This Vaccine Could Help You Quit Smoking .

Quitting smoking is really hard—even with the advantage of medication, just 25 percent of people can stay smoke-free for six months. That’s because nicotine, the primary chemical in tobacco that can act as both a stimulant and a sedative, is one of the most addictive substances there is. To help those trying to quit, scientists came up with the idea of a nicotine vaccine that can train a smoker’s body to attack nicotine molecules before they reach the brain, eliminating their effect and, thus, the person’s desire to smoke. Now researchers from the Scripps Research Institute in California have developed a more effective nicotine vaccine, according to a study published recently in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry.

Nicotine vaccines aren’t a new idea—a few years ago, two were tested in clinical trials. But those ended because the vaccines weren’t very effective, working in just 30 percent of patients. A few years ago, the same Scripps scientists created a more effective vaccine by slightly tweaking the molecules to which the body forms an immunity. All molecular compounds have a “handedness,” which refers to how the different chemical components fit together, and the researchers created a vaccine for only the left-handed nicotine molecule, which is by far the most common. That change made the vaccine 60 percent more effective in mice, according to a study published last year.

Now the researchers have worked to further improve the vaccine by altering the molecules that alert the immune system, over time training it to attack nicotine. They determined that, with just the right concentration of carrier proteins and nicotine molecules, the mice developed a robust antibody response, showing that the vaccine was working. In addition, the mice showed a “severely blunted” response to nicotine when dosed with the vaccine.
In future studies the researchers plan to investigate the physical dynamics between the various molecules in the vaccine and the immune system to determine the concentration of antibodies necessary to make the vaccine work. They also plan to test the vaccine on rats, which they say will provide them with “better insight” into how the vaccine could be clinically feasible.
Though a nicotine vaccine hasn’t made it to the market yet, studies like this one show that it’s possible for one to be more effective. They may also open the door to the idea of using a vaccine to treat other addictions; the same researchers are also working on a vaccine against the opioid fentanyl. If they make it to the market, these new treatment methods could eventually help many people dealing with addiction.

Scientists have grown ‘dinosaur legs’ on a chicken for the first time .

Until very recently, one of the biggest myths in science was that all dinosaurs have been extinct for the past 65 million years. But thanks to new fossil discoveries that filled in our knowledge about avian dinosaurs, we now know that only some dinosaurs went extinct following an asteroid collision with Earth – others survived and gave rise to the birds we live with today.

To figure out how this evolution occurred, researchers in Chile have manipulated the genes of regular chickens so they develop tubular, dinosaur-like fibulas on their lower legs – one of the two long, spine-like bones you’ll find in a drumstick.

 In avian dinosaurs such as the Archaeopteryx, the fibula was a tube-shaped bone that reached all the way down to the ankle. Another bone, the tibia, grew to a similar length alongside it.

As evolution progressed through to a group of avian dinosaurs known as the Pygostylians, the fibula became shorter than the tibia, and sharper and more splinter-like towards the end, and it no longer reached the ankle.

While modern bird embryos still show signs of developing long, dinosaur-like fibulae, as they grow, these bones become shorter, thinner, and also take on the splinter-like ends of the Pygostylian bones, and never make it far enough down to the leg to connect with the ankle.

Researchers led by Joâo Botelho from the University of Chile decided to investigate how this transition from a long, tubular fibula in dinosaurs to a short, splinter-like fibula in birds actually came to be.

They achieved this by inhibiting the expression of a gene called IHH or Indian Hedgehog (seriously), which saw their chickens continue to grow the long, dinosaur-like fibulae that originated in their embryonic form. 

In doing so, the team discovered something bizarre. Regular bone development sees cell division and therefore growth halt in the shaft long before the ends stop growing, but in modern chickens, the growth of the fibula halts first at the ends. This means the fibulae of modern chickens are actively blocked from reaching the lengths of their ancient relatives’ bones.

molecular-expPublishing their observations in the journal Evolution, the researchers suggest that the early maturation of the lower end of the fibula in modern chickens is prompted by a bone in the ankle, called the calcaneum. 

“Unlike other animals, the calcaneum in bird embryos presses against the lower end of the fibula,” the team explains in a press release. “They are so close, they have even been mistaken for a single element by some researchers.”

The team suggests that in regular chickens, interactions between the calcaneum and the end of the fibula result in signals that are similar to the ones that prompt the bone shaft to stop growing, preventing the fibula from reaching anywhere near the ankle bone. 

But when the Indian Hedgehog gene was turned off, the calcaneum strongly expresses the gene Parathyroid-related protein (PthrP), which allows for growth at the ends of bones. This caused their chickens to grow long fibulae that connected with the ankle, just like they would in the Archaeopteryx. 

