Euthanasia begins in California as Gov. Brown unleashes population control ‘right to die’


It’s now legal in California — a state that abhors the death penalty for violent criminals, child molesters and rapists — to kill yourself or, more specifically, to request death and actually have it carried out.

California

As reported by MarketWatch, Gov. Jerry Brown said that this law would now give terminally ill people the right to make such requests of doctors who would then do what doctors were never intended to do — take a life.

In a signing letter, Brown claimed he consulted with two groups of people who supposedly hold the sanctity of life paramount — doctors and Catholic bishops — while reflecting upon his own death.

“I do not know what I would do if I were dying in prolonged and excruciating pain,” Brown wrote. “I am certain, however, that it would be a comfort to be able to consider the options afforded by this bill. And I wouldn’t deny that right to others.”

“The crux of the matter is whether the state of California should continue to make it a crime for a dying person to end his life,” Brown continued, as quoted by CNN, “no matter how great his pain and suffering.”

How profound and “compassionate” — and this, from yet another liberal who promotes a culture of death while being utterly stumped about why mass murders continue to occur in our country.

Growing the “culture of death”

Then there is the hypocrisy, as noted by Citizens Against Assisted Suicide, an organization opposed to the law.

“As someone of wealth and access to the world’s best medical care and doctors, the governor’s background is very different than that of millions of Californians living in health care poverty without that same access,” said the coalition, adding that it is “reviewing all of its options moving forward.”

“These are the people and families potentially hurt by giving doctors the power to prescribe lethal overdoses to patients,” the group stated.

The culture of death was not lost on Daniel Payne, who, writing in The Federalist, notes that the country has a “deepening love affair” with death in all its forms.

“From California comes yet another plank in the death brigade’s never-ending demands for more death. California is now the fifth state to permit doctors to help kill their patients by prescribing them lethal overdoses of drugs: Oregon, Montana, Washington, and Vermont already allow it,” he wrote. “California’s passage of the law means that, in 10 percent of American states, it is legal for a doctor to knowingly help destroy his patient’s life.”

Law filled with ironies

But it wasn’t enough for lawmakers to simply legalize suicide; the law is layered with many ironies. For one, Payne says, it expires in 10 years, as if suddenly, in a decade’s time, assisted suicide will no longer be necessary or relevant (what do California lawmakers know that the rest of us don’t?).

Also, “suicidal patients must make three requests for the deadly prescription (once in writing with two witnesses present), and they must sign a form a couple of days before they kill themselves,” Payne writes.

According to Democratic State Sen. Bill Monning, these are “protections” built into the law. Oh.

“Kill yourself with our blessing,” lawmakers seem to be saying, but you only have 10 years to decide and to ascertain whether or not you’re really, really, really sure.

Where is all of this heading? If The Netherlands is any indication, it’s not good. That country decriminalized euthanasia about 10 years ago, and now, Payne reports, nearly one-third of suicide requests are from people who are just “tired of living.” Turns out when suicide is made legal and accessible, more people will choose it.

In our own country, the scandal involving Planned Parenthood’s illegal profiting of baby body parts is also feeding a growing culture of death, one in which both the mainstream media and Democrat politicians are complicit; the former through its non-reporting, and the latter, through their denials.

 

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3D printed teeth to keep your mouth free of bacteria.


3D printed teeth to keep your mouth free of bacteria

Lost a tooth? Soon your dentist could print you another – and it’ll help keep your mouth clean, too.

Getting fitted for a false tooth or other dental treatment tends to involve a mouthful of foul-tasting gunk and plaster casts. But now dentists are moving to high-tech digital scanning and 3D printing. That switch opens the door to more advanced materials that could improve your oral hygiene.

Andreas Herrmann of the University of Groningen in the Netherlands and his colleagues have developed an antimicrobial plastic, allowing them to 3D print teeth that also kill bacteria. It’s an important issue, say the team, because bacterial damage to existing implants costs patients millions of dollars in the US alone.

