What are the most addictive drugs in the world?

There are a lot of misconceptions about drugs. But to develop smart drug policies and figure out how to deal with health issues related to drug use, we need accurate information.

That need for accurate information is what drove British psychiatrist David Nutt to develop scales to assess exactly how dangerous and addictive drugs actually are.

For a 2007 study published in The Lancet, Nutt convened two groups of independent experts to rate the addictiveness and harmfulness of 20 different drugs (the ratings of one group of psychiatrists were used to corroborate the assessment of a larger group).

Addiction was measured using three components: how pleasurable a using a substance was, how much psychological dependence it induced, and how physically dependent it made its users.

Experts rated each variable on a scale of 0 to 3. Based on that scale, these are the 10 most addictive drugs:

TI_Graphics_most addictive drugsSkye Gould/Tech Insider

As you can see, heroin was by far the most addictive, scoring a three in terms of the pleasure it gave users and hitting the same high score for causing physical and psychological dependence.

As the study points out, it’s interesting that legal status doesn’t necessarily have anything to do with addictiveness or harm. Tobacco and alcohol both rank fairly high in terms of addictiveness but remain legal, while other illegal substances like cannabis, LSD, and ecstasy fell lower on the list.

You can check out Nutt’s full analysis of the harm and addictiveness ratings of drugs in Table 3 of the study; he calculated the mean score of each of the three variables (pleasure, psychological dependence, and physical dependence) rather than adding them up as we did here.

21 Things You Need to Know About Vitamin B12 Deficiency


Vitamin B12 is a powerhouse. It helps make DNA, nerve and blood cells, and is crucial for a healthy brain and immune system. Your metabolism wouldn’t run smoothly without it. But B12 isn’t like other vitamins. It’s only found in animal products like eggs, meat, shellfish, and dairy. Up to 15% of people don’t get enough B12, and they’re more likely to be vegetarians, have celiac disease or other digestion problems, or be an adult over 50. The signs of vitamin B12 deficiency include exhaustion, rapid heartbeat, brain fog, and other symptoms, says Maggie Moon, RD, a Los Angeles–based nutritionist and owner of Everyday Healthy Eating. Read on to find out more about the causes, symptoms, and cures for a vitamin B12 deficiency.

b12 vitamin



Swine flu suspected in death of child aged 3 with at least three more youngsters affected

Health officials have been called in for talks with worried parents in Corby, Northants, where the child who died attended a private nursery

  • H1N1 swine flu virus
  • The H1N1 swine flu virus is believed to be the cause of a three-year-old’s death in Corby, Northants

A child aged three has died from a suspected case of swine flu .

The disease is believed to have affected at least three other kids living nearby.

The youngster, who died last week, came from Corby, Northants, and is thought to have attended a private nursery there.

Health officials have been called in for talks with worried parents.

Public Health England said: “We have sent letters to close contacts of the case advising them of the situation.”

It stressed no cause of death is yet confirmed but said the victim tested positive for flu and invasive group A strepto­coccal infection.

That is one of several serious bacterial conditions that can include pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis.

A parent of one of the sick youngsters said hospital doctors confirmed that their one-year-old son had the virus.

Read more: Leicester hospital swine flu outbreak puts 14 cancer patients in lockdown

The parent, who asked not to be named, told the Sunday People : “He has been ill since the start of February, with swollen tonsils and a runny nose.

“We couldn’t get his temperature down but thought he just had a bad cold that wasn’t shifting. We were very worried and took him to the urgent care centre but no one seemed to know what was wrong so we went to A&E.

“Tests confirmed swine flu. We were taken to a separate room for treatment and our boy was given Tamiflu.”

Swine flu, or H1N1, usually has mild symptoms and rarely ends in death but is more dangerous to children under two.

PHE said: “Our thoughts are with the Corby family at this sad time.”

Drink Pineapple Water In The Morning For A Year (And These 10 Things Happen)

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According to Ayurvedic philosophy, choices that you make regarding your daily routine either build up resistance to disease or tear it down. This is why you should start your day by focusing on healthy morning rituals such as drinking pineapple water on an empty stomach.

