Gingko Biloba: Boost Memory, Regenerate Neurons with This Ancient Plant.

The world’s most ancient tree has something to teach us, and give to us, as far as promoting brain health and longevity goes.

Boost Memory, Regenerate Neurons with This Ancient PlantBoost Memory, Regenerate Neurons with This Ancient Plant - Ginko

Considering the fact that gingko biloba is the oldest known tree in existence (deemed for this reason a “living fossil“), isn’t it poetic how this plant has also been used to promote long life as both a food and medicine in traditional cultures as well?

Clearly, this plant has figured out a way to optimize longevity in face of many of the same adversities humans face, e.g. predators, infections, fluctuations in nutrient availability and climate, etc. And so, by consuming that plant, could it not lend some of its power and (phytochemical) wisdom to those imbibing it, as was commonly believed by ‘pre-scientific’ cultures throughout the world who considered plants their “allies”?

In ancient times, if something worked in practice, it was considered validated by that fact. This was no academic affair, as even a slight advantage or disadvantage in immunity or metabolism could translate into life or death consequences. Of course, they didn’t have the luxury nor means to employ randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trials, before trying out a medical intervention.

And yet today, we have the lens of science to plumb the depths of traditional approaches to healing, in order to ascertain the many ways a natural substance may protect against disease as well as the plausible mechanisms with which they do so. And this enterprise has gifted us with a massive database of information that can help us to attain even greater appreciation for the power of traditional medicine to not only heal, but do so in a way that is often superior to drugs within the conventional pharmacopeia. Gingko biloba, I believe, is an ideal example of this…

The Power of Ginkgo Biloba Revealed Through Science

The first time I really started to grasp Gingko biloba’s power to heal the brain occurred when I stumbled upon a 2006 paper published in the European Journal of Neurology which described a 24-week randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study showing an extract of this plant was as clinically effective as the blockbuster donepezil for mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease:

“Our study suggests that there is no evidence of relevant differences in the efficacy of EGb 761 [gingko biloba] and donepezil in the treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer’s dementia, so the use of both substances can be justified. In addition, this study contributes to establish the efficacy and tolerability of the Ginkgo biloba special extract E.S. in the dementia of the Alzheimer type with special respect to moderately severe stages. “[i]

Amazingly, this was not the first study to ascertain significant medicinal properties in gingko biloba. In fact, if you peruse the database on on gingko you will find it has been studied to have value in over 100 different diseases, and has been identified to have at least 50 distinct beneficial physiological actions. Isn’t this amazing? Consider that the average FDA approved drug has 75 known adverse health effects for every purported health benefit.

Clearly, a plant with this much power to heal, including the ability to compete with a multi-billion dollar drug in ameliorating what is considered “incurable” neurodegenerative disease – Alzheimer’s disease – is worth exploring in greater depth.

Boost Memory, Regenerate Neurons with This Ancient PlantBoost Memory, Regenerate Neurons with This Ancient Plant - Ginko Biloba

As far as its brain regenerative properties, it has already been known that gingko can stimulate brain-derived neutrophic factor (BDNF), a protein found in the brain and in the peripheral nervous system which is essential in the regulation, growth and survival of brain cells. It is especially important for long-term memory. The ability to increase BDNF, therefore, implies it will improve brain and cognitive function. But this, alone, does not reveal the whole story on why gingko is so special, as a wide range of substances are capable of increasing BDNF, including coffee, grape seed extract, green tea, and even aerobic exercise.

Only recently a new mechanism behind gingko biloba’s brain and neurological tissue healing properties been revealed in the publication of an article in Cell and Molecular Neurobiologytitled, “Ginkgo Biloba Extract Enhances Differentiation and Performance of Neural Stem Cells in Mouse Cochlea.”

In the new study researchers tested the premise that ginkgo biloba’s wide range of benefits in the treatment of neural damage and disorders is due, in part, to its ability to positively modulate neural stem cells (NSC), a subpopulation of cells within the brain that as multipotent cells are capable of generating the many different types (phenotypes) of cells that make up the brain. Their results, using mouse cochlea-derived neural stem cells, showed a number of ways that gingko biloba exact (GBE) resulted in a beneficial effect:

“Our data showed that GBE treatment promotes cell survival and NSC proliferation. In addition, GBE treatment also increases NSC differentiation to neurons and enhances the performance of mature neural networks evident by the increased frequency of calcium oscillation. Moreover, neurite outgrowth is also dramatically increased upon GBE treatment. Overall, our study demonstrates the positive regulatory role of GBE in NSC proliferation and differentiation into functional neurons in vitro, supporting the potential therapeutic use of GBE in hearing loss recovery.”

When one figures in the broad range of ways in which gingko can promote brain health, including increasing circulation to the brain, reducing brain inflammation and oxidative stress, increasing in BDNF, and now stimulating brain stem cell mediated neuronal regeneration and improved function, it may begin to provide practitioners with an ideal drug alternative in age-related neurological and cognitive problems.

It should be noted that neural stem cell stimulation and subsequent brain repair has also been observed in preclinical research with a little known component of turmeric known as ar-turmerone, which is found in whole turmeric but not in the increasingly popular 95% standardized curcumin extracts of turmeric. It is likely that many compounds we consume daily, also have brain regenerative properties. Indeed, we wrote about some of these “nerve regenerating” natural substances in our article 6 Bodily Tissues Regenerated Through Nutrition, if you would like to learn more.

[Note: Gingko biloba seeds and to a lesser extent leaves contain naturally occurring gingkotoxin, which is a neurotoxin structurally related to pyroxidine (vitamin B6) and therefore capable of blocking its activity as an anti-vitamin. While the toxicological significance of gingkotoxin in leaves in the amounts found in dietary supplements is considered relatively insignificant, caution should be exercised in the selection of a brand. Ideally, the company is assaying gingkotoxin levels assuring the lowest possible level available.]

Is Seaweed the Next Superfood?

I stared for a while at the placid face of Long Island Sound before I could make out Bren Smith’s farm. It was a warm, calm morning in September. Sixty buoys bobbed in rows like the capped heads of synchronized swimmers. It wasn’t until Smith cut the engine of his beat-up boat, Mookie, that I knew for sure we had arrived. The farm, a three-acre patch of sea off Stony Creek, Connecticut, starts six feet underwater and descends almost to the ocean floor. From the buoys hang ropes, and from the ropes hang broad, slippery blades of sugar kelp, which have the color and sheen of wet Kodak film.

At first, the local fishermen thought that Smith was growing some kind of marine hemp; that seemed cool. When they found out it was seaweed, they ribbed him relentlessly. Smith, in any case, prefers to call his produce “sea vegetables.” He also raises mussels, scallops, clams, and oysters in lantern nets shaped like accordions and stacked pyramids. He pulled up a lantern net full of twenty thousand black-and-orange scallops, two months old, the size of M&M’s. The net was covered in murky, greenish clumps of seaweed, crawling with sea squirts, little crabs, and translucent shrimp. “The farm is a reef for hundreds of species,” he said, cutting off a hank of seaweed—Gracilaria—for me to try. It crunched, filling my mouth with the taste of lobster juice. “This is what you want to see,” he said. “This is good, restorative ocean farming.”
Seaweed, which requires neither fresh water nor fertilizer, is one of the world’s most sustainable and nutritious crops. It absorbs dissolved nitrogen, phosphorous, and carbon dioxide directly from the sea—its footprint is negative—and proliferates at a terrific rate. Smith’s kelp can grow as much as three-quarters of an inch a day, maturing from pinhead to ten-foot plant in the course of a winter, between hurricane seasons. It is resilient, built to take a lashing, but if a storm wipes out the crop he can just start over. Every year, he harvests between thirty and sixty tons of it, about the same per-acre yield as a potato farmer. Plentiful, healthy, and virtuous, kelp is the culinary equivalent of an electric car. “You’re not just gaining nutrition, you’re also gaining absolution from guilt,” Mark Bomford, the director of the Yale Sustainable Food Program, says. “This is your get-out-of-anxiety-free card.”

As industrial land-based agriculture becomes increasingly untenable—environmentally destructive and at the same time vulnerable to drought and changing weather—we are being pushed out to sea. Smith says, “The question is, Are we going to do it right or wrong?” He calls his system, which uses the entire water column, a “3-D farm,” and he would like to see it become the dominant form of aquaculture. He would like to see kelp—a potential source of human food, biofuel, and animal feed—supplant crops like corn and soy. In October, his farm design, which he has made open-source, won a prize given by the Buckminster Fuller Institute for innovative solutions to urgent global problems. Not long before that, he was honored by Bill Clinton at the Clinton Global Initiative meeting in New York, where he showed up without realizing that he had a twelve-inch fillet knife in his backpack.