“Experimental downregulation of IHH signalling at a postmorphogenetic stage led to a tibia and fibula of equal length,” the team writes in the report. “The fibula is longer than in controls and fused to the fibulare, whereas the tibia is shorter and bent.”

Unfortunately, the ‘dino-chickens’ did not make it to the hatching stage, but the point of the research wasn’t to raise them into adulthood, but to figure out the biological processes that led to the transition from dinosaur legs to modern bird legs.

“The experiments are focused on single traits to test specific hypotheses,” one of the team, Alexander Vargas, explains. “Not only do we know a great deal about bird development, but also about the dinosaur-bird transition, which is well-documented by the fossil record. This leads naturally to hypotheses on the evolution of development, that can be explored in the lab.”

This isn’t the first time dinosaur traits have been ‘recreated’ in modern chickens.Last year, the same team achieved the growth of dinosaur-like feet on their chickens, and a separate team in the US managed to grow a dinosaur-like ‘beak’on its chicken embryos. Watch below to see how lead researcher and renowned palaeontologist, Jack Horner, managed to do it

‘MyShake’ App Provides Personal Earthquake Warning System

Software monitors smartphones’ accelerometer data and sends alerts to a central server when seismic activity registers

 When an earthquake strikes literally every second counts. That was the case 5 years ago when a magnitude 9 quake unleashed a massive tsunami that devastated Japan.

A seismological network kicked into action issuing early warnings, but the massive waves still killed nearly 16,000 people and caused an estimated $300 billion (USD) in damage.

Since then scientists have been working to improve detection systems in the hopes of generating more accurate earthquake data and ultimately buying people a bit more time to flee a soon to be disaster zone.

Now researchers are hoping to tap into new pool data. It turns out the technology in conventional seismological instrumentation exists in every smartphone on the planet.

“The idea is if we can harness the accelerometers in those smart phones then we can collect massive amounts of data. It could really revolutionize how we understand earthquakes and earthquake effects,” said Richard Allen, the director of the Seismological Laboratory at the University California, Berkeley.

Allen and his team have developed a smartphone app called ‘MyShake’ designed to monitor a phones accelerometer data and send alerts to a central server when seismic activity registers.

He says accelerometers in phones are nowhere near as sensitive as conventional instrumentation, but what they lack in sensitivity they make up for in numbers. Real time data from phones could equate to more warning time.

“So the amount of warning time we might be talking about depends of course on where you are relative to the earthquake. We are talking about seconds, tens of seconds, best case scenario is a few minutes before and earthquake, tens of minutes potentially for tsunamis,” said Allen.

The smartphone data is meant to compliment existing earthquake monitoring networks, according to Allen, but he adds that many of the regions most prone to deadly earthquakes and tsunami don’t have reliable early warning systems. In those places, he says, this new source of data could prove to be a game changer.

“There is no seismic instrumentation but there are many many smartphones often so if we can harness the smartphones we can provide some sort of warning in those countries.”

The app can be downloaded the Labs website at

Diabetes Burnout – There’s no way out but through

“I felt as if I couldn’t do it anymore. So I didn’t,” explains Sarah Kaye, a mother of two, now 31 years old, who was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes as a preschooler.

Sarah is talking about burnout. Diabetes burnout. The phrase can mean so many different things to anyone who lives with any type of diabetes, and it can be triggered by any number of events or by nothing more than the daily physical and mental burden of living this disease.

blue flame

“In my own practice,” explains William Polonsky, MD, founder of the Diabetes Behavioral Institute and author of Diabetes Burnout. “I have met far too many people who, because of diabetes burnout, have chosen to ignore their diabetes for years or, in some cases, decades. They are male and female, young and old, new to diabetes and veterans of the disease. They are not bad, stupid, or weak people. They are normal folks who are struggling with diabetes for understandable reasons. And their struggles take many shapes.”

While some feel helpless and defeated by the disease, explains Dr. Polonsky, others’ burnout may be the result of denial an  “never truly accepting the reality of diabetes in their lives.”

But all forms, no matter the severity or the duration, qualify as burnout.

Checking Out

For Sarah, burnout is something she has endured at least five or six times in the past 27 years of pricking her fingers, counting carbs, taking insulin and hoping it’s somewhat close to the amount her pancreas would’ve given her in an effort to avoid frustrating high blood sugars and exhausting low blood sugars.

Sarah burnout

When Sarah is feeling diabetes burnout: “My brain feels as if it has physically closed a door to all that I know about diabetes care and diabetes management.”