Pineapple offers a rich source of some of the lesser known micronutrients that your body needs. Pineapple is packed with the enzyme bromelain and the antioxidant vitamin C, both of which plays a major role in the body’s healing process.

10 Reasons to Add Pineapple to your Water Daily

1. Fights inflammation

Bromelain is an enzyme that has anti-inflammatory properties. Bromelain helps the body get rid of toxins by fighting off inflammation which impacts all the tissues and organs in the body. Regular consumption of pineapple can help to treat mild forms of arthritis and sports injuries by reducing inflammation and pain.

2. Helps with weight loss

Due to the fiber contained in pineapple, it takes more time to digest, thus causing a prolonged feeling of satiety. Drinking pineapple water in the morning prevents sugar and fat cravings.  Thiamine helps boost your body metabolism by converting carbohydrates into energy.

3. Flushes parasites from liver and intestines

Pineapples contain an enzyme bromelain, that is anti-parisitic. A couple sources state that a three day pineapple fast will kill tape worms.

4. Regulates the thyroid

Pineapples contain iodine and bromelain that are effective in improving various autoimmune disorders; thus, effective in easing symptoms associated with thyroiditis.

5. Balances electrolytes

Pineapple contain potassium which helps make our body a lot stronger and maintain the proper balance of electrolytes in your body preventing cramps or other injuries.

6. Gets rid of heavy metals and toxins

Pineapple is loaded with fiber, beneficial enzymes and a host of antioxidants that help to detox your body from heavy metals and toxins.

7. Works as a digestive aid.

Bromelain in pineapple helps the body digest proteins more efficiently.

8. Strengthens gums and helps whiten and preserve teeth.

Research found that the enzyme bromelain in pineapples acts as a natural stain remover, according to Dr. Frawley.  Bromelain also helps break up plaque effectively.

9. Improves vision

Pineapple contains beta-carotene and vitamin A that good for eyesight. Data reported in a study published in the Archives of Ophthalmology indicates that eating 3 or more servings of pineapple per day may lower your risk of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), the primary cause of vision loss in older adults.

10. Protects from cancer.

Research published in the journal Planta Medica found that bromelain was superior to the chemotherapy drug 5-fluorauracil in treating cancer in an animal study.Researchers stated:

“This antitumoral effect [of bromelain] was superior to that of 5-FU [5-fluorouracil], whose survival index was approximately 263 %, relative to the untreated control.”

5 Tips for Saving the Planet with Sacred Activism

I travel a lot, and I meet the most well-intentioned, beautiful beings who are fighting against the injustices of the world. They stand for ending sexual violence against women, the destruction of Gaia, climate change, social inequality, and any number of other very good causes. I appreciate that these people are DOING something to heal the world. Their passion seems admirable and their commitment and self-sacrifice command respect.

Yet, I find something about the energy of some forms of activism weighing heavy on my heart.

We’ve all met the angry feminists that lash out at men, the rainforest activists who judge those who drill in the Amazon, and the Occupy activists who hate the 1%. But how can we possibly co-create a more beautiful world if we’re coming from the energy of judgment and hate?

When I was in Australia speaking at the Uplift Festival in December, 70 spiritual self-help leaders, elders from the indigenous tribes of five different nations, and change-the-world activists spent a week before the festival participating in an ongoing conversation about the intersection of spirituality and activism. How do we marry the principles of “Being” that we learn through our spiritual practices with the practices of “Doing” embodied by many activists on the front lines of global change? Are we better off sitting on our meditation pillows, raising the vibration of the planet and emitting frequencies of love into the world? Or do we need to get off our pillows and go DO something? Is there a way to be even more effective by merging the two?

Being Versus Doing

Those inclined toward “Being” claim that lasting change in the world stems from ending our inner wars, radiating love, and being the change we wish to see in the world. They hope to love people into doing the “right” thing and tend to shy away from those in the “Doing” camps because they judge them as angry, hostile, and ineffective. They believe the revolution of love starts with accepting the world as it is, seeing the perfection in it, and then practicing love as an entraining invitation to others who yearn to create a more beautiful world.