But Smith’s ambitions extend beyond reshaping an industry. In his vision, kelp farming can rehabilitate the ocean’s threatened ecosystems, mitigate the effects of climate change, and revive coastal economies. With thirty thousand dollars of start-up money and a boat, he figures, an out-of-work fisherman can make seventy thousand dollars a year. “There are no jobs on a dead planet,” he likes to say. Two years ago, he started GreenWave, a nonprofit through which he trains fishermen to be kelp farmers. Smith plans to form a twenty-five-farm co-operative revolving around a seafood hub near New Haven, with processing equipment, a seed bank and hatchery, value-added venders making kelp smoothies, and a Beyond Fish market, where the only fish available will be barramundi, fed on seaweed. In the often overwhelmingly grim conversation about ocean health—some scientists predict fishless oceans by 2050—Smith’s hopeful narrative is good for morale, promising that we can eat and thrive in an ever more populous and warming world. “It’s important to know that there’s a way to still sustainably work within the ocean,” May Boeve, the director of the climate-focussed advocacy group, says. “It’s not a lost cause.”

All Smith needs to do is to invent a new cuisine based on filter feeders and seaweed. He is starting with the East Coast offices of Google. “I use ocean vegetables at the center of the plate and garnish the plate with those restorative water-cleansing shellfish,” Michael Wurster, the culinary director, told me. “My users are conscious about what they eat, where it comes from, and how it was raised.” For others, though, there are some challenges. Sliminess is not a property that most Americans appreciate in food. “What is that disgusting oobleck?” was the comment that greeted the slick heap of kelp spaghetti I served to a preschooler not long ago. Howard Fischer, a hedge-fund manager who personally invests in regenerative agriculture and restricts himself to foods that meet those criteria, told me, “People who are eating with their minds first will be the early adopters, but there are no guarantees here.” When I asked Boeve about her taste for kelp, she said, “I need a little more time with it. I’m more of a bivalve person myself.”
The morning after taking me to the farm, Smith was back in Stony Creek to meet a fisherman he was recruiting to grow kelp for the co-op. Smith, who is five feet five, bald-headed, and bulk-shouldered, like the lobsters he spent his adolescence hauling from the sea in traps, was wearing dirty jeans, suspenders, and a blue T-shirt that said “Kelp Is the New Kale.” He was drinking water from an old whiskey bottle. He has epilepsy, triggered by two things he likes and one that he can’t avoid: alcohol, caffeine, and not getting enough sleep. Before he was a full-time farmer, he drove a lumber truck and sold pieces of the Coney Island boardwalk stencilled with obscure words like “petrichor” (the smell of rain on dry earth) and “limerence” (tingly infatuation) to tourists in Union Square. Once, while he was working at a table saw, a board flew in his face and knocked him out. He still has a scar running across the bridge of his nose. After the accident, he found that he had developed an allergy to shellfish. He has never learned to swim.
The fisherman, David Blaney, had driven down from Point Judith, Rhode Island, where his family has been farming and fishing the coast for three hundred years. His people used to fertilize their crops with seaweed, insulate their houses with it, and eat it in hard times. He is sixty-seven, white-bearded, taciturn; around his neck he wore the tooth of a mako shark that tried to kill him when he caught it while long-lining for tuna off the Grand Banks. In the course of his career, he said, he’d trawled for cod on huge boats known as Big Green Dump Trucks and, when the cod ran out, for swill like butterfish and whiting; then there was only squid to catch, then nothing much at all. “The past ten years, the way fishing’s been, I’ve branched out,” Blaney said, stepping onto Smith’s boat. “Marine survey, marine safety. But I’ve got nephews and kids myself who would like to go back to making a living from the sea.”

Smith threaded his boat through the Thimbles, a collection of tiny private islands, some big enough for only a single house. It was low tide. An osprey sat on top of a long stick that served as a mooring. We passed the rusty barge where Smith proposed to his wife, Tamanna Rahman, a graduate student in nursing at Yale, last year. Smith and Blaney talked shop: to anchor the buoys, Smith recommended mafia blocks and mushrooms; Blaney, a diver, thought he might secure them with giant screws. When they got out to the farm, Smith stopped the boat and, using a hook, hauled up a line of kelp. He explained the process of thinning out the growth. “It’s just like, you know, farming,” he said, abashed before a man who had spent his career chasing monsters. “The smaller ones we sell as baby leaf kelp—it’s real thin, sort of translucent, and has a subtler, slightly sweeter base.”

“I’ve got a lot of fishermen looking at me like, You’re gonna do what?” Blaney said. “The other day in the coffee shop, someone referred to me as Captain Kelp, and I’m thinking, I don’t think I like that.” But, he said, with the warmer water driving lobsters from southern New England and the glory days of fish-hunting over, some of his skeptical colleagues might be persuaded to follow him. (Two-thirds of Rhode Island’s commercial lobstermen have left the business in the past decade.) He had credibility, he said, by virtue of still being alive after decades at sea. “Kelp noodles—it’s an economical and clean way to produce good protein,” he said. “What’s the problem?”
Blaney pulled off a piece of kelp and bit into it. To most fishermen, seaweed is a net-fouler, inimical. He chewed thoughtfully. “I know this old captain who used to say, ‘Now we’re going to shake weed till our heads fall off,’ ” he said.

Smith said, “It might be better than the fish in the net.”

In kelp, Smith has found what he calls “ecological redemption.” He was born in 1972 in Newfoundland, where his American parents had gone during the Vietnam War. His father, a linguist, wrote one of the first contemporary Inuttut dictionaries. His mother, who graduated from the Sorbonne, raised him and his sister and later became the managing editor of the French-textbook division at Houghton Mifflin. When Smith was in grade school, the family moved to Massachusetts; his parents divorced, and Smith, then fourteen, dropped out of school and moved in with his girlfriend and her mother in Section 8 housing. He worked as an emergency-room janitor on the night shift at a hospital, dabbled in selling acid and cocaine, and hung out on the docks with Hell’s Angels. “Bren was a tough kid who could take care of himself,” Sylvia Madrigal, his mother’s partner, wrote to me in an e-mail. (His mother died in December.) “The more dangerous the task, the better.” Talking up his “Newfie” roots, Smith found it easy to get work on boats. He started on a lobster boat out of Lynn, up the coast from Boston. It went out every day at 3:30 A.M. and returned at 5 P.M., after which he’d bring lobsters to his mother’s office and sell them at a markup.

At seventeen, Smith says, he went to Alaska, where he fished for cod in the Bering Sea and in illegal waters off the coast of Russia; the cod went to McDonald’s. “We were throwing millions of pounds of bycatch over because we only had permits for a couple of kinds of fish,” he told me. “It was like a sea of death around the boat. I’m not an environmentalist”—he considers conservation alone to be an inadequate response to climate change, and insensitive to people’s need to eat and work—“but I loved the sea, and wanted to spend my whole life working at sea. It was just clearly not sustainable.” When the cod stocks crashed and Newfoundland’s job market went with them, Smith saw it as the beginning of the end of wild fish. He returned to Newfoundland to try aquaculture, which promised both a solution to a food problem and a familiar way of life, but he was quickly disillusioned. “It was Iowa pig farming at sea,” he said.
Between fishing gigs, Smith finished high school and enrolled at the University of Vermont; he graduated in 1996 with a degree in English and religion. By 2000, he was living in an Airstream in the woods near New Haven, trying to feed himself by growing fish from pet-store stock in plastic tubs. One day, he read in the paper that some of the historic shelling leases near the Thimble Islands—so-called king’s grants, which had gone fallow after an oyster die-off in the nineties—would be made available. He got one, for fifty dollars an acre, and dropped some oyster cages on the seabed. During the next decade, he built a business, Thimble Island Oyster Company, around the allure of artisanally produced, eco-friendly filter feeders from an idyllic spot. He added clams, scallops, and mussels, and started a community-supported fishery program, with subscription customers.

Then came the one-two punch of Hurricanes Irene and Sandy, with storm surges that buried his entire crop in three feet of mud. He lost years’ worth of produce and half his gear, and nearly drowned trying to recover the rest. “I decided that this was the new normal—I was going to exist in extreme weather and changing water temperatures,” he said. “I started searching around for different species to grow and different ways of growing them.” He pulled the lantern nets off the seafloor and hung them in the water column so they could swing in a storm and not get swamped. He drew a line around the farm: he would grow only species, like his filter feeders, that were delicious and restorative.

That is how he found kelp. Charles Yarish, a leading seaweed expert at the University of Connecticut who has successfully manipulated the life cycle of sugar kelp and studies its bioextractive capabilities, agreed to breed the plants in his lab. Yarish’s lab is a library of species, a series of chilly walk-ins with brightly lit shelves of flasks holding acid-green tendrils, mossy puffballs, scab-red tufts. Smith picks up the seedlings, on thin twine wrapped around PVC pipe, and unspools them on his underwater lines when the water temperature drops into the low fifties, usually by late fall. There could come a day when the water in the Sound is too warm for kelp to thrive; Smith will adjust. “It wasn’t just adding another species,” he told me. “It was the beginning of adding another ten thousand species.”

