New Type 1 diabetes treatment restores production of insulin.


  • Type 1 diabetes is a condition where the immune system attacks insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, stopping them producing the hormone
  • Experts found injecting immune cells into the body protects the pancreas
  • Treatment restored the production of insulin for a year and was safe
  • Could end need for injections and prevent the disease from progressing

Millions of people with Type 1 diabetes may be freed from injecting themselves with insulin every day after a breakthrough discovery.

Scientists have found that injecting billions of immune cells into the body restores the production of the hormone, which breaks down sugar in the blood.

Experts said the treatment, which lasted for a year, could be a ‘game-changer’ for people with the disease.

Millions of people with Type 1 diabetes may be freed from inject themselves with insulin every day, scientists claim. They found injecting billions of immune cells into the body restores the production of the hormone 

Millions of people with Type 1 diabetes may be freed from inject themselves with insulin every day, scientists claim. They found injecting billions of immune cells into the body restores the production of the hormone

Diabetes is a life-long health condition where there is too much glucose in the blood because the body cannot use it properly.

Insulin is the hormone secreted by cells in the pancreas which breaks down sugar in the blood.

Healthy people have millions of ‘T-reg’ cells which stop the body’s immune system attacking these insulin-producing cells in the pancreas.

However, people with Type 1 diabetes do not have enough T-reg cells to protect the pancreas, and so it is attacked and stops making enough insulin.

Everyone diagnosed with Type 1 is treated with insulin, and the majority inject themselves with insulin multiple times daily.

Now, Californian researchers have found that T-reg cells can be removed from the body and increased by 1,500 times in a laboratory, the Telegraph reports.

Then, they can be put back into the bloodstream and will function normally to protect the insulin-producing cells.

A trial of 14 people found the treatment is safe – and lasts up to 12 months.

The people in the study were aged between 18 and 43 and had recently been diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes.

Doctors removed around two cups of blood containing two to four million T-reg cells.

These were separated from other cells and allowed to replicate in a laboratory, before being infused back into the blood.

 Insulin is the hormone secreted by cells in the pancreas (pictured) which breaks down sugar in the blood. People with type 1 diabetes stop making insulin as the body's immune system attacks cells in the pancreas

 Insulin is the hormone secreted by cells in the pancreas (pictured) which breaks down sugar in the blood. People with type 1 diabetes stop making insulin as the body’s immune system attacks cells in the pancreas

A quarter were found to be there after 12 months, and they were able to protect the pancreas so it could continue to produce insulin.

Professor Jeffrey Bluestone, of the University of California San Francisco, told The Telegraph: ‘This could be a game-changer.

‘By using T-regs to “re-educate” the immune system, we may be able to really change the course of this disease.

This could be a game-changer
Professor Jeffrey Bluestone, of the University of California San Francisco

‘We expect T-regs to be an important part of diabetes therapy in the future.’

The therapy could stop the need from regular insulin injections.

It could also stop the disease from progressing, leading to organ damage, blindness and limb amputations.

The team added that the treatment could be developed in future to help people with other autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus.

It may even help people with cardiovascular disease, neurological disease and obesity.

The research was published in the journal Science Translational Medicine.

Commenting on the study, Alasdair Rankin, of Diabetes UK, said: ‘Regulating the immune system in people with Type 1 diabetes to stop insulin producing cells being killed is an important part of research towards a cure.

‘The clinical study described today is exciting early research, but it will be some time before we know if it will become an effective treatment.’

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TYPE 1 AND TYPE 2 DIABETES?

Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 develops when the insulin-producing cells in the body have been destroyed, leaving the body unable to produce any insulin at all.

Everyone diagnosed with Type 1 is treated with insulin.

Scientists don’t know why the insulin-producing cells are destroyed in people with the condition.

All those diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes are treated with insulin, pictured

All those diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes are treated with insulin, pictured

It is thought to be caused by an abnormal, autoimmune, reaction to the cells, which could be triggered by a virus or other infection.