But Being without Doing risks keeping love in a theoretical realm, a safe realm where it isn’t tested and developed by encounters with the world. Moreover, we are not separate beings. To exist is to relate. Sooner or later, the person inclined toward Being moves toward Doing.

Those who advocate for more “Doing” don’t think it’s enough to just sit around on meditation pillows or pray for peace or BE love. Such activities seem to them a bit “airy-fairy”—a waste of time when there is so much urgent work to be done. They think it’s naà¯ve to assume that evil will just evaporate because enough of us start BEING love, and they assert that sometimes force is necessary in order to protect the innocent and the planet.

But Doing without Being risks reinforcing what isn’t working, repeating ineffective kinds of action that are determined by our own hang-ups, wounds, and blind spots. We are not separate beings—what we encounter outside ourselves mirrors something within. Sooner or later, the Doer moves naturally toward the inner work that marks the pursuit of Being.

5 Tips for Saving the Planet with Sacred Activism

1. End the story of separation.

Our culture tends to mistakenly define us as individual, separate beings, disconnected from one another, from Source, and from nature. Yet for millennia, spiritual lineages have taught about Oneness instead. What if we are not discrete individuals at the mercy of a random, chaotic world? What if everything we do to violate Life in any form harms us all?

2. Withhold judgment.

My parents and my religion taught me to judge “right” from “wrong.” But doesn’t that just further the story of separation? Isn’t it possible that what we think is horribly wrong might have been chosen by all of us as a collective consciousness so we could choose to act differently in the future? Isn’t it possible that what we judge as “wrong” is exactly what our souls chose as part of our curriculum in this life? Isn’t it more loving to choose love instead, to feel compassion for the perpetrators than to judge them and shame them?

3. Accept what is.

There might be wisdom in accepting what is, rather than resisting it. This sounds like madness, right? How can we accept genocide, the destruction of nature, and the greed of corporate bankers who steal from innocent people?

4. Surrender, and avoid force until it’s time.

It’s tempting to push, strive, and make it happen, especially when the world looks like it’s falling apart. It’s not that there’s not a time for effort. But think of a woman having a baby. You don’t tell her to push that baby out when she’s 6 centimeters dilated. She would tear her cervix and hemorrhage. Both the woman and her baby could die. You tell her to rest, to breathe, to pause, and to do what she must to endure the discomfort of doing nothing for a while. Even when she is fully dilated, you don’t always tell her to push right away. You let the uterus push the baby down on its own for a while, let the baby descend effortlessly.

You can apply this to sacred activism by invoking the spiritual act of surrender, offering up that which you sense wants to be born through you to the Universe. By recognizing that you can’t make it happen, you can instead allow it to happen through you. You can call upon Divine support with humble acknowledgment of your human limitations, and you can ask for inner or outer guidance. You can even ask for miracles.

Then, once you’ve made this offering, you can rest, like the woman in labor, knowing that it is all handled and that if force is needed, you will know what to do when the time for birth is ripe. Then you might be asked to push like hell to bring into being that which wants to be born through you. Or you might not even have to push. That baby might just slide out and surprise you.

5. Take inspired action.

Most of the time, there comes a time when it’s time to do something, but it’s not motivated by fear or impatience. It’s motivated by the impulse of love that springs through you and leaps you to your feet in acts of pure service. You can tell the difference because acts of love feel easeful. You feel grateful for the opportunity to serve. If the very idea of what you must do leaves you feeling exhausted or resentful, you’re probably motivated by fear, not love. When the time for action arises, you can trust that you will know what to do. And you will have the courage to act.

Let Your Voice Be Heard

There is MUCH more to say about this topic, so Charles Eisenstein and I recently facilitated a community conversationaround this topic. It’s such a timely conversation, ripe with opportunities for cross-pollination.

Buying Plastic Water Bottles?

So far as quenching thirst is concerned, nothing can substitute the plain old water. We mostly carry our supply of water with us when we go out and when we are home we drink from water coolers or water purifiers all the time. While carrying water outside, plastic bottles are considered as the main containers.