“I think of burnout as the inability to take care of myself due to mental and physical exhaustion,” explains Sarah. “It’s like a door has closed in my brain that is barring me from the place where all I know about diabetes care and diabetes management is stored. I can’t enter because my body can no longer take the toll of swinging back and forth from happiness and elation to sadness,anger, guilt and frustration in a never-ending cycle. Like a clothes dryer, but in slow-motion.”

Burnout is a personal experience—but is usually accompanied by a layer of shame and guilt. Others with diabetes may even become judgemental perceiving burnout as a weakness or giving up, but it’s not that simple.

For some, burnout is an exhaustion. You somehow manage to keep your blood sugars in their usual ranges but you aren’t as vigilant about checking them as you know you should be.

And for others, burnout is driven by the challenging combination of managing an intensely-demanding disease with other real-life stressors. Like any human being, you survive by coping. For some, coping is stepping back from diabetes management in order to devote energy to another part of your life.

Burnout Triggers

“For me, diabetes burnout means I’ve grown tired of all that I have to do and think about in order to attempt to control my diabetes,” saysKate Cornell, now 61-years-old, who has lived with type 2 since 2005. “It means I’m tired of talking about it, thinking about it and making the necessary sacrifices.”

Kate and burnout

For Kate, diabetes burnout means: “I’m tired of talking about it, thinking about it and making the necessary sacrifices.”

Both Sarah and Kate will tell you they know exactly what led to their burnout. Kate’s burnout is the result of intensely caring for her 97-year-old mother on top of her own recently-diagnosised fibromyalgia.

“I admit I haven’t given much thought to my diabetes since November. I decided to eat what I want and deal with the blood sugars later. I still check them at least once per day, and mostly try to eat a lower carb diet, but I haven’t been giving any thought to anything long-range. That’s not a good thing for someone with diabetes.”

For Sarah, burnout came following a long stretch of doing her very best and achieving her goals. “My worst phase of burnout, by far, was after my first pregnancy,” she explains. “While trying to get pregnant, I knew I had to be on my game. I kept myself in the best control I could for a couple of years before finding out we had conceived.”

Burnout started to set in about the time she learned she was expecting—certainly not the time to take a break and recharge her diabetes management energy stores.

“So, that began the most nerve-wracking diabetes management time in my life. It wasn’t just my health I was fearful about. I was constantly worried about harming my baby. Sadly, I never experienced the joy of pregnancy or the feeling of awe about the growing life that many woman have.”

Sarah gave birth to a healthy baby boy—all her hard work paid-off—but she was exhausted, and the rollercoaster blood sugar levels that accompany diabetes management while adjusting to breastfeeding and life with a newborn took its toll.

For the next 9 months, Sarah tested her blood sugar sometimes only once a day, always seeing a high number that she’d only treat with insulin if it were above 300 mg/dL to prevent her body from reaching a state of DKA (diabetic-ketoacidosis). DKA is a dangerous state in which toxic levels of ketones are produced due to a severe lack of insulin.

Turning Around Burnout

While it’s important to acknowledge and work through your own burnout, it’s also crucial to do what’s necessary to keep yourself safe and out of the hospital. In addition to the emergent dangers of DKA and severely high blood sugar levels, long-term burnout that leads to long-term high blood sugars increases your risk for all of the many diabetes complications you’ve been warned about: neuropathy, retinopathy, nephropathy. Rather than inspire change, this list of warnings can unfortunately make the burnout burden even worse.

Dr. Polonsky recommends “diabetes vacations” to help curb or prevent burnout, but emphasizes the difference between a safe diabetes vacation and an unsafe break.

“A safe vacation doesn’t last too long and involves planning ahead so your diabetes control isn’t compromised,” explains Dr. Polonsky. “This doesn’t mean quitting your diabetes care altogether. You might, for example, decide to take a night off each week from your diabetes-friendly meal plan. A good vacation can restore your energy for managing diabetes.”

Dr. Polonsky describes an unsafe vacation from diabetes as something that goes on for a long time and may threaten your health. “Perhaps you have been ignoring your diabetes for years, or you take your medications faithfully but decide you don’t ever want to check your blood sugars again.”

For those stuck in a burnout phase that could easily be classified as unsafe, seeking help and support is crucial. If you can’t admit to your healthcare team that you’re severely struggling, tell a friend or family member whom you trust. Asking for help doesn’t mean you have to suddenly snap out of your burnout. It just means you’re going to acknowledge and work through it in a way that is safe, with the support that you need.