The team embedded antimicrobial quaternary ammonium salts inside existing dental resin polymers. The salts are positively charged and so disrupt the negatively charged bacterial membranes, causing them to burst and die. “The material can kill bacteria on contact, but on the other hand it’s not harmful to human cells,” says Hermann.

Then they put this mix in a 3D printer, hardened it with ultraviolet light and printed out a range of dental objects such as replacement teeth and orthodontic braces. To test its antimicrobial properties, they coated samples of the material in mix of saliva and Streptococcus mutans, the bacterium that causes tooth decay. They found the material killed over 99 per cent of the bacteria, compared to less than 1 per cent for a control sample without the added salts.

Further tests will have to be done before the material can be rolled out to patients, as the team only left the samples in the saliva and bacteria mix for six days. “For clinical used we need to extend this, and investigate the compatibility with toothpaste,” says Herrmann.

Defecography MRI


Magnetic resonance (MR) defecography is a noninvasive test that uses magnetic resonance imaging to obtain images at various stages of defecation to evaluate how well the pelvic muscles are working and provide insight into rectal function. It is used to help determine the cause of fecal incontinence, constipation, and other conditions such as pelvic organ prolapse that may interfere with a person’s ability to pass stool.

Tell your doctor about any health problems, recent surgeries or allergies and whether there’s a possibility you are pregnant. The magnetic field is not harmful, but it may cause some medical devices to malfunction. Most orthopedic implants pose no risk, but you should always tell the technologist if you have any devices or metal in your body. Guidelines about eating and drinking before your exam vary between facilities. Unless you are told otherwise, take your regular medications as usual. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. If you have claustrophobia or anxiety, you may want to ask your doctor for a mild sedative prior to the exam.

What is magnetic resonance (MR) defecography?

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that physicians use to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

MRI uses a powerful magnetic field, radio frequency pulses and a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs, soft tissues, bone and virtually all other internal body structures. MRI does not use ionizing radiation (x-rays).

Detailed MR images allow physicians to evaluate various parts of the body and determine the presence of certain diseases. The images can then be examined on a computer monitor, transmitted electronically, printed or copied to a CD.

Magnetic resonance (MR) defecography is a special type of MR imaging that produces detailed images during a bowel movement and provides information about the structure and function of the rectum and the pelvic floor, a network of muscles that stretches between the pubic bone and spine and the abdominal organs it supports.

During MR defecography, images are obtained at various stages of defecation.

What are some common uses of the procedure?

Physicians use MR defecography to:

  • obtain information about how well the pelvic muscles are working during a bowel movement.
  • provide insight into rectal function.
  • determine the cause of fecal incontinence, or the inability to control the passage of waste material from the body.
  • determine the cause of constipation, or difficulty passing waste material from the body.
  • diagnose and evaluate diseases affecting rectal function and pelvic floor disorders (also called pelvic floor dysfunction), such as hernia, pelvic organ prolapse or rectal prolapse, a condition where part or all of the rectum wall slides out of place.
  • provide information for surgical and treatment planning.

How should I prepare?

You may be asked to wear a gown during the exam or you may be allowed to wear your own clothing if it is loose-fitting and has no metal fasteners.

Guidelines about eating and drinking before an MRI exam vary with the specific exam and also with the imaging facility. Unless you are told otherwise, you may follow your regular daily routine and take food and medications as usual.

Some MRI examinations may require you to receive an injection of contrast material into the bloodstream. The radiologist,technologist or a nurse may ask if you have allergies of any kind, such as an allergy to iodine or x-ray contrast material, drugs, food, or the environment, or if you have asthma. The contrast material most commonly used for an MRI exam contains a metal called gadolinium. Gadolinium can be used in patients with iodine contrast allergy, but may require pre-medication. It is far less common for a patient to have an allergy to a gadolinium-based contrast agent used for MRI than the iodine-containing contrast for CT. However, even if it is known that the patient has an allergy to the gadolinium contrast, it may still be possible to use it after appropriate pre-medication. Patient consent will be requested in this instance. For more information on adverse reactions to gadolinium-based contrast agents, please consult the ACR Manual on Contrast Media.

