others’ intentions. The researchers speculate that evaluating other humans and evaluating threats posed by animals may be related functions.

Nikolaus Kriegeskorte, a neuroscientist at the University of Cambridge who studies visual object recognition and was not involved in the study, said this is interesting basic science. “Knowing what parts of the brain are involved in social cognition and how information processing works is relevant to our understanding of human brains, minds, and cultures.”

The researchers are planning future studies to examine how activity in these brain networks changes over time. The present study used fMRI, which measures changes in blood flow as a proxy of neural activity, a measure that is slow and inadequate for understanding temporal relationships. To address this, the researchers plan to incorporate electrical recordings of brain activity in their studies.

Why sitting is the new smoking.

With WHO having recognised physical inactivity as the 4th biggest killer on the planet, we need to get up and move about .

Read the detils: http://www.newsflicks.com/story/why-sitting-is-the-new-smoking#sthash.1O0Rc6tO.dpuf

Nutrition Recommendations During and After Treatment.

People with cancer need to maintain a healthy body weight and eat nutritious foods. But the side effects of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy may cause a person to eat less and lose weight. Some treatments may cause weight gain for some patients.

Nutrition guidelines during cancer treatment

Here are some general nutrition recommendations for people receiving cancer treatment:

  • Maintain a healthy weight. For many people, this means avoiding weight loss by getting enough calories every day. For people who are obese, this may mean losing weight. Check with your doctor to find out if it is okay to try to lose weight during treatment. It may be better to wait until after treatment ends. If it is okay, weight loss should be moderate, meaning only about a pound a week.
  • Get essential nutrients. These include protein, carbohydrates, fats, and water.
  • Be as active as you can. For example, take a daily walk. If you sit or sleep too much, you may lose muscle mass and increase your body fat, even if you are not gaining weight.

Ways to get essential nutrients and manage a healthy weight

Nutrition counseling may help people with cancer get essential nutrients, such as protein, vitamins, and minerals. It can also help them maintain a healthy body weight.

For nutrition counseling, it’s important to visit a qualified professional. This means a registered dietitian (RD) or a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN). Ask your health care team to help you find one of these professionals. You can also find a dietitian through the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

Dietitians and other members of the health care team work with people to meet their nutritional needs. In addition to dietary counseling, they may recommend the following:

  • A multivitamin and/or specific vitamins or minerals that you aren’t receiving enough of
  • Liquid nutritional supplements and nutrient-dense beverages and snacks
  • Feeding tubes or nutrition support appropriate for your body

Side effects and nutrition

Cancer treatment often causes side effects, such as nausea, mouth sores, and taste changes that may make it difficult to eat or drink. Follow these tips to help get the nutrition you need:

  • If water tastes unpleasant to you, take in more liquid though other foods and drinks. For example: eat soup or watermelon, drink tea, milk, or milk substitutes. A sports drink is a great alternative. Consider flavoring your water by adding fresh cut fruit.
  • If food tastes bland, try seasoning it with flavorful spices. For example, try using garlic, cayenne, dill, and rosemary.
  • If your mouth is sore you may need to choose non-acidic and non-spicy foods until your mouth is healed.
  • Eat several small meals throughout the day instead of fewer large meals. Make sure you reach your calorie goal with these smaller meals.
  • If meat is no longer appealing, get protein from other foods. For example, try fish, eggs, cheese, beans, nuts, nut butters, tofu, or high-protein smoothies.
  • If you have a metallic taste in your mouth, suck on mints, chew gum, or try fresh citrus fruits. Use plastic utensils and cook in glassware. Also, try brushing your teeth before eating.
  • If you have mouth sores or a gum infection, use a blender to make the texture of vegetables and meats smooth. Try juicing or making smoothies because the extra moisture can help. For additional calories, add butter, mild sauces, gravy, or cream.

Some side effects are often treated with medication. If your side effects are affecting your hydration and nutrition, talk with your doctor or another member of your health care team.

The use of dietary supplements

Low-dose dietary supplements, such as multivitamins, may be helpful for people with cancer who are not able to get all of their nutrients through foods. Multivitamins are dietary supplements that contain most of the required daily vitamins, minerals, and trace elements. They may also contain some minerals such as calcium, magnesium, or iron. They are typically taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, liquid, or powder. High doses of specific nutrient supplements can be harmful. So talk with your doctor if you plan to take supplements.

Questions to ask your doctor before taking any dietary supplements include:

  • What are the benefits of taking this dietary supplement?
  • What are the possible side effects?
  • Are there risks to taking it?
  • Can taking dietary supplements interfere with my cancer treatment?
  • How much should I take and for how long?
  • Where can I learn more about dietary supplements?


Food safety

People in cancer treatment should be aware of food safety. Some treatments may weaken the immune system and could lead to an infection. A food-borne infection occurs when harmful bacteria, viruses, or fungi contaminate food and make you sick. Here are some basic food safety tips to reduce the risk of infection:

  • Wash your hands before and while you handle and prepare food.
  • Rinse vegetables and fruit thoroughly before eating them.
  • Handle and store food safely. For example:
    • Use separate cutting boards for meats and vegetables
    • Store meat and fish on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator
    • Do not thaw food on the counter or under warm running water
    • Refrigerate the foods after everyone has been served
  • Eat fully cooked foods. For example, do not eat eggs that are not cooked solid, and do not eat raw fish, oysters, or shellfish.
  • Do not eat or drink unpasteurized foods. This includes beverages such as unpasteurized cider, raw milk, and fruit juices, and foods such as cheeses made from unpasteurized milk.
  • Make sure the food you purchase is not past its sell by or expiration date and follow directions on proper storage.


Diet and nutrition after treatment

Most nutrition recommendations include eating fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. But the effect of specific dietary factors on cancer survival rates is not as well understood and is actively being studied. However, a healthy diet is important for cancer survivors because they may be at increased risk for other health conditions, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and weakening of the bones.

To reduce the risk of other diseases, doctors generally recommend that cancer survivors follow common recommendations for good health. These include eating a nutrient-dense and plant-based diet, quitting smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, minimizing alcohol consumption, and staying physically active.

The most realistic movie psychopath

As frightening as movie psychopaths like Norman Bates and Hannibal Lecter appear on the big screen, turns out they may not be as realistic compared to their real-life counterparts. In 2013, Belgian psychiatrists watched over 400 movies to decide which fictional psychopath are based in reality and which ones were pure fiction.

Read the details. URL:http://www.businessinsider.com/most-realistic-movie-psychopath-2016-5?IR=T

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