Though we view all the plastics in a similar way, we need to note the fact that all plastic substances and even the bottles are not created in the similar process or using the similar ingredients. Some of the plastics may be harmful for our health. We are sure that you want nothing but the best for you and your family and hence, you need to know what types of plastics are the safest and healthiest. As a consumer, the best way to determine that is to look for certain numbers imprinted on the bottle.

If you observe closely, all plastic bottles are marked with a number between 1 and 7. The marking is generally located on the bottom. The number is bordered by three arrows. The number indicates what is the type of plastic that has been used to make the bottle. You need to know the meaning of the numbers as they denote the gradation of the plastics. Before you attempt to decode the numbers just recall your basic nursery rhyme well. Here sayings are quite similar: “1-2-4-5 stay alive, 3-6-7 straight to heaven.” It simply denotes that that plastic containers numbered 1, 2, 4, and 5 are definitely better, safer and contains less toxic material than the containers marked with a 3, 6, or 7.

One note of caution here, all plastic bottles are toxic in some way or other and with varying degrees. The best way is to avoid any kind of plastics altogether. You should, instead, try to use either ceramic or glass containers as and when possible when it comes to storing food and beverage inside. Having said that, plastic has its convenience factors and it is very difficult to get rid of plastics completely from your life. Therefore, when it is needed to be used, please make sure that the containers are labelled 1, 2, 4, or 5.

6 Kinds of People You Need to Say Goodbye To This Year

Who should stay and who should leave? It’s a tough question we have to face sometimes. Choosing the people you spend your waking moments with can be quite challenging, especially when you don’t know what type of people you should actually be looking out for. To help you out, we’ve put together a list of the kinds of people you should really consider distancing yourself from. Try to observe the people around you; there’s bound to be some sure signs that they’re not exactly the ones you should be keeping around all the time. Chin up. It’s a new year—a new chance to choose your friends wisely.

  1. The User-Friendly


    We’ve all encountered this kind of person in our lives at one point in time. Be it the girl who only shimmies up to you when they need something from you, or the one who always seems to stay extra-friendly but instantly changes the minute you had nothing more to offer than your friendship. It’s time for you to let them leave—for good. You won’t always be able to see the signs quite so quickly. They’ll always be there when they know it’s to their advantage. Do you know someone who always hitches a ride with you? Well, you’ll know if they just spend time with you because of your car when they start disappearing once you stop offering your carpooling services. Seriously, if they leave? Let them. You don’t need people who only like you because of the advantages that come with being your friend.

  2. The Quicksand


    By quicksand, we’re not referring to the people who’ll keep your feet on the ground, because you need those kinds of people. What we mean is someone who hates seeing you succeed without them, and therefore tries to pull you down. When they’re down there, you’re going to have to go down with them. They stay with you on your down days because they know how it feels to need someone at the low points in your life. That’s great and all, but you should also know that a great friend would be there for you when you’re down, and proud of you when you’re up. They shouldn’t be resenting you for your achievements, because your happiness is also their happiness. You don’t exactly ditch them, but when they start to pull you down, don’t let them. Instead, try pulling them up with you.

  3. The Choker


    Nope, it’s not the trending accessory you may or may not be wearing at the moment. It’s the type of person who doesn’t give you any space. At all. You’re still young. You’re still going to have a great life ahead of you. You’ll recognize this type of person when you always feel suffocated around them—not in the literal sense, mind you. They’re the people who you feel are dictating your life. “Don’t wear shorts,” “don’t put your hair up,” “don’t hang out with guys.” You always feel like you should be extra careful in everything you say or do around them because you’re scared it’ll upset them. Don’t allow someone to take hold of your life. Give yourself the time to enjoy and discover yourself.

  4. The Pessimist


    You can’t help but be influenced by the people you choose to surround yourself with. When you choose to spend time with people who always see the glass half empty, chances are, you’ll see things the same way they do. Honestly, it’s so much easier to be influenced by negative people. It’s okay to do things the hard way. Push for more positivity in your life even when it’s hard. Don’t be scared of doing something you haven’t even tried. If there’s something you have to do more than anything this 2016, it’s to have a more positive outlook in life. Surround yourself with positivity, and your life will instantly feel better.