One afternoon, Smith invited me to the house that he and Rahman recently bought in Fairhaven, a neighborhood of New Haven that was once known as Clam Town, back when it was the nexus of the booming East Coast oyster trade. The house, a Victorian Gothic overlooking the river, was built in 1875 by an oyster kingpin; there is a shucking room in the basement, and Smith and Rahman still find shells in their garden. Smith took off his boots on the back porch before entering the kitchen, where Rahman was cleaning mussels at the sink. Her family is from Bangladesh; she grew up in L.A.’s Koreatown, eating the kinds of things that Smith pulls off his nets. She met Smith at a dinner party thrown by one of his customers. “Bren tried to woo me with his clams,” she said. “I made this amazing Thai dish and then an hour later broke out in hives. It was my first allergic reaction.” They have EpiPens placed strategically around their house.
Soon it was time to eat, at a table laden with seaweed and its cohabitants. There were bright-green flakes of roasted sea lettuce on cucumber, seasoned with salt that Smith harvests from the farm. The butter was flecked with yellow-green chunks of kelp, like the terrazzo floor in an old bank. Rahman found a tiny slipper shell in her mussels; Smith told her she could eat it, a bonus delicacy. The main course was fra diavolo, but instead of linguine it was made with kelp noodles. It tasted fresh and briny, like the breath in your nose on a windy day at the beach. “There’s a learning curve with it,” Rahman said delicately. She is the foodie of the family, but it was clear that she still had her doubts.

“We’re picking one of the toughest food types to convince Americans to eat,” Smith said. “But we have no choice.” In his opinion, there is nothing inherently delicious about kale, so bitter, tough, and leathery; we learned to love the stuff because Gwyneth Paltrow told us to and Dan Barber gave us recipes. But, much as kale needed Barber and his ilk to turn it from a T-bone garnish into a way of life, kelp will need a chef to make us desire it.

Seaweed is the unlovely name for marine macroalgae, an enormous, varied family of more than ten thousand species. Most are benthic: they attach to rocks, seabed, or other seaweeds with a clamplike structure called a holdfast. They come in brown, red, and green; some iridesce. Mating, they use eyespots, release pheromones, or extrude slime. Certain species can reproduce vegetatively. They can come equipped with floats so that their leaves—called blades—stay close enough to the surface to photosynthesize. Instead of rigid cell walls like those found in land plants, seaweeds’ cell walls are rich in sugars to help them bend rather than break in swells. These sugars—known as alginates, carrageenans, and agars—thicken, bind, and emulsify toothpaste, shampoo, skin cream, and countless industrial foods, including most ice cream.

The ocean covers seventy per cent of the earth and produces less than two per cent of our food. To grow the rest, we use almost forty per cent of the world’s land and nearly three-quarters of our fresh water. “We haven’t begun to explore the ocean as a food source,” Mike Rust, an aquaculture scientist with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, told me. “If you want a glimpse of the future, the best one is Jules Verne’s ‘Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea’ ”—where Captain Nemo feeds his crew exclusively on food harvested from the ocean. Nearly half the world’s ocean-farmed product is seaweed. Most of the industry, which is worth some six billion dollars, is in Asia, where seaweed has long been welcome on the plate. “If you were to extrapolate one of those Asian seaweed farms, it becomes incredible pretty quickly,” Rust said. “You get speculative numbers, like, you could replace all agriculture with less than one per cent of the oceans’ surface area.”
Seaweed can be rich in protein, Vitamin B12, and trace minerals. Iodine and omega-3 fatty acids, which many seaweeds have in abundance, are essential for brain development; some researchers believe seaweed may have played a role in the rise of Homo sapiens. Archeologists have posited a “kelp highway,” to describe the coastal migration of the early Americans, some fourteen thousand years ago. Among modern Westerners, it has largely been treated as the food of last resort, a hedge against starvation that lingers nostalgically in corners of authentic cooking after the crisis wanes. An exception to this is purple laver (nori, in Japan), which the Welsh make into cakes and cook in bacon fat, and which the British food writer Jane Grigson said is “the one seaweed we can decently count in English or Welsh cooking as a vegetable.” Now that our brains are big enough to have devised a million ways to eat too much, seaweed could come to the rescue again. A recent study from the University of Newcastle found that the alginates in brown seaweed may inhibit the uptake of fat. Jamie Oliver, the British chef, recently lost almost thirty pounds and attributed it to seaweed, and to drinking only on weekends.

But seaweed’s most compelling property may be its ability to scrub, absorbing excess nitrogen and phosphorous, deposited in the water by agricultural runoff and wastewater, and dissolved carbon dioxide from combusted fossil fuels. (More than a quarter of the CO2 released into the atmosphere is absorbed by the ocean.) Too much nitrogen and phosphorous can cause algal blooms, which, when they go bust, leave deoxygenated dead zones where little can survive. Excess carbon contributes to ocean acidification, which dissolves coral reefs and harms shell-forming creatures on which many of the fish we eat depend. Research on aquaculture in Asia has shown that one ton of dried kelp can contain as much as a third of a ton of carbon. Rust has estimated that if we can accelerate seaweed production by fifteen per cent a year (the current growth rate is nine per cent) by 2050 that biomass will be able to remove eighteen per cent of the nitrogen and sixty-one per cent of the phosphorous contributed to the ocean by fertilizers annually, and will take up six per cent of the ocean’s emissions-related carbon.
Still, it would take decades of aggressive planting to lower atmospheric CO2 below three hundred and fifty parts per million, the level that most climatologists say is necessary to avert planetary disaster. Seaweed might have a more meaningful influence in highly sensitive areas, such as coastal waterways. In Puget Sound, where the pteropods—tiny marine snails known as sea butterflies—are showing signs of dissolution from intensifying acidity and dead zones have been spotted, a study is under way to measure how seaweed cultivation may alter the local chemistry. The study will also look at potential problems associated with seaweeds’ spongelike powers. Hijiki, the spiky brown seaweed often served at Japanese restaurants, is known to have elevated amounts of arsenic; according to Kelp Watch, which was established after the Fukushima nuclear disaster to monitor radioactive isotopes in kelp from Mexico to Alaska, kelp is a powerful concentrator of cesium. A primary goal of the research in Puget Sound is to propose ways to safely direct seaweeds into the human food stream. “We need to create a culinary bow wave for sea vegetables,” Betsy Peabody, one of the investigators, told me.

An era of seaweed eating can start to seem inevitable—penance for the golden days of corn and cars and cows. Paul Greenberg, who has written extensively about the collapse of fish stocks, told Business Insider last year, “If I could buy kelp futures, I would.” Given the exigencies of feeding the planet, it might be preferable to other available alternatives. “It’s not worms and it’s not bugs, so that’s positive, right?” he said to me. “I don’t think anyone is going to stick their finger down their throat and say, ‘Blech, kelp—I don’t want to eat it.’ ” Cheryl Dahle, the founder of Future of Fish, says, “We eat things now we never would have imagined eating twenty years ago. We eat dogfish. It’s called dogfish, for crying out loud! If we can develop a market for snakehead fish—an exotic, invasive aquarium species—out of the Chesapeake, we can create a market for kelp.”

At Oregon State University, researchers have decided that bacon might be a more effective marketing vehicle than guilt, idealism, or fear. In July, the university created a small media frenzy when it announced that it had patented a strain of dulse that tasted like bacon when cooked. It was a bit like announcing that you’d discovered a variety of orange that could be squeezed into juice—vegan restaurants have been selling “D.L.T.s” for years—but that didn’t stop ABC News from calling dulse “the Holy Grail of seafood.”

“It’s bacon or sex, those are the two things that drive the world, as far as I can tell,” Christopher Langdon, the marine biologist who grew the dulse, told me when I visited him at the Hatfield Marine Science Center, in Newport, Oregon. He is British, with rosy cheeks and a subdued twinkle. Twenty years ago, he started cultivating dulse in tanks of bubbling seawater to see if it would make an effective feed for farmed abalone. He observed some unusual traits—rapid growth, a distinct pompom-like morphology—and continued to experiment with nutrients, population density, and turbulence. The strain that he patented, called C3, grows by eighteen per cent a day.
Dulse is a delicate pinkish-red seaweed, sometimes called red kale, which the Irish ate during the famine. It is still wild-harvested in Ireland and the United Kingdom. “I’ve had a wonderful call from someone in Ireland who told me he only collects dulse when the moon is full,” Langdon said. “He had all these recipes—they add dulse to potatoes, and that’s apparently one of their favorite combinations.”

A year ago, Chuck Toombs, a boisterous instructor at Oregon State’s business school, stopped by Langdon’s lab. When he learned that dried dulse sold for sixty dollars a pound at Whole Foods, he got inspired. “I kept thinking about it, driving home to Portland,” he told me. “Sixty dollars a pound! How much can we grow, and what can we make of this stuff? I want to sell bales to Costco.” Toombs quickly ran some numbers and estimated that eleven thousand acres of kale were planted in the United States last year. “Producing indoors under artificial light, we think we could produce the same amount of dulse in a building the size of Home Depot,” he said. He recently launched a business selling dulse salad dressing at natural-food stores.

Langdon took me to see the tanks—turbid vats roiling with tangles of dulse. “Here’s the C3,” he said, breaking off a piece for me. I took a bite. It was ticklish, like escarole, with the toothfeel of a Twizzler; beneath the strong salt flavor, it tasted slightly nutty. “Our next project is to develop a culture system where you can grow dulse on land, without a continuous supply of new seawater. The idea is a dulse farm outside London, Berlin, Paris, or Tokyo to supply restaurants with fresh dulse every day.”