Including your healthcare team in a plan for moving from burnout to responsible diabetes management again is important. For instance, if you’re burnt-out by trying to maintain an A1C near 7.0 percent, you can talk to your team about aiming for blood sugars that would lead to an 8.0 A1C instead. The point is involving your team may be a comfortable way to lighten the burden and responsibilities of diabetes management while also keeping you safe. The more intense your burnout feels, the more necessary it may be to seek out professional help from a therapist who can support you.

Sarah found middle-ground by staying below 300 mg/dL and doing the very basics of her diabetes management responsibilities: taking her insulin, avoiding extreme highs or extreme lows, and occasionally checking her blood sugar.

“I didn’t care to correct mild highs because I had a baby to take care of, and the last thing I wanted was to go low and not be able to take care of him,” she explains. “I would let my sugars cruise in the 200s without batting an eye. I would blind-bolus for carbs, rarely even taking the time to guess at the carb-count when taking my insulin. Diabetes was the absolute last thing on my mind, and I didn’t want it on my mind at all. I hated diabetes and all that the management of it entailed.”

Sarah’s post-partum burnout lasted 9 months before she felt as though she could give energy towards the daily demands again.

“I firmly believe that diabetes burnout is much like the saying, ‘Depression is not a sign of weakness; it’s a sign of being strong for too long.’ Diabetes burnout is very much the same—trying to be perfect for too long can set oneself up for a quick fall into diabetes burnout.”

For Kate, who’s burnout cloud is just starting to clear, she feels as though she’s coming out of the phase as gradually as she entered it three months ago.

“Be kind to yourself,” says Kate. “It was always in the back of my mind that this trend couldn’t go on forever but I needed time to let other things in my life settle down first.”

Blueberries May Help Reduce Your Risk Of Alzheimer’s Disease: It’s All About The Anthocyanins

Blueberries deliver the most delicious wallop of vitamin C found on the planet (in my humble opinion). One serving supplies 25 percent of your daily C requirement plus additional heart-healthy fiber and manganese, important to bone health. A super-achiever when it comes to antioxidant strength, this fruit may also lower your risk of heart disease, cancer, and, new research suggests, even Alzheimer’s disease.


A team of University of Cincinnati scientists led by Dr. Robert Krikorian says the healthful antioxidants within blueberries provide a real benefit in improving memory and cognitive function in some older adults. Based on their work, they believe adding blueberries to your diet may help you prevent neurocognitive decline.

Blueberries acquire their deep color from anthocyanins, a type of flavonoid that acts as an antioxidant within the fruit, explains the U.S. Highbush Blueberry Council. Generally, antioxidants help to prevent age-related damage at the cellular level within the plants. While some scientists believe consuming foods rich in antioxidants will help delay aging, not all scientists, including those at the National Institutes of Health, entirely support that theory.

Still, eating a diet rich in fruits and veggies is unquestionably good for your health with many scientists analyzing and testing specific foods to understand whether they might prevent a particular illness. Quite a few studies, Krikorian and his colleagues note, have found blueberries beneficial in preventing dementia.

Silver Tide

One type of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, causes problems with memory, thinking, and behavior. This neurodegenerative disorder develops in a healthy brain, its symptoms appearing slowly and then worsening over time. Eventually, this disease becomes severe enough to interfere with daily tasks and in the end disrupts even the autonomic nervous system, which controls heart rate and breathing. If they live long enough, Alzheimer’s patients die because their breathing stops. Currently 5.3 million Americans suffer from Alzheimer’s disease, yet as the nation’s population grows older, that number will almost inevitably rise. The Alzheimer’s Association calculates that the number of Americans with this disorder will reach more than seven million by 2025.

How can science slow this trend?

Following up on earlier clinical trials showing blueberries boost cognitive performance, Krikorian and colleagues conducted two new studies. The first involved 47 adults, 68 years old or older and beginning to show signs of mild cognitive impairment — a risk factor for Alzheimer’s. First, the researchers conducted tests and a brain scan for each participant. Then, after forming two groups, one group of participants ate a placebo powder once a day for 16 weeks, while the other consumed a freeze-dried blueberry powder (equivalent to a single cup of berries).

Conducting the same tests and comparing the groups, Krikorian and his colleagues observed comparative improvement in cognitive performance and brain function among the adults who ate blueberry powder.

“The blueberry group demonstrated improved memory and improved access to words and concepts,” said Krikorian in a statement to the press. Additionally, a second scan showed increased activity in the brains of those in the blueberry group.

The team’s second study included 94 people between the ages of 62 and 80, all confessing to some memory problems. The researchers believed these participants to be in better cognitive “shape” than the first group, however no objective measurements verified this. For this study, the researchers divided the participants into four groups. Each group received either blueberry powder, fish oil, fish oil and powder, or placebo.