Experts believe there is a genetic element to Type 1 diabetes.

It is more common in some parts of the world than others.

Unlike Type 2, Type 1 diabetes has nothing to do with lifestyle or weight.

The condition can develop at any age, but is usually diagnosed before the age of 40, most commonly in late childhood.

Around 10 per cent of the 3.5 million people diagnosed with diabetes in the UK have Type 1.

Type 2 diabetes

The condition develops when the body is still able to make insulin, but not enough.

It also develops when the insulin that is produced by the body does not work properly – known as insulin resistance.

Initially, Type 2 diabetes can be controlled with a healthy diet and regular exercise.

Being obese or overweight is the biggest risk factor for developing Type 2 diabetes

Being obese or overweight is the biggest risk factor for developing Type 2 diabetes

Medication is also often required and a large number of sufferers eventually progress to needing insulin.

People who are overweight and have a large waist, are more likely to be diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes – it is the biggest risk factor.

Those who have a close relative with the condition, or who are from a black or South Asian background are also at increased risk.

The condition usually affects those aged over 40, but people from South Asia are commonly affected from the age of 25.

Around 90 per cent of the 3.5 million people diagnosed with diabetes in the UK have Type 2.

In addition, there are 549,000 people who have Type 2 diabetes but don’t know they have it because they haven’t been diagnosed.

 

Menopausal hormone therapy doubles risk of breast cancer, Cancer Council NSW says, but experts disagree.


A women has a mammogram in a doctor's clinic

Concerns hormone replacement therapy could increase breast cancer risk.

Women using hormone replacement therapy to deal with the difficult symptoms of menopause are twice as likely to develop breast cancer than those who have never used it, new research has shown.

The study by Cancer Council NSW was conducted with more 2,000 menopausal women.

But it has been questioned by one women’s health expert, who has said the sample size was too small and biased.

Professor Karen Canfell, director of cancer research at Cancer Council NSW, said a significant proportion of women choose to use menopausal hormone therapy medications, which are effective at relieving specific symptoms such as hot flushes and night sweats.

“The best estimate we have suggests that around 12 per cent of women aged between 40 to 65 are using menopausal hormone therapy, so that’s about 500,000 women,” she said.

Cancer Council NSW looked at data from over 1,200 women with breast cancer and over 800 women who did not have breast cancer.

“What we found was that in women who are currently using menopausal hormone therapy … the risk of developing invasive breast cancer was doubled,” Professor Canfell said.

She said it was the first time this had been examined on a large-scale in Australia, and that the finding was significant.

“The good news is that in our study, as in international studies, what we found was that the risks are not elevated in women after they stop using menopausal hormone therapy,” Professor Canfell said.

The study indicated that the risk would return to baseline within five years of stopping the hormonal therapies, while international evidence suggested it could take two years or less.

Study refuted as ‘crude’ and ‘simplistic’

Professor Susan Davis, the director of the Women’s Health Research Program at Monash University, said she had concerns about the way the study was conducted.

“It really is a fairly simplistic and, I’d say, crude analysis because of the way the information was collected,” Professor Davis said.

“In this study the observations were from women who had had breast cancer who decided that they wanted to complete a questionnaire.

“And we know that women who choose to participate in this study are different to those who choose not to, and that introduces a bias.”

Professor Davis said Cancer Council NSW’s results varied dramatically from much larger studies.

She said poor-quality research could misinform community and misinform clinical practice.

“So the gold standard of research is a randomised control trial and we have that from the Women’s Health Initiative, that involved 27,000 women,” Professor Davis said.

“The study that we’re discussing now involved 1,200 women who developed breast cancer and 800 control, so it’s very small.”

But Cancer Council NSW’s Professor Canfell defended the study.

“This is the same evidence that’s informed the positions of regulatory agencies worldwide: the FDA, the Medical Healthcare Regulatory Agency in the UK and Australia’s TGA,” she said.