You should also let the radiologist know if you have any serious health problems, or if you have had any recent surgeries. Some conditions, such as severe kidney disease, may prevent you from being given gadolinium contrast for an MRI. If you have a history of kidney disease or liver transplant, it will be necessary to perform a blood test to determine whether the kidneys are functioning adequately.

Women should always inform their physician or technologist if there is any possibility that they are pregnant. MRI has been used for scanning patients since the 1980s with no reports of any ill effects on pregnant women or their unborn babies. However, because the unborn baby will be in a strong magnetic field, pregnant women should not have this exam in the first trimester of pregnancy unless the potential benefit from the MRI exam is assumed to outweigh the potential risks. Pregnant women should not receive injections of gadolinium contrast material except when absolutely necessary for medical treatment. See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and MRI.

If you have claustrophobia (fear of enclosed spaces) or anxiety, you may want to ask your physician for a prescription for a mild sedative prior to your scheduled examination.

Jewelry and other accessories should be left at home if possible, or removed prior to the MRI scan. Because they can interfere with the magnetic field of the MRI unit, metal and electronic items are not allowed in the exam room. These items include:

  • jewelry, watches, credit cards and hearing aids, all of which can be damaged
  • pins, hairpins, metal zippers and similar metallic items, which can distort MRI images
  • removable dental work
  • pens, pocket knives and eyeglasses
  • body piercings

In most cases, an MRI exam is safe for patients with metal implants, except for a few types. People with the following implants cannot be scanned and should not enter the MRI scanning area:

You should tell the technologist if you have medical or electronic devices in your body. These objects may interfere with the exam or potentially pose a risk, depending on their nature and the strength of the MRI magnet. Many implanted devices will have a pamphlet explaining the MRI risks for that particular device. If you have the pamphlet, it is useful to bring that to the attention of the technologist or scheduler before the exam. Some implanted devices require a short period of time after placement (usually six weeks) before being safe for MRI examinations. Examples include but are not limited to:

  • artificial heart valves
  • implanted drug infusion ports
  • artificial limbs or metallic joint prostheses
  • implanted nerve stimulators
  • metal pins, screws, plates, stents or surgical staples

In general, metal objects used in orthopedic surgery pose no risk during MRI. However, a recently placed artificial joint may require the use of another imaging procedure. If there is any question of their presence, an x-ray may be taken to detect and identify any metal objects.

Patients who might have metal objects in certain parts of their bodies may also require an x-ray prior to an MRI. You should notify the technologist or radiologist of any shrapnel, bullets, or other pieces of metal which may be present in your body due to prior accidents. Foreign bodies near and especially lodged in the eyes are particularly important. Dyes used in tattoos may contain iron and could heat up during MRI, but this is rarely a problem. Tooth fillings and braces usually are not affected by the magnetic field, but they may distort images of the facial area or brain, so the radiologist should be aware of them.

What does the equipment look like?

The traditional MRI unit is a large cylinder-shaped tube surrounded by a circular magnet. You will lie on a moveable examination table that slides into the center of the magnet.

Some MRI units, called short-bore systems, are designed so that the magnet does not completely surround you. Some newer MRI machines have a larger diameter bore which can be more comfortable for larger size patients or patients with claustrophobia. Other MRI machines are open on the sides (open MRI). Open units are especially helpful for examining larger patients or those with claustrophobia. Newer open MRI units provide very high quality images for many types of exams; however, older open MRI units may not provide this same image quality. Certain types of exams cannot be performed using open MRI. For more information, consult your radiologist.

The computer workstation that processes the imaging information is located in a separate room from the scanner.

MR defecography may be performed in either the traditional MRI unit (a large cylinder-shaped tube surrounded by a circular magnet) or in an open unit. In an open MRI unit, two large magnets surround the patient and a removable chair that simulates a toilet is located in the space between the large vertical magnets.

How does the procedure work?