  5. The Competitor


    Why in the world does this person keep on comparing homework answers? You didn’t sign up for any competition, yet the way they keep glancing at the top of your papers to see your grades makes you feel a tad bit uncomfortable. You don’t need extra pressure when there’s already so much in your plate at the moment. Friendly competition is alright, but not when it’s over the top and starts to get personal. You don’t want your 5 point difference in yesterday’s quiz become the reason a person starts bringing up how your ex broke up with you 5 years ago—because it has absolutely nothing to do with it. 2016 may be just the right time to distance yourself away from unnecessary stress.

  6. The Fake Friend


    You know something’s up when no matter how much you screw up in life, there’s this one person who seems to be full of sweet words ready for you. They seem to sugarcoat everything they tell you. Even when you know you did something awful, they always try to get to your good side. Showering you daily with compliments–nothing screams “fake” more than the mega-watt smile on their face. Maybe you’ll enjoy having these people with you, but there’s nothing more toxic than fake friends. You’ll never know what’s wrong. You’ll never know if they’re talking about you behind your back. You’ll never suspect anything. It’s better to get over with the truth than to always live with a lie. Always remember that, Candy Girls!

Who are the people you think you should filter out of your life? Let’s talk in the comments below!

Primary Cutaneous Cryptococcus in a Patient With Multiple Sclerosis Treated With Fingolimod

A 62-year-old woman with multiple sclerosis treated with fingolimod for 3 years presented to clinic with a tender nodule on the forehead that was diagnosed by a tissue culture as Cryptococcus neoformans. The patient was diagnosed with primary cutaneous cryptococcosis.

A 62-year-old woman with multiple sclerosis treated with fingolimod for 3 years presented to the clinic with a tender nodule on her forehead, which had gradually grown over 3 weeks (Figure). She reported bumping her forehead on an air-conditioning unit several months prior. She denied fever, neck stiffness, and photophobia, and her neurological examination was at her baseline. She lived alone with a pet cat and spent minimal time outdoors. She had no recent exposure to systemic steroids.


3 Easy Herbal Detox Drink Recipes

Detoxing during the summer months can be beneficial for the pitta in your body. Often, during summer months, you might feel like drinking cold beverages and eat ice creams, indulging in food that might not be very beneficial to you.

So here are three herbal detox drink recipes that you can make in the morning and sip throughout the day!

Golden Herbal Detox Drink

Turmeric is a metabolism boosting spice, is a great detox agent for your body, helping the liver break down toxic chemicals.


  • 2 cup hot water
  • 1/2 tsp turmeric
  • 1/2 tsp small powdered ginger
  • 1 tsp raw honey
  • Pinch of cayenne
  • Pinch freshly cracked black pepper
  • Juice from 1/2 small organic lemon


  • Bring 2 cups of water to a boil
  • Add all the ingredients except lemon and honey to it. Simmer it for 5 min.
  • Strain the liquid. Add lemon juice, honey and drink it.

Ayurveda Detoxifying Tea

The use of cumin, coriander, and fennel in this tea filters out the harmful elements while replenishing it with essential nutrients for your body. In Ayurveda, teas are the traditional method of delivering the medicinal effects of herbs and spices to your body’s tissues.


  • 1 ½ cups of water
  • 2 tsp cumin seeds
  • 2 tsp coriander seeds
  • 2 tsp fennel seeds


  • Boil 1 1/2 cups of water
  • Add the whole cumin, coriander, and fennel seeds.
  • Let steep for 5 minutes, or until it cools to a comfortable drinking temperature.
  • Strain and serve, discarding the spices.

Mango Ginger Lemonade

Ginger is a great healing food, so anytime you feel that your body needs to calm itself down, you can turn to it for support. It helps other foods to get better absorbed by the body. It amplifies all the health benefits of other superfoods. Combining it with mango makes it a super alkalizing drink for your body. If you’ve been eating a lot of acidic foods, this drink will help restore balance.


  • 1/2 mango
  • 1 lemon
  • 1 thin slice of ginger
  • 1 tbsp agave nectar
  • zest of 1 lemon


Blend everything and enjoy!