“So we’re not saying anything that’s different from the international evidence.

“It’s just a timely reminder and further evidence, if it were needed, that menopausal hormone therapy has risks as well as benefits.”

EWAO Tesla’s legendary “tower” built and tested in Russia


This “Tesla baby” can produce enough power matching all power generation facilities in Russia when lightning is discharged onto a platform.

A team of Russian scientists are already working on the restoration of the “Tesla tower” for wireless power transmission, developed by Tesla in 1901-1902. The Wardenclyffe Tower, also known as the Tesla Tower, was built near the island of Manhattan (USA) at the beginning of the 1900’s but was not completed for reasons unknown so far. Some speculate that the original Tesla tower was closed due to the lack of funding. Tesla believed that this project was, if completed, one of the most effective electric systems in the world allowing him to produce and transmit electrical energy across great distances.

teslacoil-2

Nikola Tesla was a  genius, a brilliant inventor and the pioneer of wireless power transmission who in 1891, developed the principles of an antenna which is capable of supplying electricity to ANY device without the use of cables or connectors.

Tesla’s project was based on variations in the magnetic flux and, despite the incredible potential of the project, he apparently never managed to thrive beyond mere trials.

The Russian version of Tesla’s tower is located about 40 kilometers from Moscow. Currently, the research complex dubbed as the “High Voltage Marx and Tesla Generators Research Facility” is truly one of a kind and its generators can meet the energy demand for the entire country, although only for a period of around 100 microseconds.

teslacoil-9

In Russia, experiments or practices related to energy are anything but new. In the 1980’s the Soviets built a tower which “channeled” the energy created from lightning storms and use it for numerous purposes.

this incredible Russia project is unique, and it is something that you probably won’t find anywhere else in the world. Why? Because of its incredible design and even greater charging capacity.

tesla-coil-marx-generator

As we described above, this “Tesla baby” can produce enough power matching all power generation facilities in Russia when lightning is discharged onto a platform. Given the high maintenance cost, this “secret” Russian Tesla facility is not operational 24/7 but is only turned on on special occasions.

According to Rossiya-1 TV; When the facility is operating, the static charge in the “hot zone” is so large that the hair of anyone present bristles.

Watch the video. URL: https://youtu.be/vJoTw8YdHAs

Oncologist Makes Ground-breaking Discovery: How To Cure Cancer With Baking Soda


http://supertastyrecipes.com/2015/11/oncologist-makes-ground-breaking-discovery-how-to-cure-cancer-with-baking-soda/

Tulio Simoncini is a former Italian oncologist in Rome who developed a theory that all cancer is caused exclusively by a fungus called Candida albicans.

 “Cancer is a fungus, called Candida albicans, and it can be treated using sodium bicarbonate”.

His natural cancer cure is actually a simple treatment. He believes that the body and tumor needs to be alkalized, and this can be done using a cheap, common compound. This is actually sodium bicarbonate which is used to tackle the Candida, shrink the tumor and thus stop metastases.

Stay Warm This Winter With These Tricks.


Falling temps signal the start of sweater season, holiday baking extravaganzas, and pumpkin spice everything, but they also bring an unfriendly guest: sky-high heating bills. Americans spend anywhere from $600 to $2,000 to heat their homes in the winter—natural gas is typically least expensive, while electricity puts the biggest dent in your wallet. It’s enough to make us wonder: What ever happened to a good old (read: cheap) wood fire?

Whether you’re stuck in a drafty office building all day or simply want to slash that heating bill, there are plenty of low-tech ways to keep warm without cranking up the thermostat or busting out the space heater.

Drinking something warm raises your core body temp. But there’s alittle-known, crucial caveat: You have to be bundled. The hot bev makes you sweat, and if that sweat is allowed to evaporate, it will actually make your colder. You’ll want to skip the hot toddy too. Don’t be fooled by the warm, fuzzy feelings you get with the first few sips: Alcohol actually lowers your body temperature.