For the U.S. market, seaweed snacks may prove to be the point of entry—and the first battleground with kale. According to Food Navigator, an industry publication, the category is growing by about thirty per cent each year, with sales for 2014 as high as five hundred million dollars, compared with the kale-chip business, which is worth two hundred million. SeaSnax—organic, non-G.M.O.-certified nori sheets basted in olive oil and dusted with salt—have edged out cheddar bunnies on certain West Coast playgrounds. Ocean’s Halo seaweed products have made it even further: at Whole Foods they’re sold in the chips section. The company, in Burlingame, California, was founded by Mike Shim, a Korean-American former Yahoo employee, and Robert Mock, a Texan who became addicted to the nori sheets his son snacked on but wished that they were crunchy, like Doritos. With the natural-foods market growing faster than the conventional one, Shim thinks the seaweed-snack business can develop along the lines of coconut water, which is now a billion-dollar industry. “We’re only two years old and we’re selling millions of dollars’ worth of seaweed snacks a year,” he says. “We’re really focussing on mainstreaming seaweed for the American consumer.”
In Portland, at Oregon State’s Food Innovation Center, a young chef with a large mustache had been assigned to create dulse-related products to introduce to the public. (His previous post was at the Nordic Food Lab, an offshoot of Rene Redzepi’s restaurant Noma, where he ate a lot of jellyfish, wild herbs, and dulse ice cream.) To emphasize dulse’s bacon flavor—from naturally occurring glutamates—he cold-smoked it and then fried it in grapeseed oil. “This could be a big part of pushing meat to the side of the plate,” he said. It was a greasy dark green—heat brings out the chlorophyll—and intensely salty. Using meat glue to create a slab, he’d managed to get it chewy. It wasn’t bacon, but it wasn’t bad.

Bren Smith believes that seaweed can be the cheapest food on the planet, the fish sticks of the future. “We are going there,” he said. “The question is, Will it be cod-liver oil, or will it be delicious?” In late August, he had a breakthrough: he met Brooks Headley, a punk drummer turned pastry chef who recently opened Superiority Burger, an un-earnest vegetarian burger joint in the East Village.

At the end of the first week of September, Smith was at the train station in New Haven, wearing clean jeans and a green hat, swaggering like Popeye. He had two Whole Foods bags, each containing a box labelled “Sea Greens: Baby Kelp Leaf,” looped over his arms, and a tray of Dunkin’ Donuts coffee balanced in his hands. We were on our way to see Headley. “I bet this is the first time domestically grown kelp has ever been on Metro North,” he said.

A few days earlier, the Times had given Superiority an impassioned review, comparing it to Momofuku in the early days. Tonight, Headley was going to serve Smith’s kelp, both the fresh product Smith had with him and some frozen noodles he’d been working with all week. Smith showed me a picture of a five-dollar side that Headley had designed: a scribble of bright-green kelp noodles and roasted carrots in barbecue sauce, served with bread crumbs and a dash of lemon in a paper boat. “Maybe exactly what kelp needs is a little punk rock,” Smith said. “Not hippy vegans.”

The restaurant is tiny, six seats in three hundred square feet, including the kitchen. Headley, wearing a black knit cap, greeted us among boxes of the day’s produce. “When we started playing around with the kelp, I didn’t expect it to be so sturdy,” he said. “It seems like it’s going to wilt into spinach. But the texture is still there, even after it’s seared on the flattop.” He was practically bouncing. “I’m so excited,” he said. “This is, like, new.”
Smith said, “The reason the structure is so good is that in the winter it’ll freeze-thaw-freeze-thaw-freeze.”

A skinny cook with white-blond hair and an Orioles cap said, “It reminded me of pad-Thai noodles.”

Headley agreed. “There’s also like a gummy-bear quality to it. That gelatiny snap. Texture and mouthfeel is a huge thing for us. We try to do things that are gut-level fast-food satisfying without being meat.” He gave us some kelp to try: one extremely long noodle piled like cat-mauled knitting yarn, topped with a heap of carrots and smothered in a re-creation of K.C. Masterpiece.

Superiority is open from six to ten and serves two hundred and forty people—one a minute—every night. Around five, a mob started to form outside the door. A ten-year-old boy with fair curly hair and braces, wearing a Decemberists T-shirt, pushed his nose against the glass. When he finally got in, he was giddy with delight. He had made his family come from Carroll Gardens to try the food. Of course he had ordered the kelp. “Everyone in my class thinks seaweed is disgusting,” he said. “They’re horrified.” He went on, “I’m the adventurous eater in the family. I hate the SeaSnax. It’s not like real seaweed. It’s over-salted, over-olive-oiled. My sister likes anything that tastes normal. True story: if we put a plate of SeaSnax in front of her she’d eat the whole thing.”

“You used to like them, too,” his mother said.

“I used to like them.”

“Seaweed’s very mainstream now,” his father added. “Well, mainstream in Brooklyn.”

The kelp and carrots sold out in three hours. Smith seemed to have found his man: a crowd-pleaser with indisputable anti-establishment bona fides. “I’ve never had any kale in house,” Headley said. “I’m actually not a big fan of raw kale.”

As much as we need seaweed, it may need us more. Tom Ford is a marine biologist and the director of the Bay Foundation, which works to reforest the giant kelp in Santa Monica Bay, three-quarters of which has vanished since 1950. I met Ford in his office, which is a trailer on the campus of Loyola Marymount University, where he also teaches. Scuba gear hung on the walls.

On his computer he showed me a presentation called “Kelp! I Need Somebody.” It opened with an aerial shot taken two years ago of light-blue, kelpless water off Honeymoon Cove, at the southern end of the bay. Like others around the world, this kelp forest had been devastated. Around the time of the Second World War, industrial harvesters came in, seeking alginates, and unwittingly took off the growth zone of the plants, slowing their recuperation. (The harvesters pulled out in 2006.) Now there is the additional stress of sewage and storm runoff from a megalopolis. But the largest problem is the purple sea urchin, which loves to eat giant kelp. In the eighteen-fifties, with sea otters, the urchins’ primary predators, hunted nearly to extinction for their fur, the purple urchins began experiencing a population boom. The dead kelp forest, these days, is called an urchin barren.
Ford refers to seaweed-sequestered carbon as “gourmet carbon,” but not because he’s trying to get people to eat it. The kelp forest is a potential carbon sink—problematic carbon, embodied, makes its way up the food chain until it reaches an apex predator, such as a shark, which when it dies sinks to the ocean floor—and it also rebuilds a decimated ecosystem, providing a place for fish to breed and feed, and for migrating gray whales to hide their young. The fishermen get reëmployed, and the coast is protected from storm surges and erosion. Besides, a kelp forest is an ecological refuge that can be installed in the only real estate that is readily available. “Where am I going to plant the giant forest in the middle of L.A. to sequester carbon?” Ford said.

For the past two years, Ford and his colleagues have been bringing the forest back to life. Their method is simple: dive down with a hammer and smash most of the urchins they see. It has been remarkably effective, and thirty-four acres have been restored. One socked-in morning this fall, Ford picked me up in a truck to take me to Honeymoon Cove so I could see it for myself. He is from eastern Pennsylvania. The first time he saw giant kelp while diving, he was terrified. “It was the biggest, darkest, shadowiest thing I’d ever seen in the ocean,” he said. “Scared the hell out of me.”

We drove through a neighborhood of gracious houses with deep lawns, where the for-sale signs were from Sotheby’s, and parked by a steep cliff. Below us was a rocky beach and the Pacific, spit-white at the edge, then chalky, then blue. In wetsuits, we picked our way down a hundred and fifty feet of switchbacked trail. Ford stepped gingerly; he is afraid of heights. On the beach, he walked me to the water’s edge, which was piled with gloopy decomposing kelp. Flies buzzed all around. “This is how most people experience kelp,” he said. He picked up a dried-out holdfast, like a nest. Inside it was a small sea star.

Diving in the kelp is a biologist’s dream. “You can be sixty feet down, looking up at these giant columns of kelp spreading out on the surface, and these golden shafts of light, like light through a stained-glass window,” he said. “There are hundreds of species around you. It’s like flying through the forest.” We waded into the water and put our flippers and masks on. I ducked my head under and gazed. Two years ago, it was rocks and urchins. Now kelp was everywhere, ochre-colored, thirty feet tall, flailing like tube dancers outside a car wash. Three bright-orange Garibaldi fish swam past, then a group of opaleye, then five kelp bass. I came up to the surface and dove down again, plugging my nose with one hand and using the other to pull myself down the length of a plant. The water was milky with kelp slough. Southern sea palms swooshed and swayed as the waves tumbled over them. At the surface, Ford held up a loose piece of kelp, shaggy and decrepit with a small holdfast—it was sporifying. “More spores,” he said. “Go, go, go.” ♦

Horrifying: PROFESSOR FROM BERKELEY COLLEGE SAYS: People do not die of cancer! People die of chemotherapy and in terrible


For 25 years professor was studying people with cancer and came to a horrifying conclusion!