Unlike conventional x-ray examinations and computed tomography (CT) scans, MRI does not utilize on ionizing radiation. Instead, radio waves redirect alignment of hydrogen atoms that naturally exist within the body while you are in the scanner without causing any chemical changes in the tissues. As the hydrogen atoms return to their usual alignment, they emit energy that varies according to the type of body tissue from which they come. The MR scanner captures this energy and creates a picture of the tissues scanned based on this information.

The magnetic field is produced by passing an electric current through wire coils in most MRI units. Other coils, located in the machine and in some cases, placed around the part of the body being imaged, send and receive radio waves, producing signals that are detected by the coils.

A computer then processes the signals and generates a series of images, each of which shows a thin slice of the body. The images can then be studied from different angles by the interpreting radiologist.

Frequently, the differentiation of abnormal (diseased) tissue from normal tissues is better with MRI than with other imaging modalities such as x-ray, CT and ultrasound.

How is the procedure performed?

MRI examinations may be performed on outpatients or inpatients.

You will be asked to drink water during a period of 30 minutes prior to the exam. Your rectum will be filled with a soft substance that is similar to the consistency of feces and that contains a contrast material. A towel will be placed underneath you to absorb any urine or feces that may leak out during the exam.

If your exam is being performed in a traditional MRI unit, you will be positioned on a moveable examination table lying on your back with your knees bent. Straps and bolsters may be used to help you remain still and maintain the correct position during imaging. If your exam is being performed in an open MRI unit, you will be seated on an adjustable chair within the unit between two large magnets.

A device that contains coils capable of sending and receiving radio waves will be strapped around your pelvis in a traditional MRI unit or placed on the seat beneath you in an open MRI unit.

The examination will be performed by a radiologist working at a computer outside of the room.

Images will be obtained as you contract your muscles as you would during a bowel movement including squeezing, straining and defecating. Images will also be taken while your muscles are relaxed. The technologist will give you instructions during the exam.

The MR defecography exam typically includes two or more sets of images and is usually completed in 30 minutes to an hour.

What will I experience during and after procedure?

Most MRI exams are painless. However, some patients find it uncomfortable to remain still during MR imaging. Others experience a sense of being closed-in (claustrophobia). Therefore, sedation can be arranged for those patients who anticipate anxiety, but fewer than one in 20 require medication.

It is normal for the area of your body being imaged to feel slightly warm, but if it bothers you, notify the radiologist or technologist. It is important that you remain perfectly still while the images are being obtained, which is typically only a few seconds to a few minutes at a time. You will know when images are being recorded because you will hear and feel loud tapping or thumping sounds when the coils that generate the radiofrequency pulses are activated. Some centers provide earplugs, while others use headphones to reduce the intensity of the sounds made by the MRI machine. You will be able to relax between imaging sequences, but will be asked to maintain your position without movement as much as possible.

You will usually be alone in the exam room during the MRI procedure. However, the technologist will be able to see, hear and speak with you at all times using a two-way intercom. Many MRI centers allow a friend or parent to stay in the room as long as they are also screened for safety in the magnetic environment.

Children will be given appropriately sized earplugs or headphones during the exam. MRI scanners are air-conditioned and well-lit. Music may be played through the headphones to help you pass the time.

Some patients feel mild bloating or cramping when the substance and contrast material is inserted into the rectum.

You may resume your usual activities and normal diet immediately after the exam.

Who interprets the results and how do I get them?

A radiologist, a physician specifically trained to supervise and interpret radiology examinations, will analyze the images and send a signed report to your primary care or referring physician, who will share the results with you.

What are the benefits vs. risks?

Benefits

  • MR defecography helps assess pelvic floor abnormalities that can be difficult to diagnose through physical examination and other tests such as colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy.
  • MRI is a noninvasive imaging technique that does not involve exposure to ionizing radiation.
  • MR images of the soft-tissue structures of the body—such as the heart, liver and many other organs—are clearer and more detailed than with other imaging methods. This detail makes MRI an invaluable tool in early diagnosis and evaluation of cancer.
  • MRI has proven valuable in diagnosing a broad range of conditions, including heart and vascular disease, stroke, and joint and musculoskeletal disorders.
  • MRI can help physicians evaluate both the structure of an organ and how it is working.
  • MRI enables the discovery of abnormalities that might be obscured by bone with other imaging methods.