2. Become a baker.

Just because you’ve vowed to stay away from that thermostat dial doesn’t mean your apartment has to feel arctic. Luckily your home has another heat source: the oven. Using it will heat up your kitchen quickly. Plus you’ll be left with a fresh-from-the-oven batch of chocolate chip cookies to combat any residual chills.

3. Light up.

Obviously, lighting a fire is a good way to keep warm, but you don’t need a roaring bonfire to heat things up. Light a few candles around your immediate workspace or at the dinner table to keep those finger tips toasty. You can even DIY your own tealight heater. The added ambiance doesn’t hurt either.

4. Get close.

Cozying up with your special someone is a surefire way to warm up. For optimal heat sharing, ditch the layers. It may seem counterintuitive, but skin-on-skin contact is the most efficient way to share body heat—it’s also the most fun.

5. Break out the hot water bottle.

Skip the electric blanket, which will jack up your electric bill, in favor of a more low-tech bed warmer: the hot water bottle. If you don’t want to run to the drug store to buy one, you can also heat up a package of dried beans or rice in the microwave for a minute, wrap it in a pillowcase, and slide it between your sheets for a few hours of warmth.

6. Cover your floors.

Nothing gives you the chills like walking around on freezing floors, and no amount of fuzzy socks can really protect you from that ice-cold bathroom tile in the a.m. Cover any bare floors with rugs this winter, and you’ll be walking warmer all season.

7. Get a move on.

There’s a reason you start sweating when you exercise. Physical activity raises your heart rate, gets your blood pumping, and raises your core temperature. Just because you’re taking a rest day doesn’t mean you have to sit around like an ice sculpture. Go for a walk, do some jumping jacks, or use this as an excuse to finally clean your bathroom. Moving around in a confined space will warm you up in no time.

8. Pitch a tent.

Canopy beds make any bedroom feel like it’s fit for royalty, but they were also designed to keep you toasty as you sleep. They help trap your body heat before it escapes to the rafters. If you don’t have a canopy bed, you can still use the same principle—just throw the covers over your head. Creating a confined space will keep you nice and cozy all night.

9. Let the light in.

Use nature’s heater to your advantage by keeping your curtains open whenever the sun is up. Conversely, close ‘em at nightfall. The thicker your curtains are, the more effectively they’ll act as insulators and stop heat from escaping.

10. Get steamy.

Humid air feels warmer than dry air, so keep your humidifier running throughout the day during the winter. You can also add a little humidity to your home by showering with the bathroom door open and letting your clothes air dry—every little bit helps.

11. Do the laundry.

There’s nothing like clothes fresh out of the dryer to keep you warm. Use the freezing temps as your excuse to finally do that pile of laundry, then bask in the post-dryer warmth.

12. Cover your cap.

Science has proven moms everywhere wrong—you don’t actually lose most of your body heat through your head. But you should still listen to the woman and throw on a hat when it’s cold out—a chilly scalp does cause your core body temp to drop faster than it normally would. So put on your favorite beanie and stay toasty for a little longer.

13. Strip down.

Your doors that is. They’re a major source of drafts, especially in older houses or apartments that tend not be super weatherproof. The good news? Weather stripping (or sealing) isn’t that hard to do as long as you’re ready to channel your inner handyman.

14. Reverse the fan.

If you’re up for a little science experiment, you can harness the physics of your ceiling fan in order to keep warm. Since warm air rises, you can use your ceiling fan to push it back down towards the ground. Simply reverse the direction of your fan and keep it on low so it doesn’t stir up a big breeze.

15. Line your radiator.

If you have a radiator—especially one mounted on an outside-facing wall—you’re probably losing a lot of heat to the chilly outdoors. Line the space between the wall and the radiator with heavy duty tin foil to keep the heat where you want it.

16. Think warm thoughts.

You know that incredibly annoying thing your parents told you every time you complained about the cold as a kid? Turns out they were on to something. Researchers have shown that core body temperature can be controlled by the brain. Excuse us while we daydream about white sand and sunshine.