Cancer Industry is as much as it attempts to deny just that: only an industry! Doctors , pharmaceutical companies , hospitals , and other key stakeholders of the industry profit every time a patient agrees to conventional treatment , which usually involves injecting chemotherapy toxins into the body , blasting the body with ionizing radiation or cutting off parts of the body and in some barbaric cases combination of all three . It is little known that the science is covering or ignoring this, despite the fact that the medical industry claims, chemotherapy just does not work in the fight against cancer .

Dr. Hardin B. Jones, a former professor of medical physics and physiology at the University of California, Berkeley, has studied the life expectancy of cancer patients more than 25 years, when he came to the conclusion that, despite popular belief, chemotherapy does not work.

He testified that most of the cancer patients treated with chemotherapy die a horrible death. Also Dr. Jones warns that patients treated with chemotherapy die much faster and more painful than many other patients who have selected different treatment. After a great research he came to the conclusion that chemotherapy shortens the life and actually kills patients faster, and that is deliberately kept as secret because billions of dollars are in the game that cancer “industry ” turns over in their death networks.

Cure Cancer

“People who refused chemotherapy treatment live an average of 12 and a half years longer than the people who are receiving chemotherapy,” said Dr. Jones in his study, which was published in the journal of the New York Academy of Sciences. People who accepted chemotherapy die within three years of diagnosis, and many die quickly after a few weeks.”
“Patients with breast cancer who reject conventional therapy live four times longer than those who follow the system. This is something you will not hear in the mass media that will continue to spread the myth that chemotherapy is the best medicine to fight cancer! ”

A separate study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 1979 discovered that many of the most common methods for diagnosing and treating breast cancer, of which nearly all are still used today, did nothing to reduce the rate of breast cancer or to increase the survival of patients with breast cancer. Two other studies, one from Israel published in 1978, and the other from Britain, which was published in The Lancet in 1980, came up with similar findings. “Overall survival of patients with primary breast cancer has not improved in the past 10 years , despite the increased use of multi- dose chemotherapy for treatment of metastasis ,” explains study Lancet , entitled “The failure of chemotherapy in the survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer. ”
“The carefully hidden truth is that many people who “died of cancer“ actually have died from treatment that included chemotherapy or radiation. Chemotherapy works by killing healthy cells in the body before they destroy the cancer that can develop very slow and in some natural ways even stop and restrain.

Prostate cancer prevention diet

Most patients who have “died of cancer” actually have died of malnutrition, because cancerous cells take nutrients from the blood and destroy the immune system so the weakened body is liable to many infections against which is no longer able to defend itself.

Modern medicine has at its disposal a panacea, and the truth about cancer is skillfully hidden. This is because the price of a single treatment today costs 300,000-1,000,000$. “The majority of cancer patients die of chemotherapy. Chemotherapy does not remove breast cancer, colon cancer, or lung cancer. This fact has been documented more than ten years, but doctors still stubbornly use chemotherapy for these tumors “(Allen Levin, MD UCSF,” The Healing of Cancer).
A German epidemiologist at the “Mannheim Tumor Clinic” in Heidelberg, Dr. Ulrich Abel, did an extensive research and analysis of every major study and clinical application of chemotherapy ever undertaken in the world. His conclusions should be read by anyone who intends to do a chemotherapy treatment, written in his book “The Doctor in the House” Tim O’Shea (The Doctor Within)

Single Dose Of Antidepressant Lexapro Can Change Brain’s Wiring In Just 3 Hours

A single dose of Lexapro, a commonly prescribed SSRI antidepressant, quickly produces dramatic changes in the architecture of the human brain. 

One out of every 10 Americans takes an antidepressant, according to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, while one in every four women in their 40s and 50s do so. Now, a new study finds a single dose of a commonly prescribed SSRI (serotonin reuptake inhibitor) quickly produces dramatic changes in the architecture of the human brain. Specifically, brain scans taken of volunteers before and after one dose show a reduction of connectivity throughout the brain, with an increase of connectivity in two separate regions — all in just three hours.

What are SSRIs?

Worldwide, SSRIs are among the most widely prescribed form of antidepressants, often used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, panic attacks, and personality disorders. Classified as third-generation antidepressants, they are known for having fewer side effects than older pills and work by increasing levels of serotonin, a brain chemical naturally produced by your body. While serotonin serves many roles within your brain, chiefly it balances mood.

For the current study, 22 medication-free participants let their minds wander for about 15 minutes while their brains were scanned with an fMRI, a technology capable of measuring oxygenation of blood flow. Meanwhile, the researchers analyzed the three-dimensional images of each participant’s brain and measured the number of connections between small blocks of neurons known as voxels. After giving each volunteer a single dose of Lexapro (escitalopram), the researchers carefully observed the changes in those connections.

Immediately, the researchers felt surprised to discover the speed with which one dose of the SSRI performed. Within a matter of hours, it had reduced the level of intrinsic connectivity in most parts of the brain, while increasing connectivity within two regions: the cerebellum and thalamus. The cerebellum is responsible for, among other tasks, controling motor skills and balance, while the thalamus regulates consciousness, sleep, and alertness.

“We were not expecting the SSRI to have such a prominent effect on such a short timescale or for the resulting signal to encompass the entire brain,” said Dr. Julia Sacher of the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences and an author of the study. Sacher believes better understanding of the differences in individual response to SSRIs “could help to better predict who will benefit from this kind of antidepressant versus some other form of therapy.”

Introduced in 2002, Lexapro is approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. Though headaches, nausea, and insomnia are among its most common side effects, the Food and Drug Administration also warns of suicidal thoughts and tendencies brought on by the drug.

Wimps or warriors? Honey bee larvae absorb the social culture of the hive, study finds.

Even as larvae, honey bees are tuned in to the social culture of the hive, becoming more or less aggressive depending on who raises them, researchers report.

Even as larvae, honey bees are tuned in to the social culture of the hive, becoming more or less aggressive depending on who raises them. The researchers don’t yet know how the social information is being transmitted to the larvae.

Even as larvae, honey bees are tuned in to the social culture of the hive, becoming more or less aggressive depending on who raises them, researchers report in the journal Scientific Reports.

“We are interested in the general issue of how social information gets under the skin, and we decided to take a chance and ask about very young bees that are weeks away from adulthood,” said University of Illinois entomology professor and Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology director Gene Robinson, who led the research with postdoctoral researcher Clare Rittschof and Pennsylvania State University professor Christina Grozinger.

“In a previous study, we cross-fostered adult bees from gentle colonies into more aggressive colonies and vice versa, and then we measured their brain gene expression,” Robinson said. “We found that the bees had a complex pattern of gene expression, partly influenced by their own personal genetic identity and partly influenced by the environment of the colony they were living in. This led us to wonder when they become so sensitive to their social environment.”

In the new study, the researchers again cross-fostered bees, but this time as larvae in order to manipulate the bees’ early life experiences. The larvae were from a variety of queens, with sister larvae divided between high- and low-aggression colonies.

The larvae were removed from their foster hives and put into a neutral laboratory environment one day before they emerged as adults. The researchers tested their aggressiveness by exposing them to an intruder bee.

They were surprised to see that the bees retained the social information they had acquired as larvae. Those raised in aggressive colonies were 10 to 15 percent more aggressive than those raised in the gentler colonies.

“Even sisters born of the same queen but reared in different colonies differed in aggression, demonstrating the potency of this environmental effect,” Robinson said.

The finding was surprising in part because bee larvae undergo metamorphosis, which radically changes the structure of their bodies and brains.

“It’s hard to imagine what elements of the brain are influenced during the larval period that then survive the massive reorganization of the brain to bias behavior in this way,” Robinson said.

The aggressive honey bees also had more robust immune responses than their gentler counterparts, the team found.

“We challenged them with pesticides and found that the aggressive bees were more resistant to pesticide,” Grozinger said. “That’s surprising considering what we know from vertebrates, where stress in early life leads to a diminishment of resilience. With the bees, we saw an increase in resilience.”

This finding also suggests that the effects of the social environment on young bees could extend beyond brain function and behavior, Robinson said.

The researchers don’t yet know how the social information is being transmitted to the larvae. They tested whether the bees differed in size, which would suggest that they had been fed differently, but found no size differences between aggressive and gentle bees.

“Adult honey bees are well known for their sociality, their communication skills and their ability to adjust their behavior in response to the needs of the hive,” Rittschof said.

“In mammals, including humans, the effects of early life social interactions often persist throughout adulthood despite additional social experiences,” she said. “A similar pattern in honey bees has broad implications for our understanding of social behavior within the hive and in comparison with other species.”

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Real-Life ‘Star Trek’ Tractor Beams Will Change How We Practice Medicine

Imagine going into the doctor and having a blood clot or cell inside your body moved or manipulated without any incisions. The future may be closer than you think.

The non-invasive procedures of the Star Trek universe — a quick scan and a hypo-spray — is an optimistic wish for the future of medicine. The researchers of today from several universities have developed an acoustic tractor beam that could further minimize the way doctors practice surgery.


It’s possible the surgical practices of today will be looked at by future generations as medieval. I can’t help but think of Star Trek‘s doctor, Leonard “Bones” McCoy, of the starship Enterprise in the movie Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home, as he walks through a 20th Century hospital disgusted that humanity ever practiced such brutality.