Risks

  • The MRI examination poses almost no risk to the average patient when appropriate safety guidelines are followed.
  • Although the strong magnetic field is not harmful in itself, implanted medical devices that contain metal may malfunction or cause problems during an MRI exam.

What are the limitations of magnetic resonance imaging (MR) defecography?

High-quality images are assured only if you are able to remain perfectly still and follow breath-holding instructions while the images are being recorded. If you are anxious, confused or in severe pain, you may find it difficult to lie still during imaging.

A person who is very large may not fit into the opening of certain types of MRI machines.

The presence of an implant or other metallic object sometimes makes it difficult to obtain clear images. Patient movement can have the same effect.

A very irregular heartbeat may affect the quality of images obtained using techniques that time the imaging based on the electrical activity of the heart, such as electrocardiography (EKG).

Although there is no reason to believe that magnetic resonance imaging harms the fetus, pregnant women usually are advised not to have an MRI exam during the first trimester unless medically necessary.

Brain’s immune cells hyperactive in schizophrenia.


New research links the onset of psychosis to the brain’s inflammatory response.

PET imaging schizophrenia

The brain’s immune cells are hyperactive in people who are at risk of developing schizophrenia, as well as during the earliest stages of the disease, according to a new study by researchers at the MRC Clinical Sciences Centre in London. The findings, published today in the American Journal of Psychiatry, suggest that inflammatory processes play an important role in the development of the disease, and raise the possibility that it could be treated with drugs that block or reduce this cellular response.

Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness that affects about 1 in 100 people, and is characterised by symptoms such as auditory and visual hallucinations, and delusions of paranoia or grandeur. People with the disease may hear voices in their head, or believe that other people are controlling their thoughts, or are trying to hurt them.

Although the causes of schizophrenia are unknown, inflammatory processes have already been implicated in it. Patients with schizophrenia, and those deemed to be at high risk of developing the disorder, exhibit elevated levels of small, pro-inflammatory proteins called cytokines, and this is associated with reduced gray matter volume; and post-mortem examinations of brain tissue show that activated microglial cells are present in higher numbers in people with schizophrenia compared to others, particularly in the frontal and temporal lobes.
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Microglia are the brain’s resident immune cells, which form its first line of defence against infection and injury. In any such event, damaged neurons emit a distress signal, which activates microglial cells and attracts them to the damaged or infected site, where they proceed to engulf and neutralize pathogens, cellular debris, and anything else that is potentially harmful or no longer needed. This occurs by a process called phagocytosis, whereby a segment of the microglial cell membrane first envelops the undesired material, then pulls it inwards and internalizes it completely.

Peter Bloomfield and his colleagues wanted to know if the activity of microglial cells is altered in the early stages of schizophrenia. They recruited 14 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, and 14 at risk of developing the disease, from mental health centres in south London, and 28 healthy, age-matched controls for comparison, via posters and newspaper advertisements.

The researchers used neurochemical imaging to measure the level of microglial activity. First, they injected all their participants with a radioactive ‘tracer’ molecule called [11C]PBR28. This binds in a highly selective manner to TSPO, a transporter protein synthesised mostly, but not exclusively, by microglial cells, which ramp up their production of it when activated. They then carried out positron emission tomography (PET) scans to visualize the distribution and intensity of tracer binding in the participants’ brains, in order to determine the extent of microglial activation.

The scans revealed that binding of the radioactive tracer was far more widely distributed in the brains of patients with schizophrenia, and in those at risk of the disease, compared to the controls. Crucially, distribution of the tracer was closely related to symptom severity, with those patients presenting with more severe symptoms. And one participant in the at-risk group, who exhibited the highest level of tracer binding, went on to have their first psychotic episode, and developed full-blown schizophrenia, shortly afterwards.