Why Does Turkey Make You Sleepy?


It’s common to take a nap after the huge Thanksgiving feast and blame your drowsiness on the natural sleeping potion chemical tryptophan, found in turkey meat. But does turkey make you sleepy?

Turns out, it’s only marginally true. What makes you sleepy after Thanksgiving dinner is any combination of booze, bad conversation and a carbohydrate-heavy meal, but not just the turkey itself.

Tryptophan is an essential amino acid that the body uses to build certain proteins and it can, although somewhat indirectly, induce sleep. The body uses tryptophan in a multi-step process to make serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps regulate sleep.

It’s true that turkey contains tryptophan, but it’s not as loaded with the stuff as you might think: all meat contains comparable levels of the amino acid, so it shouldn’t make you any sleepier than, say, bacon. In fact, cheddar cheese, gram for gram, has more. Cheddar isn’t the most exciting cheese in the fridge, but no one connects it with sleep. Turkey gets singled out for no other reason than being eaten during the biggest meal of the year.

In essence, any big meal with any food containing tryptophan can cause sleepiness. The real culprits are all those carbohydrates from potatoes, stuffing, vegetables, bread and pie. The massive intake of carb-heavy calories causes the release of insulin, which triggers muscles to suck up most of the amino acids from the blood except for tryptophan.

With all other amino acids swept out of the bloodstream, tryptophan has no trouble making its way to the brain and influencing the production of serotonin, the real sleep-inducer. Whether its from turkey, ham or any meat or cheese, a cocktail of tryptophan and carbohydrates are the real reason behind the post-dinner zzzzzzzz’s.

How eating red meat could trigger a STROKE


  • Study reveals red meat is linked to a risk of suffering ischemic stroke
  • People who ate 93g a day were 47% more likely to suffer the condition
  • Caused by a blockage in the blood vessels which supply the brain
  • Researchers noted it was only red meat that was linked to high stroke risk 

The more red meat a person indulges in, the more likely they are to suffer a life-threatening stroke, experts have warned.

The protein increases the chance a person will experience a blockage in the blood vessels that supply the brain – known as an ischemic stroke.

Researchers in Germany found those individuals who ate the most red meat had a 47 per cent higher risk of the condition, compared with those who ate the smallest quantities.

Dr Bernhard Haring at the University of Wurzburg in Germany, offered some reassurance.

He said: ‘It’s ok to eat red meat – preferably lean red meat – as long as you limit the amount.’

People who ate the most red meat had a 47 per cent higher chance of suffering an ischemic stroke - the most common form of the condition - than those who ate the smallest quantities of red meat, bacon and sausages, researchers at the University of Wurzburg discovered

People who ate the most red meat had a 47 per cent higher chance of suffering an ischemic stroke – the most common form of the condition – than those who ate the smallest quantities of red meat, bacon and sausages, researchers at the University of Wurzburg discovered

Protein from poultry, seafood or vegetable sources like nuts and legumes wasn’t associated with any added risk.

Researchers analysed data on around 11,000 middle-aged people who didn’t have other risk factors for strokes such as diabetes or heart disease, and followed half of them for 23 years.

Past studies have raised questions over links between a high-protein diet and strokes.

But, Dr Haring said this new piece of research, suggests red meat in particular may pose a danger.

To assess the link between protein and stroke risk, Dr Haring and his colleagues reviewed data from diet questionnaires completed by people living in the US, aged 45 to 64, starting in 1987.

They followed them through until 2011, to see how many people had suffered a stroke.

The study participants were divided into five groups, based on how much protein and what type they consumed.

For instance, the bottom-fifth averaged around 49g of protein a day, representing less than 13 per cent of total calories.

Meanwhile, the top-fifth averaged 93g of protein a day, equating to 23 per cent of total calories.