A hoped-for replication of the first study did not occur. Cognition proved somewhat better for those taking either blueberry powder or fish oil separately, yet memory barely improved, certainly not as much as in the first study, Krikorian noted. Even the scans showed similar lukewarm results. The team believes participants’ less severe cognitive impairments contributed to this weakened effect.

Blueberries may not show measurable benefit for those with minor memory issues or who have not yet developed cognitive problems, the combined results of the two studies suggest. Perhaps blueberries effectively treat only those patients who already show signs of mental impairment.

Nevertheless, Krikorian says, the very same ingredient that bestows color may provide blueberries with their brain benefits; in past animal studies, scientists have shown anthocyanins improve cognition.


Natural and uninstalled apple cedar vinegar is a mighty healing and cleansing elixir, a naturally occurring antibiotic, as well as antiseptic which fight germs and bacteria.

These are the health benefits of apple cedar vinegar:

  • Arthritis – combined with honey it can be used for treating arthritis. You can apply it externally for treating joint pain. You can drink a glass of water with 2 tsp of AVC and 2 tsp of honey 3 times a day. The affected place can be soaked in a solution of ACV for 10 minutes 2-3 times a day (1/4 cup of ACV and ½ cup of water). Poultice can also be made by soaking a cloth in a mixture of ACV and water and then wrap the place, securing it with a dry cloth to retain the heat. When the wet cloth cools down, wring it out in the hot solution and apply a fresh one. Repeat this procedure for couple of times.
  • Eczema – Take the usual dosage of ACV and honey with water and consume it 3 times a day with your meals. You can apply diluted ACV to the skin for couple of times a day (1 tsp to a half cup of water). Do not take salt because it will aggravate the condition considerably. People who suffer from eczema are usually potassium deficient.
  • Asthma – add 1 tbsp. of ACV in a glass of water and sip it for half an hour. Repeat the treatment after another half hour. If the wheezing still persists then you can take a second glass. A beneficial treatment can be deep breathing exercises.
  • Blood loss – in circumstances where the blood flow is too free and is too persistent like a nose bleeding without any apparent reason, then you can take 2 tsp of ACV in a glass of water 3 times per day. It will aid in restoring the natural clotting properties of the blood.
  • Colitis – add 2 tsp of ACV and honey with water 3 times per day. An enema of a tsp or more of molasses can also help.
  • Tired and sore eyes – take 2 tsp of both ACV and honey should be put in a glass of water, 3 times per day. The onset of the tired and sore eyes will be retarded.
  • Fatigue – when chronic fatigue appears then it means that the body needs attention. Most of the people affected with this condition do not have enough sleep. In order to cure a poor quality sleep, you can consume honey as it acts like a sedative to the body. After you take it, 20 minutes will be enough for it to be digested and absorbed in the body. It is a predigested sugar that has been digested into the stomach of the honey bee, requiring no effort on the part of the human stomach for digestion. Make a mixture of 3 tsp of ACV to a cup of honey and keep it by your bedside. Take the mixture before you go to bed. It will induce sound sleep within 1 hour. If you don’t fall asleep, then repeat the procedure.
  • Hearing – take the normal dosage of ACV 3 times per day.
  • Hemorrhages – ACV helps in blood clot more easily. If a person consumes ACV regularly and cuts themselves, then the wound will dry up almost instantly. If the wounds do not heal quickly, then you can take 2 tsp of ACV mixed with half or a whole glass of water at mealtimes and in between. 6 glasses are needed for the whole day. You can apply a very weak solution of ACV and water over the wound and the cut.
  • High blood pressure – health will be maintained if you are prepared to adjust the living and eating habits as ACV is not the cure, but is only a way towards a healthier and happier life. 2 tsp of ACV and honey should be mixed in a glass of water and be consumed 3-4 times a day.
  • Hiccups – you should drink 1 tsp of ACV neat, or take ACV mixed with water before mealtimes to prevent its occurrence.
  • Heartburn – it usually happens after eating, or up to 2 hours later. Take the usual dosage of ACV and water before the meals.
  • Headaches – some headaches are associated with organic disorders like kidney troubles, others are psychogenic, or tension headaches. There is also the migraine. Honey can help in relieving the pain from headaches. You can prevent the attack by taking 2 tsp of it at each meal. You can also take ACV in equal parts with water, placing it into a small basin on a stove and let it boil slowly. When the fume starts to rise, place your head over it and inhale 50-80 breaths. It will alleviate the pain considerably, if not entirely.