“Acoustic structures shaped as tweezers, twisters, or bottles emerge as the optimum mechanisms for tractor beams or containerless transportation,” the researchers wrote in their paper, which was published in Nature. “Single-beam levitation could manipulate particles inside our body for applications in targeted drug delivery or acoustically controlled micro-machines that do not interfere with magnetic resonance imaging.”

The researchers were able to accomplish this feat by building a grid comprising 64 loud speakers. The sound they emit is beyond human hearing, and the output can be adjusted to change the type of field created by the sound to hold the object, contain it, or pull it.

In the video below, the researchers demonstrate how objects can be moved around by an invisible hand that holds the object between two fields, like the object is being pinched and moved. In another, researchers showed it could pull an object one way using a twister-like cyclone, much like a tractor beam.

“We have in mind cells and drug-holding micro-capsules,” professor Bruce Drinkwater stated in an email to Discovery. “If we could manipulate these within the body, e.g., to deliver drugs to tumors, this would be hugely important.”

Past tractor beams have demonstrated the possibility of using light to push and pull objects. Bill Nye (the science guy) explains that’s because “light, even though it has no mass, has a tiny, tiny bit of momentum. Just while you’re sitting there in a room with the lights on and when you’re out in the sun, there’s just a tiny, tiny push on you because it’s pure energy.”

For those dreaming of the tractor beams of Star Trek, capturing and moving objects in space, this technology is Earth-bound. However, Arx Pax, the company responsible for the Hendo Hoverboard, is partnering with NASA to create a space-ready tractor beam to help realign satellites.

Aluminum, Barium & Strontium: the New Manhattan Chemtrail Project

For about 20 years now, the people running the New Manhattan Project have been saturating our atmosphere and forcing us to ingest the witches’ brew coming out of the back of their airplanes. It is not normal jet engine exhaust. Contrary to what the ignorant and deceptive propose, the most common chemtrail sprays have been found to consist of aluminum, barium and strontium in that order. Probably hundreds of times, lab tests from around the world have confirmed this. If you do not know what the New Manhattan Project is, please see the author’s previous article “Chemtrails Exposed: A History of the New Manhattan Project.”

Rainwater sample test results from Europe and America showing elevated levels of aluminum, barium and strontium have been compiled at  and Many other test results can be found at All over the Internet, from all over the world, countless other verifiable test results have been posted.

As this author has repeatedly shown, whenever we gain a basic understanding of any given aspect of the New Manhattan Project, we can also subsequently find lots of evidence supporting its historical evolution in a coherent chronological order. Our discovery of the chemtrail spray ingredients and the historical development thereof is no exception. This is not a coincidence, but it is quite interesting when one considers that all Western governments continue to claim that this Project does not exist. In this case, the relevant historical evolution is that of aluminum, barium and strontium used as ingredients in chemical sprays designed for use in weather modification and the atmospheric sciences. Along with brief technical discussions, this paper examines that history.

Different substances / different uses

Aluminum oxide is the main substance and the focus of this article. A litany of evidence for aluminum being used as a nucleant (as they call it) for weather modification is in the next section.

The New Manhattan Project utilizes aluminum oxide particles to modify the weather. When these tiny particles are dispersed and subsequently hit with the appropriate electromagnetic energy, they heat up. Electromagnetic perturbation of atmospheric particles for the purpose of weather modification distinguishes the New Manhattan Project. When large lower-atmospheric volumes of particles are heated, a high pressure zone is created. If one can create a high pressure zone, one can push low pressure systems around. In combination with ionospheric heaters’ documented ability to redirect the jet stream and many other techniques, this is how they modify the weather.

Barium is used not for modifying the weather, but rather as a tracer for gathering atmospheric data. Barium performs in this capacity because barium can be radioactive. It shows up on radar well. The literature pertaining to weather modification and the atmospheric sciences is full of references to radioactive materials such as barium being used as atmospheric tracers. Let us refer to a 1962 report by the National Academy of Sciences titled “The Atmospheric Sciences 1961-1971.” This report states, “Radioactive substances of suitable half lifes [sic] injected into the air are very useful as tags and may be used to study air motions on a variety of scales. Tracers used in sufficient amounts for this purpose could add immeasurably to our knowledge of the currents of the atmosphere and the dispersion within air masses.”

A little later in “The Atmospheric Sciences 1961-1971,” the authors expand further upon the usefulness of radioactive isotopes. Under the heading “Research on Trace Substances,” the report’s authors write, “Where radioactive compounds are involved, containing tritium or carbon 14, radioactive decay times lead to a calculation of the time elapsed since the formation of the water or carbon dioxide in the sample. Thus, it is possible to date the rain water and the water in wells, rivers, and oceans, and to use this information to study the exchange processes between the upper and lower atmosphere, between the atmosphere and the oceans, and between the atmosphere and the Earth. Research in this area should be vigorously pursued.” This passage suggests that barium is being used today as a way to trace the entire hydrological cycle.

In the 1972 Interdepartmental Committee for Atmospheric Sciences report a more technical discussion of this type of program is found. On page 18 it reads:

Atomic Energy Commission research in precipitation scavenging by convective storms requires knowledge of both the storm and cloud dynamics and the microphysics of the precipitation processes. Atomic Energy Commission laboratories and contractors have developed considerable expertise in the use of selective chemical tracers which can be introduced into the storm or cloud as a function of time, altitude or position. Subsequent analysis of the tracers in the resulting precipitation provides details of dynamical features of the storm, hydrometer growth rates and mechanisms and the spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation.

Two types of tracers have been used, specific chemical elements rare in abundance in the atmosphere, and the cosmogenic radionuclides produced naturally in the atmosphere by cosmic ray actions with argon. The chemical tracers are introduced into the storm as aerosols via aircraft and/or surface generators. Analysis of the resulting precipitation for the tracer elements provides insight into the time scales and trajectories of the air motions within convective storms and into the hydrometeor growth rates and deposition patterns.

Cosmogenic radionuclides (particularly Na-24, Cl-38 and Cl-39 with 15 hr, 37 min, and 55 min half-lives respectively) can also be measured in precipitation. These are produced in the atmosphere at known production rates, attached to the natural aerosol and coexisting, presumably, with freezing nuclei, condensation nuclei and inactive aerosols. Because of their differing half lives, the cosmogenic nuclide ratios can be used to determine cloud development times and hydrometeor growth rates and mechanisms. The use of inert chemical tracers and the cosmogenic radionuclides together affords the opportunity to relate the dynamics of the cloud or storm system to precipitation effects such as heavy rainfall, or damaging hail through severe storm research programs such as NHRE, STORMFURY, and Metromex. Tracer techniques also offer unique potential in the evaluation of the various weather modification projects currently being conducted by the various Federal Agencies.

Currently, the AC support of the Illinois State Water Survey in Metromex is directed at the use of chemical tracers to determine the dynamics and efficiency or urban modified severe storms to ingest and precipitate atmospheric aerosols. The tracers are released either by aircraft into the storm updraft or from the surface.

Although it is largely unclear at this time why strontium is showing up in the samples, strontium may be used as a photosensitive catalyst. It could be used to free associated aluminum from the oxide form when exposed to UV and visible light. Free aluminum is much more conductive than aluminum oxide and therefore allows for better propagation of the New Manhattan Project’s electromagnetic waves.

Added strontium may also be showing up West of the Rockies as fallout from the Fukushima nuclear disaster. There is a very good chance that storm updrafts over the Pacific Ocean are picking up strontium from Fukushima, which continues to discharge radioactive seawater as well as airborne pollutants.

Aluminum and weather modification

Since at least 1954, researchers have been busy developing the aluminum concoctions ultimately used in today’s New Manhattan Project. This section recounts the chronological development of aluminum nucleants utilized in weather modification and the atmospheric sciences.

In 1958, Norihiko Fukuta (1931-2010) of Nagoya University in Japan published a paper titled “Experimental Investigations on the Ice-Forming Ability of Various Chemical Substances” which appeared in the Journal of Meteorology. This paper referenced an earlier paper (1954) by Asada, T., H. Saito, T. Sawai, and S. Matsumoto. Fukuta asserts that this earlier foursome discovered the usefulness of aluminum oxide as a nucleant. Fukuta’s paper reads, “Asada [8] tested the activities of various substances of cubic and hexagonal shape considered similar to ice structure and consequently discovered the effectiveness of aluminum oxide.” The author has been unable to find this 1954 document. 1954 is the earliest reference to aluminum oxide used as a nucleant known to the author.

Fukuta’s 1958 paper also details his research utilizing Al2O3 (aluminum oxide) as an experimental nucleant.

Norihiko Fukuta at the cloud chamber
 Image source unknown

The 1962 U.S. patent #3,274,035 “Metallic Composition for Production of Hygroscopic Smoke” by Lohr A. Burkardt and William G. Finnegan describes how aluminum, barium and strontium may be used as ingredients in, “…a composition which produces hygroscopic smoke for use in influencing the weather.”


The 1964 U.S. patent #3,140,207 “Pyrotechnic Composition” by Mary M. Williams and Lohr A. Burkardt describes how aluminum can be used in compositions which have, “…use in cloud seeding.”