‘This study really tells us that what we eat matters for our future cardiovascular health
Dr Jennifer Dearborn-Tomazos, Yale University

Compared to participants with high protein consumption, those who ate less protein on average at the start of the study were more likely to be black, current smokers and less likely to have high school diplomas or a regular exercise routine.

The people who ate less protein were also less likely to be obese or take cholesterol-lowering medications.

There were no major differences in age gender, or total calories consumed among participants who ate different amounts of protein.

During a median follow-up of 22.7 years, there were 699 strokes among 11,601 participants.

The highest intake of processed meats like bacon, sausage and jerky was linked to a 24 per cent higher risk of strokes

Meanwhile the highest consumption of red meat was tied to a 41 per cent increased risk, compared to people in the bottom-fifth for consumption of those items.

When the researchers looked just at men, the highest consumers of red and processed meats had a 62 per cent higher stroke risk than men who ate the least.

An ischemic stroke is triggered by a blockage in the blood vessels that supply the brain, illustrated

An ischemic stroke is triggered by a blockage in the blood vessels that supply the brain, illustrated

Eating more eggs was linked to a 41 per cent greater risk of hemorrhagic strokes – a less common type that is caused by a ruptured blood vessel in the brain.

But only red meats were tied to ischemic strokes, the most common kind.

One limitation of the study is that researchers only had data on protein intake at two points in time, which the authors acknowledge might fail to account for changes in eating habits over the years.

Because the study was based on observation only and didn’t randomly assign some people to eat red meat while others abstained, it isn’t possible to determine how diet changes might help reduce the risk of future strokes, noted Dr Jennifer Dearborn-Tomazos, a neurology researcher at Yale University School of Medicine in New Haven, Connecticut.

It’s possible, for example, that people who eat a lot of red meat also do other things that increase the risk of strokes, like not eating enough vegetables, Dr Dearborn-Tomazos, who wasn’t involved in the study,told Reuters.

Even so, the study findings linking red meat to stroke risk after accounting for how much fat, carbohydrates and fiber people consumed supports traditionally held beliefs that red meat and saturated fats may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, she said.

‘This study really tells us that what we eat matters for our future cardiovascular health,’ Dr Dearborn-Tomazos said.

 

Nuclear waste storage sites in rock salt may be more vulnerable than previously thought


Nuclear waste storage sites in rock salt may be more vulnerable than previously thought

Research from The University of Texas at Austin shows that rock salt, used by Germany and the United States as a subsurface container for radioactive waste, might not be as impermeable as thought or as capable of isolating nuclear waste from groundwater in the event that a capsule or storage vessel failed.

A team of researchers from the university has used field testing and 3-D micro-CT imaging of laboratory experiments to show that rock salt can become permeable. Their findings, published in the Nov. 27 issue of Science, has implications for oil and gas operations, and, most notably, storage. The team includes researchers from the university’s Cockrell School of Engineering and Jackson School of Geosciences.

“What this new information tells us is that the potential for permeability is there and should be a consideration when deciding where and how to store nuclear waste,” said Maša Prodanovic, assistant professor in the Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering. “If it’s an existing nuclear waste storage site, you may want to re-evaluate it with this new information.”

Salt generally blocks fluid flow at shallow depth, a feature that allows oil reservoirs to form. But scientists have long suspected that salt becomes permeable at greater depth. Jackson School professor James E. Gardner confirmed this theory through laboratory experiments with synthetic rock salt.

Cockrell School doctoral student Soheil Ghanbarzadeh tested the idea against field data from natural rock salt. During summer internships he examined oil and brine distributions in rock salt in a set of 48 hydrocarbon wells owned and operated by Statoil. The observed fluid distributions confirm that salt indeed becomes permeable at greater depth. However, the researchers were surprised to find that fluids were sometimes able to flow through the salt at shallow depth.

In the study, they explain that deformation of rock salt may be the culprit. Deformation can stretch the tiny isolated pockets of brine that form between and link them into a connected pore network that allows fluid to move.