  • Varicose veins – apply undiluted ACV to the affected area in the mornings and in the evenings. Massage well towards the heart. Take ACV and honey 3 times a day (2 tsp each in a glass of water).
  • Itchy scalp – make a solution of ACV (1 tsp) and a glass of water and dip your comb in it. Then comb your hair thoroughly until saturated. Perform it 15 minutes before you wash your hair. The method will help in removing dandruff.
  • External application – ACV is great in cleaning the body, so you can take a bath where you’ll add 1 tsp of ACV to half a glass of water. Pour some mixture in your palm (previously cupped) and put a palmful mixture in the bath. Your skin will return its glory.
  • Teeth – ACV can help in removing tartar deposits. You can brush your teeth with it to whiten them up. Use 1 tsp of ACV in a glass of water for the mouthwash and repeat the procedure every night until you receive the required results. Drink ACV to prevent teeth decay, sore gums, or ulcerated gums, but make sure the solution is not too strong.
  • Sore throat – gargle a mixture of 1 tsp of ACV and water every hour. The second mouthful should be swallowed. Repeat it every hour until the condition improves.
  • Coughs – 2 tsp of ACV and 2 of honey mixed in a glass of water should be taken before meals, or when the irritation occurs. You can keep a glass of the same mixture by your bed so that you can take sips in the evening if the attack appears.
  • Nervousness – take a glassful of water combined with 2 tsp each of ACV and honey, 3 times per day. Eliminate any refined flour and sugar form our diet.
  • Shingles – ACV will alleviate pain from shingles if applied 6 times per day to the affected area (make diluted mixture). You can consume the usual dosage internally.
  • Obesity – take 2 tsp of ACV in a glass of water each morning before the meal and also during the day over a period of some time. Sip the drink during the meal to prevent overeating and promote digestion.
  • Stuffy nose – ACV can be used as an inhalant. Use the method just like the one for headaches. This treatment will help you remove congestion and any inflammation which may result from excessive accumulation of mucous.
  • Nail issues – cider vinegar helps in making the nails stronger and healthier. Each white spot on the nail will be eliminated. Take 2 tsp of ACV in a glass of water 3 times a day.
  • Menstruation – cider vinegar therapy will regulate and normalize profuse bleeding. Take 2 tsp of ACV in a glass of water 3 times a day. Plenty of water should be taken during the period because it will help in speedy elimination.
  • Mucous discharges – take the usual dosage 3 times a day before the meals. Eliminate rye, corn, and wheat from your diet.
  • Hair loss – hair falls out because of a tissue salt deficiency, so the ACV with its properties will re-establish a natural balance and supply the deficiencies where needed. It will maintain the hair’s natural growth and cease the fall out as well as help it grow more rapidly and thickly. It will take 2 months so perseverance is needed. Take 1 tsp of ACV in a glass of water between the meals. You can use the vinegar externally for treating dandruff.
  • Kidneys and bladder – take 2 tsp of ACV in a glass of water 6 times a day. Drink couple of glasses of water in the mornings with 1 tsp of ACV in each drink. You can also consume comfrey tea in the morning with a tsp of ACV for sufficient cleansing action.
  • Hay fever – there is an excess of fluid which the body tries to offload during this condition. Take 1 tbsp. of honey after each meal for a fortnight before the onset of the hay fever season. Then take the ordinary dosage of these 2 ingredients: 2 tsp of ACV and 2 of honey in a glass of water, 3 times a day. Maintain the dosage during the day.
  • Food poisoning – people who regularly consume ACV will never suffer any side effects from food poisoning due to the vinegar’s antiseptic quality that seems to render noxious food harmless.
  • Ear discharge – it usually occurs during childhood. 1 tsp of ACV should be put into a glass of water and be consumed mid morning and mid afternoon. The issue will disappear shortly.
  • Dizziness – take 2 tsp of ACV along with 2 tsp of honey in a glass of hot water 3 times per day. Do not expect instant results because nature works slowly, but effectively. While you progress the intensity if the condition will lessen.
  • Diarrhea – ACV helps with digestion, assimilation, and elimination of food. It is an antiseptic to the intestines and the whole of the digestive tract. You can prepare this treatment: take 1 tsp of ACV in a glass of water and consume it between the meals. 6 glasses during the whole day should be taken. Diarrhea is actually a natural attempt of the body to eliminate poison which irritates the digestive tract. No drugs should be taken to suppress these healing symptoms. ACV will lessen the intensity, allowing the natural course of elimination take place.

What’s Causing Drinking Water Pollution in the USA?