This confirms earlier findings that microglial activation is elevated in the brains of patients with schizophrenia, and provides what the researchers believe is the very first evidence of elevated microglial activity in people who are at risk of developing schizophrenia, and of an association between greater microglial activation and greater severity of symptoms. While it’s possible that excessive microglial activation is merely a protective response, the results strongly suggest that inflammatory processes are involved in the disease, and may even contribute to its development.

We now know that microglia eliminate unwanted synaptic connections in the same way that the remove pathogens and damaged cells, engulfing them by phagocytosis. This process, called synaptic pruning, occurs extensively throughout the developing brain, and as a matter of course in the healthy adult brain, which continuously makes and breaks synapses. Major pruning also occurs during a protracted period that extends from late adolescence through to early adulthood.

This pruning eliminates some 40% of the total number of synapses in the brain, and is critical for maturation of the frontal cortex, which is involved in so-called executive functions such as planning and decision-making. It makes adolescence and early adulthood a highly sensitive period, during which people are more susceptible to various kinds of mental illness. Schizophrenia typically begins in this stage of life, and so may occur as a result of aberrant pruning.

“My hunch is that this is what’s going on, and that microglial activation is part of the disease pathology, as opposed to a protective response,” says senior author Oliver Howes. “We know that people with schizophrenia have loss of synapses, and that microglia play a role in synaptic pruning. If pruning goes to excess, or goes wrong, it could lead to major problems in brain function, and that may be what we’re seeing here.”

The results suggest that blocking or reducing microglial activation, with drugs that are already being used to treat other conditions, might alleviate the symptoms of schizophrenia. “We think microglia may be activated in response to infection or head trauma, but then start pruning too much, leading to the onset of the illness,” says Howes, “and now we’re planning a clinical study that reduces microglial activation to see if that reduces symptoms. Beyond that, we’d like to take it to a full-scale clinical trial and look at potentially preventing onset altogether.”

Scientists Have Just Told Women To STOP Wearing Bras. Here’s Why – Healthy Bio Food


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October 13th is a day when NO Bras are worn! For real! It’s called National No Bra Day, invented by those who promote breast cancer awareness and help raise money for research. Clearly, a bunch of ladies with no bras on will bring enough attention to the cause but who knew that wearing bras could actually be bad for our breasts?

Bras are intended to keep women “in place” and if you’re an active woman with large breasts, this can be a good thing. It’s hard to move around when every move that you make is emphasized by your breasts’ corresponding movements.

Scientists Have Just Told Women To STOP Wearing Bras

However, according to sport science researcher, Jean-Denis Rouillion, a professor at the University of Franche-Comte in the town of Besancon and his 15 year study of the effect of bras on 330 women between the ages of 18-35 years, wearing a bra from early age did nothing to support the chest, reduce back pain or prevent premature sagging.“Medically, physiologically, anatomically, breasts gain no benefit from being denied gravity. On the contrary, they get saggier with a bra.” Oh no!

The researchers now believe that we lack a development of supporting breast tissue when we wear a bra and that without one, we would gain more tone to support our breasts. The women who stopped wearing bras during this study had a 7-millimeter lift in their nipples when compared to a regular bra user. Yay! It seems that we do have some control over the way our breasts look over time. They claim that bras could also hamper circulation and reduce the overall tone of our breasts.

“For younger women, not wearing a bra will lead to increased collagen production and elasticity, which improves lift in a developing breast,” said Dr. Stafford Broumand.

However, as mentioned earlier, women wear bras for other reasons besides reducing the sag of their breasts. Mostly they are worn to keep our breasts from moving around and distracting those around us. Bras are an important article of clothing used to cover us up more thoroughly. However, it appears that this is to our detriment and that maybe we should reconsider burning them.

 

The science behind female ejaculation.


Fair warning, this article will make reference to squirting, gushing and the G-spot. Now that’s out of the way, let’s have a candid discussion about female ejaculation. While pornography featuring female ejaculation has been banned in the UK, it represents thethird most searched category in Australia and has been a consistent point of curiosity throughout history. Many of you may be surprised to learn that females are capable of ejaculation, however, the phenomena has been written about from as early as 4 Century China, where the liquids excreted during orgasm were believed to be imbued with mystical and healthful properties.