The Healing Power of Pets by Chuck Norris

In 2010, at the age of 51, appliance sales manager Eric O’Grey was in a bad place. He weighed 320 pounds and as a consequence was racking up more than $1,000 a month for medications to deal with his high blood pressure, Type 2 diabetes and high cholesterol. Doctors told him that if he didn’t turn his life around and lose significant weight, his life expectancy was most likely no more than five years.

Then, at the advice of a doctor, he adopted a dog from a shelter. He decided on a somewhat obese middle-aged dog that he saw as not unlike himself. This dog needed to be walked at least a half-hour a day, something O’Gray did without fail. O’Grey next adopted a plant-based diet and he stuck with it. Within a year, he lost 140 pounds. His dog “Peety” lost 25 pounds. In addition, O’Grey was off his meds for good.

Peety had in fact rescued him — from an old pattern of trying to reform habits only to fall back into his unhealthful ways. “He looked at me like I was the best person on the planet,” O’Grey told NPR, “and I wanted to become the person he thought I was.”

According to the Humane Society, nearly 2.4 million healthy cats and dogs are put down in U.S. shelters each year; about one every 13 seconds.

Can something as seemingly simple as the introduction of an adopted pet into someone’s life bring on renewed health? Animal-assisted therapy has long been used to significantly reduce pain, anxiety, depression and fatigue in people with a range of health problems. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, having a pet has proven to help decrease blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides and feelings of loneliness. It increases opportunities for exercise and socializing with others. Medical evidence exists demonstrating that interaction with pets helps people cope with challenges ranging from Alzheimer’s Disease, to end of life trauma, to PTSD.

As Dr. Tracy Stecker, a clinical psychologist who works with veterans once noted in Psychology Today, having a dog in the room in many ways mimics the buddy system to which military personnel are accustomed. This pet can help in dealing with symptoms developed in war by immediately letting someone struggling with nightmares — waking in the night, not knowing if they are in immediate danger — assuring them they are safe and they are not alone.

Dogs also help veterans relearn trust, a critically important issue for those suffering from PTSD. Dogs help heal by being a trustworthy companion. In short, a dog can be a loving companion that can lift your spirits, lessen depression, decrease feelings of isolation and alienation, encourage communication and provide needed comfort. This pet can also provide motivation to move more, stretch farther and exercise longer.

At the Mayo Clinic, animal-assisted therapy is a growing field that uses dogs or other animals to help people recover from or better cope with health problems, such as heart disease, cancer and mental health disorders. More than a dozen certified therapy dogs are part of Mayo Clinic’s Caring Canines program. It’s not only the ill person who reaps the benefits of such therapy. Family members and friends who sit in on animal visits say they feel better as well.

A concern about animal-assisted therapy — particularly in hospitals — is safety and sanitation. Most hospitals and other facilities that use pet therapy have stringent rules to ensure that the animals are clean, vaccinated, well-trained and screened for appropriate behavior. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has never received a report of infection from animal-assisted therapy.

Sleep experts have long thought that pets in the bedroom are disruptive to a person’s sleep. You may be interested to learn that a recent Mayo Clinic survey found 41 percent of patients who share their beds with their animals find it beneficial. Some say it helps them relax and gives a sense of security. If your pet sleeps on your bed at home, it is recommended you wash your sheets frequently.

While it’s true I’m a dog lover, dogs are not the only pet effectively used in helping people cope with health problems. If you were to take a stroll through downtown Portland, for example, it’s quite possible you might happen upon Rojo the llama and Napoleon the alpaca, prancing along the sidewalk, a new dynamic duo changing the face of therapy animals in the Pacific Northwest. Similar in appearance, llamas and alpacas are both domesticated South American species of camels.

Eight years ago, Rojo and Napoleon went through an extensive process to get certified as therapy animals. Now part of the non-profit Mountain Peaks Therapy Llamas and Alpacas, they have clocked more than 1000 clinical visits.

Smiling and laughter are known to be a tonic for health and longevity. That’s exactly what Rojo and Napoleon provide for patients, their families and friends, and sidewalk pedestrians as well.

To this day Shannon Gregory, one of the animal handlers, remembers the first time she took them to visit a medical facility. “Every room we were going in to, it was like seeing miracles happen,” she says.