Although this work was originally motivated by the desire to evaluate rock salt as a hydrocarbon reservoir seal for the oil industry, the conclusions may have important implications for . Previous work on salt permeability has focused on the cracks induced by the creation of the itself. The observations reported by the study, however, demonstrate that undisturbed rock salt can become permeable.

“The critical takeaway is that salt can develop permeability, even in absence of mining activity,” said assistant professor Marc A. Hesse of the Jackson School’s Department of Geological Sciences. “Further work is necessary to study the quantity of flow that can occur.”

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, in Carlsbad, New Mexico, stores low-level nuclear waste in salt beds beneath the ground. However, high-level waste from the nation’s nuclear energy sector is stored at the power plants in pools or dry casks, methods that are considered temporary solutions. For decades there has been a proposal to build a permanent central repository under Nevada’s Yucca Mountains, but that proposal has stalled because of political and regulatory hurdles. This has renewed interest in rock salt as an alternative permanent storage solution for high-level nuclear waste. In this context, the findings of the team from UT Austin provide a timely reminder that is a dynamic material over long timescales.

Ghanbarzadeh hopes that “our discovery encourages others to ask questions about the safety of current and future disposal sites.”

Don’t forget plankton in climate change models, says study


Don't forget plankton in climate change models, says study
Phytoplankton absorb as much carbon dioxide as tropical rainforests and so understanding the way they respond to a warming climate is crucial. 

A new study from the University of Exeter, published in the journal Ecology Letters, found that phytoplankton – microscopic water-borne plants – can rapidly evolve tolerance to elevated water temperatures. Globally, phytoplankton absorb as much carbon dioxide as tropical rainforests and so understanding the way they respond to a warming climate is crucial.

Phytoplankton subjected to warmed water initially failed to thrive but it took only 45 days, or 100 generations, for them to evolve tolerance to temperatures expected by the end of the century. With their newfound tolerance came an increase in the efficiency in which they were able to convert into new biomass.

The results show that evolutionary responses in to warming can be rapid and might offset some of the predicted declines in the ability of aquatic ecosystems to absorb carbon dioxide as the planet warms.

Dan Padfield a PhD student at the Environment and Sustainability Institute at the University of Exeter’s Penryn Campus in Cornwall said: “Our findings suggest that evolution could play a key role in shaping how aquatic ecosystems respond to . The phytoplankton in our study adapted to warmer water in the lab and evolved the ability to capture more .

“Our results demonstrate that evolutionary responses of phytoplankton to warming should be taken into account when developing models of how climate change will affect . This experimental work provides the empirical basis for incorporating evolution into the models used to forecast future ocean productivity.”

The researchers exposed Chlorella vulgaris, a model species of phytoplankton, to temperatures of 20 – 33 degrees. Initially rates of growth peaked at 30 degrees, while 33 degrees was stressful and limited growth. After 100 generations (45 days) growth increased to levels expected from the exponential effects of temperature on physiological rates, showing that the algae had evolved the ability to thrive at the increased temperatures.

The underlying mechanism for the ability to tolerate warmer temperatures was an increase in the efficiency in which the alga was able to convert carbon dioxide into new biomass by reducing rates of respiration (production of carbon dioxide). It is this shift in the relative rates of respiration and photosynthesis that enabled the phytoplankton to cope with warmer temperatures.

While these experiments focused on a single species and strain of phytoplankton, the researchers believe that the rapid evolution of carbon-use efficiency will apply to other species of phytoplankton and substantially improve models describing ecological and biogeochemical effects of climate change.

The Brain’s Capacity to Shield Us from True Reality


http://www.wakingtimes.com/2014/10/24/brains-capacity-shield-us-true-reality/

The Afterlife Dysfunction explores how research is aimed at understanding the workings of the brain and states of consciousness and how our brains use time and space as a way of making sense of our surroundings. It end with an interesting perspective and visual of what true reality might really look like.

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