Flint, Michigan, is a name that resonates worldwide now, due to the tragic water crisis its inhabitants have suffered. Poisonous lead, a material used in the construction of aging water pipes, corroded under the influence of a new drinking water source: Flint River. The corrosion caused lead to leach into the drinking water supply, and cause levels of the harmful chemical to rise above safe limits. The inaction and lack of foresight of local authorities, provide an ode to the U.S. government’s complacent attitude toward the effects of water pollution back in 2001.


Under pressure from the National Research Council to lower the maximum limit of arsenic in our drinking water (a standard set in 1942), the government set about reviewing safer limits. In doing so, they balanced the estimated cost, against the expected mortality rate due to cancers caused by arsenic. The new level was set at 10 ppb (lowered from 50 ppb). This was estimated to avoid a maximum of 30 cancer deaths caused by arsenic every year. Campaigners actually advocated a new safe level of 3 ppb. This would come at a cost of more than 3 times more, but with the potential to save 74 more lives than the old standard, every year. In essence, since the new standard was introduced 10 years ago in 2006, the government may have failed to save over 400 people, who have (or will) lose their lives to cancer. To monetize life and death like this, speaks volumes for the consideration we are afforded by our leaders.

In fact, money appears to be at the root of Flint’s problem too. To lower water costs the Flint officials decided to source their water from the Karegnondi Water Authority, instead of using the Detroit Water & Sewerage Department. However, awaiting the new pipelines completion, the stop-gap, cost cutting solution, was to source water from Flint River and treat it locally. However, the chemical composition of the new water supply, had a detrimental effect that wasn’t foreseen. The  reason that the lead leached into the water supply, was the corrosion of old supply pipes. But why wasn’t this an issue before? Well, the water previously supplied by the Detroit Water & Sewerage Department, was treated with a phosphate-based corrosion inhibitor. Such a chemical prevents the corrosion of the water pipes, by forming a protective coating on them. Without this treatment, the pipes began to corrode. Interestingly, this phosphate based additive is considered one of the  “Critical drinking water and wastewater treatment chemicals” in a Water Research Foundation Report. This therefore begs the question ‘Why did they decide not to use a critical water treatment ingredient?’ Well, again this might come down to cost. Many chemicals used in the treatment of drinking water have soared in price over the last few years. Phosphoric acid for example, (a key ingredient for phosphate-based corrosion inhibitors) increased in price by 253% on average between January 2008 and January 2009.

But, the lead pipes aren’t the only problem facing Flint, and indeed many other parts of the USA. The corrosion of newer iron pipes is a problem too. The corrosion of iron reduces the effect of disinfectants like chlorine, which is added to the water to kill bacteria. By significantly lowering the levels of chlorine in water, pathogens are allowed to flourish, and illness and disease can thrive. Though no clear link has been proven, Legionnaires’ disease has been reported in abnormally high numbers in Flint, and the surrounding area. The area has recorded 87 cases, including 10 fatal, since June 2015. The Washington Post did report however that ”..older plumbing systems of some of Flint’s large buildings had high levels of the Legionella bacteria.”

Perhaps the most startling thing about all of this though, is that it is not an isolated problem. Sure, the local authorities made mistakes, and I’m sure they won’t be repeated, but aging water pipes are something common nationwide. Lead was banned from the manufacture of water pipes as part of the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986. However, colonial east coast cities in particular, have water pipes which were laid long, long ago. Take Philadelphia for example, where half of its water pipes were installed before 1930, and some even pre-date the civil war. Then there’s Baltimore, where the average age of a water main is around 75 years. Work has already begun to rectify the situation, but with an estimated 1.9 million kilometers of water supply pipelines in the country, a period of at least 20 years is expected to be needed to fully fix our water systems.

After Eating Tofu for a Year, This is What Can Happen to You

What's So Bad About Tofu?

Many health-conscious Americans, in an effort to improve their eating habits, have switched to eating tofu in place of meat or eggs. The soy industry would have you believe that this is a smart move for your heart health, but in reality processed soy, which includes tofu, is not a health food.

You are much better off eating organic eggs, grass-fed meat and raw dairy products than you are eating processed soy.

“Unlike in Asia where people eat small amounts of whole soybean products, western food processors separate the soybean into two golden commodities–protein and oil. There’s nothing safe or natural about this,” Dr. Daniel says.

“Today’s high-tech processing methods not only fail to remove the anti-nutrients and toxins that are naturally present in soybeans but leave toxic and carcinogenic residues created by the high temperatures, high pressure, alkali and acid baths and petroleum solvents,” she continues.

The worst of the worst when it comes to soy products are the fractionated products like soy protein isolate and hydrolyzed plant protein, as all processed soy contains phytates that block mineral absorption and trypsin inhibitors that block proper digestion.