As it turns out, during orgasm some women (10-40 per cent) experience the involuntary emission of fluid ranging from 30 to 150mL. This has become known colloquially as squirting, though this usually refers to a larger amount of liquid being excreted. In the Western world, great minds like Aristotle and Hippocrates have pondered the origins of ‘female sperm’ and ‘female discharge’ but the earliest approximations of scientific investigation were some rudimentary physiological descriptions appearing in everyone’s favourite bed-time read, the Kama Sutra. In the following centuries, female ejaculation continued to fascinate but it was not until the early 1900’s that any real progress was made in working out the source of this mysterious discharge.

In 1904, psychologist Havelock Ellis proposed that female ejaculation was analogous to semen and originated from the Bartholin glands (two pea-sized glands responsible for secreting mucous which lubricates the vagina). Almost 50 years later, Ernest Gräfenberg opposed this view by arguing that female ejaculation had little to do with lubrication. He came to this conclusion by observing women masturbate, noting that ejaculation occurred more frequently with palpation of an erogenous zone on the front wall of the vagina which became later known as the G-spot.

Interestingly, ancient descriptions of this erogenous zone closely match Gräfenberg’s centuries later work. It was Gräfenberg’s contention that female ejaculation was secretion from intraurethral glands located underneath the G-spot. It was not, Gräfenberg was adamant, urine, which was the leading alternative hypothesis at the time.

One man’s opinion is far from conclusive and in 1982 researchers undertook chemical analysis of female ejaculate and a clearer picture began to form. This landmark study demonstrated a clear difference between the liquid excreted during orgasm and urine, a finding that was later confirmed by several independent scientific studies. From these results, it was posited that female ejaculate originated from the Skene’s glands: the equivalent of a female prostate.

 

Yet the scientific community remains divided, some questioning the very existence of the G-spot while others question the vast differences in the amount of fluid expressed by women. Some women report very little liquid (2-4mL) resembling watered-down milk, while others express far greater volume. This has led some researchers to maintain that squirting is actually an involuntary emission of urine, or hyper lubrication. A recent study published out of Le Chesnay, France conducted by Samuel Salama and his colleagues sought to lay these questions to rest by combining ultra-sound imaging with chemical analysis of higher volume female ejaculate.

The researchers recruited seven women who self-reported that they squirted the equivalent to a glass of water during orgasm, enough to noticeably wet the bed-sheets. The women provided a urine sample, and then underwent an ultrasound that confirmed that their bladders were indeed empty. The women then, either with the help of their partner or alone, began sexual stimulation and once sufficiently aroused underwent a second ultrasound. At this point, the women returned to the task at hand until they achieved orgasm and ejaculation. A sample of the ejaculate was collected and the final ultrasound performed.

Unsurprisingly, the first ultrasound showed that participants’ bladders had emptied. However, the second ultrasound, conducted when the women were close to orgasm, showed significant bladder filling. The final ultrasound once more showed that the women’s bladders were empty. This suggested that female ejaculation, at least for these women, was largely urine.

Biochemical analysis of the fluid showed that this was definitely the case for two of the women in the study. For the other five, the analysis showed that the fluid was largely urine but it also contained prostate-specific androgen (PSA) originating from the Skene’s glands. The authors of the study concluded that these results strongly support the hypothesis that female ejaculation is an involuntary urine emission. The presence of PSA was ruled to be residue of ‘true’ female ejaculation.

So is ‘squirting’ just pee? Yes and no. It seems that larger volume fluid emissions, or squirting, are for the most part urine. However, there does appear to be evidence that a smaller volume of fluid is actually female prostate secretion due to mechanical stimulation of the G-spot. Whether this constitutes ‘true’ female ejaculation remains to be seen as most previous studies include all ranges of fluid emission. Further, it is unknown conclusively whether these two forms of excretion are mutually exclusive, or whether there is some overlap as suggested by the presence of PSA in the urine of women in this study. Likely, women who are capable of ejaculation naturally vary in the amount of fluid they excrete.