Also in 1964, the Navy wrote, “The development of devices to produce hygroscopic nuclei is also continuing. Pyrotechnic mixtures and devices are being developed and tested which produce chlorides of lithium, magnesium, aluminum, and sodium. Trials have been made using hygroscopic liquids for the dispersal of warm fogs.”

1964 was a busy year. This was also when the National Science Foundation (NSF) presented the work of a Dr. A.C. Zettlemoyer (1915-1991). Albert Zettlemoyer was an important figure in this development. Zettlemoyer discovered that small particles with both hydrophilic (water attracting) and hydrophobic (water resisting) sites were able to hold more water than uniformly hydrophilic particles. The NSF’s sixth annual weather modification report explains:

For a number of years, Albert C. Zettlemoyer has been conducting a study of the surface properties of nucleating materials and the physical and chemical characteristics which make them efficient nucleators. He has hypothesized that a good ice-nucleating agent, such as silver iodide, is primarily a hydrophobic material, and contains a percentage of hydrophilic areas dispersed about its surface. These hydrophilic areas form the nucleus around which water molecules may cluster and form centers upon which ice forms. According to the investigator, optimized nucleating efficiency occurs when 20 to 30 percent of the nucleating surface is covered with hydrophilic sites and the remainder of the material is hydrophobic. Based upon this hypothesis, the investigator has been successful in synthesizing several active nucleating materials possessing the proper hydrophilic to hydrophobic balance. Silicas, clays, alumina, bauxite, and magnesite have become good nucleating materials when suitably treated. In addition, polymer-coated and surface-esterified silicas have been prepared which have shown excellent nucleating properties in the cold chamber.

Prior to the above disclosure in the NSF’s sixth annual report, Dr. Zettlemoyer was featured in an article which appeared in the American Chemical Society’s Chemical and Engineering News. Dated December 9, 1963, the article reads:

A new series of artificial nucleating agents for possible use as cloud seeders in cloud modification work can now be produced. Now that the surface chemistry of the most effective nucleating agent (silver iodide) has been recognized, it’s possible to seek out other materials which nucleate or promote crystallization in gaseous and liquid media such as water clouds, according to Dr. A. C. Zettlemoyer of the surface chemistry laboratory of Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pa.

New and cheap cloud seeders (or nucleating agents), inorganic materials are used as substrates. Silicas, usually of colloidal size, are very desirable inorganic substrates, the Lehigh chemist finds. Other substrates can be used, but it is difficult to find cheaper ones than silicas, he says. These include carbon black, magnesite, limestone, dolomite, clay, bauxite, alumina, magnesia, and lime.

A.C. Zettlemoyer et al, 1963

It looks like the above photo has been altered. Zettlemoyer’s head is too big for his body and it is significantly bigger than those of the others standing next to him. Also, it appears that Zettlemoyer’s head is lit from the right while everything else is lit from the left.

Mr. Zettlemoyer was president of the American Chemical Society in 1981.

The Department of Commerce’s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) issued a 1970 report titled “Proceedings of the Twelfth Interagency Conference on Weather Modification.” Contained therein is a report titled “National Science Foundation Program in Weather Modification for FY 1970” by P. H. Wyckoff, the program director of the National Science Foundation’s Atmospheric Sciences Section. Mr. Wyckoff writes, “A number of aluminas ranging from particle sizes of 1 to 0.05 microns have been plated with silver which has been converted to silver iodide by exposure to iodine vapor.”

A little later he continues, “Professor L. Grant and Professor M. Corrin have jointly assumed responsibility as co-principal investigators for the nuclei simulation facility at CSU.” Colorado State University (CSU) is where these experiments were conducted.

The 1971 U.S. patent #3,630,950 “Combustible Compositions for Generating Aerosols, Particularly Suitable for Cloud Modification and Weather Control and Aerosolization Process” by Henry M. Papee, Alberto C. Montefinale, Gianna L. Petriconi, and Tadeusz W. Zawidzki suggests using powdered aluminum in combination with an oxidizer whereby, “…a finely dispersed aerosol smoke consisting of moderately hygroscopic condensation nuclei, and a non-hygroscopic gas are simultaneously evolved, said gas acting to disperse said nuclei.”

Of the handful of substances Papee et al tested, aluminum was found to be, “…the most suitable metal since, besides being relatively cheap, it may be considered inert at room temperature (this characteristic is an important factor for safety in the preparation and transportation of the described compositions), it yields remarkable heat of combustion which favours a good continuity of reaction and a good aerosol dispersion. Moreover it is available on the market in the suitable purity and particle size.”

A little later they write, “…we have found that aluminum sulfide, which forms during combustion of compositions containing powdered aluminum and sulfur, is a very good ice-nucleating substance.”

During experiments detailed in a 1977 paper by J.H. Shen, K. Klier and A.C. Zettlemoyer, aluminum was used in combination with something called a phlogopite. These phlogopites are described as a new breakthrough. “Ice Nucleation by Micas” states, “A fluorine mica, fluorophlogopite, has been found to produce higher bulk water freezing temperature than many other nucleating agents including the parent hydroxyphlogopite and even silver iodide. It is the most efficient catalyst yet found in this Laboratory.”

The 1978 U.S. patent #4,096,005 “Pyrotechnic Cloud Seeding Composition” by Thomas W. Slusher and Nuclei Engineering, Inc. of Louisville, Colorado describes how aluminum can be used in compositions designed for weather modification.


In 1991 United States patent #5,003,186 “Stratospheric Welsbach Seeding for Reduction of Global Warming” was assigned to the Hughes Aircraft Corporation. The patent describes a method for dispersing particulates into the upper atmosphere in order to save us from global warming. The author David B. Chang suggests that aluminum oxide be used for this purpose.

“One proposed solution to the problem of global warming,” it reads, “involves the seeding of the atmosphere with metallic particles. One technique proposed to seed the metallic particles was to add the tiny particles to the fuel of jet airliners, so that the particles would be emitted from the jet engine exhaust while the airliner was at its cruising altitude.”

The first mention of aluminum occurs in this passage, “The method comprises the step of seeding the greenhouse gas layer with a quantity of tiny particles of materials characterized by wavelength-dependent emissivity or reflectivity, in that said materials have high emissivities in the visible and far infrared wavelength region. Such materials can include the class of materials known as Welsbach materials. The oxides of metal, e.g., aluminum oxide, are also suitable for the purpose.”

The second mention of aluminum occurs a little later. It reads, “Another class of materials having the desired property includes the oxides of metals. For example, aluminum oxide (Al2O3) is one metal oxide suitable for the purpose and which is relatively inexpensive.”

The Hughes Aircraft Corporation was acquired by and is now integrated into Raytheon.


In the mid-nineties, Lawrence Livermore Laboratories scientists Edward Teller, Lowell Wood and Roderick Hyde wrote a series of papers calling for the spraying of megatons of aluminum to save us from global warming. The mid-nineties was when reports of chemtrail spraying in American skies began pouring in.

In their 1997 paper “Global Warming and Ice Ages,” the Livermore Labs trio wrote, “It has been suggested that alumina injected into the stratosphere by the exhaust of solid-rocket motors might scatter non-negligible amounts of sunlight. We expect that introduction of scattering-optimized alumina particles into the stratosphere may well be overall competitive with use of sulfur oxides; alumina particles offer a distinctly different environmental impact profile.”

They continue to espouse the virtues of stratospheric alumina in the footnotes writing, “Alumina, like sulfate, is ubiquitous in the terrestrial biosphere, and its stratospheric injection seemingly poses no significant environment issues.”


In his 2010 paper “Photophoretic Levitation of Engineered Aerosols for Geoengineering,” top geoengineer David Keith suggests particles consisting of both aluminum and barium be used for the purpose of weather modification. Dr. Keith’s proposed aluminum and barium particle sandwiches suggest that one chemtrail spray material may simultaneously serve the dual purposes of weather modification (aluminum) and atmospheric tracing (barium). Keith notes that these particles can be engineered to employ a layer of aluminum oxide to protect internal free aluminum from oxidation. Also in 2010, in the feature documentary What in the World Are They Spraying?, David Keith says,

…on the environmental consequences of alumina in the stratosphere. There’s a bunch of papers going back to the seventies that look at the radiative and ozone destroying properties of alumina in the stratosphere and those make you think it might be useful. Do this in just a jet in a very simple way. Make high quality alumina particles just by spraying alumina vapor out which oxidizes. So it’s certainly in principle possible to do that.

David Keith is a professor at Harvard University who is heavily invested in geoengineering. According to his Harvard bio, “David divides his time between Cambridge where he is Gordon McKay Professor of Applied Physics in the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Professor of Public Policy in the Harvard Kennedy School; and Calgary, where he helps lead Carbon Engineering a company developing technology to capture of CO2 from ambient air.”

Dr. Keith has received geoengineering grants from the Fund for Innovative Climate and Energy Research. According to the Stanford website, “Grants for research are provided to Harvard University from gifts made by Mr. Bill Gates from his personal funds.”