Tofu is one step up because it’s a whole soy product, but it still contains the anti-nutrients mentioned above.

Health Problems Linked to Soy

Among the many health problems linked to a high-soy diet are:

Thyroid problems, including weight gain, lethargy, malaise, fatigue, hair loss, and loss of libido
• Premature puberty and other developmental problems in babies, children and adolescents
Brain damage
Reproductive disorders
• Soy allergies

Meanwhile, studies reviewed by Dr. Daniel and colleagues have found that soy does not reliably lower cholesterol, and in fact raises homocysteine levels in many people, which has been found to increase your risk of heart disease, stroke, and birth defects. In fact, according to Dr. Daniel, soy can increase your risk of heart disease.

As a result, she and other experts have sent a 65-page petition to the FDA asking them to retract the “soy prevents heart disease” health claim that they approved back in 1999, and let’s hope they do the right thing and comply.

It’s very important to know also that children and babies, who are still developing, are particularly vulnerable to soy’s hormone-mimicking effects. A Lancet study showed that the daily exposure to estrogen-imitating chemicals for infants who consume soy formulas was 6-11 times higher than adults consuming soy foods.

And the blood concentration of these hormones was 13,000 to 22,000 times higher than estrogen in the blood. An infant exclusively fed soy formula receives the estrogenic equivalent (based on body weight) of up to five birth control pills per day. So please do not feed your baby soy infant formula, or your toddler soy foods (if you can’t breastfeed and are looking for a formula alternative, here’s a recipe for a healthy homemade infant formula). The effects are so potent that even pregnant women should avoid eating soy products for the safety of their unborn child.

And there’s more:

Soybeans are high in natural toxins, also known as antinutrients. This includes a large quantity of inhibitors that deter the enzymes needed for protein digestion. Further, these enzyme inhibitors are not entirely disabled during ordinary cooking. The result is extensive gastric distress and chronic deficiencies in amino acid uptake, which can result in dangerous pancreatic impairments and cancer.

Soybeans contain hemaglutinins, which cause red blood cells to clump together. Soybeans also have growth-depressant substances, and while these substances are reduced in processing, they are not completely eliminated.

Soy contains goitrogens, which can frequently lead to depressed thyroid function.

Most soybeans (over 80%) are genetically modified, and they contain one of the highest levels of pesticide contamination of all foods.

• Soybeans are very high in phytates, which prevent the absorption of minerals including calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc, all of which are co-factors for optimal biochemistry in your body.

The Are Some Ways to Safely Enjoy Soy

There are a few types of soy that are healthy, and all of them are fermented. After a long fermentation process, the phytic acid and antinutrient levels of the soybeans are reduced, and their beneficial properties — such as the creation of natural probiotics — become available to your digestive system.

It also greatly reduces the levels of dangerous isoflavones, which are similar to estrogen in their chemical structure, and can interfere with the action of your own estrogen production.

So if you enjoy soy and want to eat it without damaging your health — and in fact gain health benefits — the following are all healthy options:

    1. Natto, fermented soybeans with a sticky texture and strong, cheese-like flavor. It’s loaded with nattokinase, a very powerful blood thinner. Natto is actually a food I eat regularly, as it is the highest source of vitamin K2 on the planet and has a very powerful beneficial bacteria, bacillus subtilis. It can usually be found in any Asian grocery store.

2. Tempeh, a fermented soybean cake with a firm texture and nutty, mushroom-like flavor.

3. Miso, a fermented soybean paste with a salty, buttery texture (commonly used in miso soup).

4. Soy sauce: traditionally, soy sauce is made by fermenting soybeans, salt and enzymes, however be wary because many varieties on the market are made artificially using a chemical process.

Remember, though, that all processed soy products — soy milk, soy burgers, soy cheese, soy energy bars, soy ice cream, soy protein powders, etc. — are not health foods. And to truly avoid all types of damaging soy products, you need to avoid processed foods as the vast majority of them contain soy ingredients.

“The best — and maybe the only — way to completely avoid soy in the food supply is to buy whole foods and prepare them ourselves,” Dr. Daniel says. “For those who prefer to buy readymade and packaged products, I offer a free Special Report, “Where the Soys Are,” on my Web site. It lists the many “aliases” that soy might be hiding under in ingredient lists — words like “bouillon,” “natural flavor” and “textured plant protein.”

The basics of healthy eating — unprocessed, fermented, and fresh foods are ideal, while processed foods should be avoided — apply to soy as well, so stick to these tenets and you’ll be on the right track.

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