David Keith
Image source: Harvard University

The April, 2012 edition of the Journal of Weather Modification featured a paper titled “A non-silver Iodide Cloud Seeding Nucleus – Al2O3.” In this paper, the authors William G. Finnegan and Lee Ates propose a new aluminum oxide weather modification spray to replace the industry standard silver iodide.

If the reader will recall, William Finnegan (1923-2011) was also one of the co-authors of the aforementioned 1962 U.S. patent “Metallic Composition for Production of Hygroscopic Smoke.” According to a Journal of Weather Modification obituary, Bill Finnegan worked at the China Lake Naval Ordinance Test Station where his work garnered him several patents. The focus of his career was that of applied research on the generation and characterization of artificial ice nucleants. After his work at China Lake, Mr. Finnegan became a professor at Colorado State University (CSU). After CSU and until his retirement, Dr. Finnegan worked at Nevada’s Desert Research Institute.

William G. Finnegan

Particle size

This investigation has found that the aluminum particles dispersed as part of today’s New Manhattan Project may or may not be in the nano-sized range. Many have feared that these particles are nano-sized because when nano-sized aluminum particles are inhaled, they are so small that they go directly into the blood stream and right into the brain causing a host of neurological disorders. In recent years, there have been massive spikes in the number of cases of diseases that have been found to be caused by aluminum toxicity. This has provided support for the notion that these particles are nano-sized. As we will see, the literature pertaining to weather modification and the atmospheric sciences shows nano-sized aluminum particles only as a possibility, not a certainty. Particle size here means the particle’s diameter.

By 1947 scientists had figured out that the best nucleating weather modification sprays consist of nano-sized particles. In an award-winning 1998 documentary film titled Langmuir’s World pioneering weather modifier Bernard Vonnegut (1914-1997) said he found that the best silver iodide particle size for nucleation is about, “a hundredth of a micron.” 1 micron equals 1000 nanometers, so .01 microns converts to 10 nanometers. This is probably what we see today in the conventional, regulated weather modification industry where airplanes spray silver iodide under regulatory supervision. Bernie Vonnegut should know. He was the guy who discovered silver iodide’s usefulness as a nucleant, thus spawning the commercial cloud seeding industry. He was also a scientist who contributed greatly to the foundation of the New Manhattan Project.

Different materials used as nucleants have different optimum sizes. The optimum size has historically been the most water absorbing size. The most water absorbing size is known as the most ‘hygroscopic’ size. The most hygroscopic particles of many different materials have been found to be nano-sized.

Although the particles used today as part of the New Manhattan Project may not be tailored to be the most hygroscopic size, this is what chemists producing nucleants for weather modification have historically sought. Today’s New Manhattan Project may not be shooting for optimum nucleation. Rather, today’s New Manhattan Project may be shooting for particles that are more receptive to this Project’s electromagnetic energy. The nucleation capabilities of said particles may be a secondary or nonexistent objective. But, in order to determine the particle size of today’s New Manhattan Project main chemtrail substance, it is important that we look at some historical examples of aluminum particles used in weather modification and the atmospheric sciences.

By 1963 the aforementioned Dr. A. C. Zettlemoyer concluded that, “…particle size of the substrates should range from 0.01 to 10 microns, and preferably between 0.3 and 1 micron…” That translates to 10 to 10,000 nanometers and preferably 300 to 1000 nanometers. His nucleation substrates included aluminum.

NOAA’s previously mentioned 1970 report “Proceedings of the Twelfth Interagency Conference on Weather Modification” noted that they had found effectively sized aluminum and silver particles in the .05 to 1 micron size range. A range of .05 to 1 micron translates to a range of 50 to 1000 nanometers.

In his aforementioned 2010 paper “Photophoretic Levitation of Engineered Aerosols for Geoengineering,” top geoengineer David Keith proposes use of particles consisting of aluminum and barium sized at about 20 microns (20,000 nanometers).

David Keith’s proposed geoengineering particle
Image source: National Academy of Sciences

We see from this investigation that aluminum particles ranging in size anywhere from 10 to 20,000 nanometers have been formulated or proposed. As discussed earlier, although this size range from 10 to 20,000 nanometers is documented as preferable for hygroscopicity, hygroscopicity may not be what today’s geoengineers are shooting for. They may be largely or entirely shooting for electromagnetic manipulation and in that case, the particles would be sized to be most receptive to the applied microwaves. This is why the results of this investigation into particle size are largely inconclusive. At this time, we are unsure of the exact electromagnetic energy frequencies being used. This fact, coupled with a lack of any known particle measurements, means that we cannot be sure of the particle sizes.

It is also important to note that the particle sizes listed here are the initial dispersion sizes. Due to the fact that these dispersed particles may, as they float down to Earth, attach themselves to other ambient atmospheric particles and/or each other, the particle sizes of these dispersed substances, upon reaching the ground, may be significantly larger. Conversely, relatively large particles may be dispersed which are designed to break up upon exposure to sunlight. The relatively large particles proposed by David Keith (20 microns), may be designed to break into nano-sized fragments.

Resonance frequency / the Welsbach effect

In order for the chemtrail sprays of the New Manhattan Project to be effective, the dispersed particles need to interact with the applied electromagnetic energy appropriately. As previously mentioned, when the aluminum particles of the New Manhattan Project are hit with the right electromagnetic energy frequency, they heat up. The most effective heating frequency is known as a particle’s ‘resonant frequency.’ Different materials have different resonance frequencies.

When large masses of atmospheric alumina particles are heated by specifically applied electromagnetic energy, they behave as something akin to a plasma. More specifically, heated aluminum particles make the aluminum particles around them heat up (or resonate) as well. This is known as the “Welsbach effect.” It is demonstrated in the mantle of a gas lantern. Applied energy makes the entire mantle light up not because the mantle is soaked with fuel, but because the particles comprising the mantle are resonating together. The New Manhattan Project turns our atmosphere into a gigantic mantle with the chemtrail sprays comprising the mantle material and electromagnetic energy being the applied energy. The 1988 U.S. patent #4,755,673 “Selective Thermal Radiators” by Slava A. Pollack and David B. Chang describes how small particles may be energized in this fashion.

David B. Chang is one of the inventors listed on the aforementioned “Selective Thermal Radiators” patent and Mr. Chang is also the sole inventor noted on the infamous “Stratospheric Welsbach Seeding for the Reduction of Global Warming” patent. Hughes Aircraft is listed as the assignee on both.

The former President and CEO of Hughes Aircraft was a man by the name of Lawrence ‘Pat’ Hyland (1897-1989). He wrote a 1993 autobiography titled Call Me Pat. On this book’s cover, Mr. Hyland is pictured lighting a gas lantern and thus producing the aforementioned Welsbach effect. The lantern he lights has an inscription. It reads, “THE OFFICIAL BICENTENNIAL PAUL REVERE…” America’s bicentennial was in 1976. Paul Revere was, of course, the early American patriot who famously warned the citizenry about the advancing British army. As one can see, there is more to this inscription but your author has not been able to decipher it. In the book it is not explained. Your author has provided the reader with an enhanced image of the inscription.

Call Me Pat book cover
Image source: the Donning Company Publishers
Call Me Pat book cover lantern inscription close-up
Image source: the Donning Company Publishers

Smart dust

Although aluminum, along with barium and strontium are shown here to be the usual New Manhattan Project chemtrail sprays, evidence exists describing the possible utilization of other, more curious materials.

The seminal 1996 Air Force document “Weather as a Force Multiplier: Owning the Weather 2025” mentions using smart materials for the purpose of weather modification. On page 17 it reads,

With regard to seeding techniques, improvements in the materials and delivery methods are not only plausible but likely. Smart materials based on nanotechnology are currently being developed with gigaops computer capability at their core. They could adjust their size to optimal dimensions for a given fog seeding situation and even make adjustments throughout the process. They might also enhance their dispersal qualities by adjusting their buoyancy, by communicating with each other, and by steering themselves within the fog. They will be able to provide immediate and continuous effectiveness feedback by integrating with a larger sensor network and can also change their temperature and polarity to improve their seeding effects. As mentioned above, UAVs [unmanned aerial vehicles] could be used to deliver and distribute these smart materials.


We know they are spraying aluminum and barium. These substances are consistently showing up in rainwater samples taken from chemtrail-laden skies all over the world. This work shows that there is a grand history of these substances being developed as material to be sprayed from aircraft for the purpose of weather modification. We see the jets high in the sky spraying us almost every day. It is apparent; with these substances we are being sprayed.

This is where we can gain direct evidence. If we can get chemical signatures of the metals showing up in rainwater samples that match any found or confiscated chemtrail sprays, then we may be able to establish direct evidentiary links between spray, sprayers and producers. These links may be the most important to future litigation. May this work help to establish a conviction. Our best works are like dirty rags.

In the meantime, can somebody do something to put an end to this nightmare so that we don’t have to breathe this stuff in any more? Can we stop mass murdering Humanity now? Can we stop savaging our entire ecosystem? The evidence for these claims of mass murder and environmental devastation will be discussed in a forthcoming article.

Due to so many people’s outstanding efforts, there is enough information available now that we shouldn’t have to continue suffering. There is enough information available now for a Congressional or Government Accountability Office investigation. The time for denial is over. Stop the spraying now.

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