The implications for personal and sexual health are also unclear. An international survey of women who were capable of ejaculating found that four of five reported that squirting was enriching to their sexual lives. However, this included any volume of fluid emission. Squirting generally results from a combination of stimulation of the G-spot, relaxation and a comfortable emotional state and can occur without any larger implications of disease, and may be an indicator of a healthy sexual relationship.

The only clear conclusion that the researchers draw from this latest study is a recommendation to urinate frequently before and during sexual activity if squirting presents a problem. Other than that, stay hydrated and have fun.

Useless Body Parts


And an explanation for six other ‘useless’ body parts
male-nipple.jpg
Every day, people have their tonsils, appendix, and wisdom teeth removed—and after the pain subsides, they proceed without a hitch. The truth is, it’s not all that apparent why many parts of your body are there, or what they actually do.

“Evolution moves toward features that are advantageous over others, so at some point all anatomical features were important to our early ancestors,” says Anthony Weinhaus, Ph.D., director of the University of Minnesota’s Human Anatomy program. Some of these still serve a purpose—just not necessarily a function crucial to our survival anymore. Here are real explanations for these seven seemingly pointless body parts.
1. Nipples

Let’s get the biggest news out of the way: All men start off as women. “All embryos begin female, and if it masculinizes, it becomes male but keeps much of the same anatomy,” says Weinhaus. Nipples are the same in men and women, but without an influx of hormones like estrogen, they’re simply chest ornaments on men.

If they’re essentially the same, then Why Are Women’s Nipples Banned on Instagram, But Not Men’s?

2. Armpit Hair

There’s no definitive story for underarm hair, but its location offers a clue. There are two types of sweat glands in your body: eccrine and apocrine, the latter of which are mostly in your armpits, explains Daniel Lieberman, Ph.D., professor of human evolutionary biology at Harvard University. You use apocrine for sexual signaling. Presumably, the hair holds on to the secreted odors so they’ll stay around long enough for a potential mate to catch a whiff, he explains.

3. Eyebrows

The evolutionary purpose of eyebrows is debatable: In one camp, scientists believe brows keep sweat and rain off your eyes, which would help in primitive hunting and navigation. Lieberman favors the hypothesis that eyebrows serve to communicate your emotions, but they may also communicate your identity: Behavioral neuroscientists from Massachusetts Institute of Technology found that people were less likely to recognize pictures of celebrities without their eyebrows than without their eyes. The researchers speculate that eyebrows have remained because they’re crucial to identifying faces and navigating social circumstances.

4. Appendix

The appendix is a vestigial organ, which means it has lost most of its ancestral function. “One idea is the human appendix is remnant of what used to be a larger fermenting chamber in our gut,” Lieberman says. Since humans stopped eating uncooked or low-quality foods like grass, this chamber is no longer useful. Recent research, though, suggests the appendix might be an essential hangout spot for healthy bacteria. “Your microbiome is very important to digestive tract function, so this reservoir would allow microbes to recolonize your gut after inflammation or digestive issues,” he explains.

5. Tonsils

Tonsils are technically lymph nodes—part of the lymphatic system, which is vital to your immunity. “Your oral cavity is an entryway to your body, so immune cells in your throat can help you fight respiratory infections,” Lieberman explains. Sometimes your tonsils get inflamed and infected, which is when they’re removed. Your lymph nodes are incredibly important, but there’s some redundancy, so if a pair is taken away, you can survive without them, Lieberman adds.

6. Wisdom Teeth

Like monkeys, men have three permanent sets of molars. Until recently, wisdom teeth were never an issue for humans: “Teeth don’t change size. They’re grown before you use them, and then they erupt to the surface,” says Lieberman. Jaws are bone and, like the rest of your body, need to be supported and used in order to grow properly. Since humans now eat soft, cooked foods as children, our jaws don’t grow to the full capacity. This leaves inadequate space for all your molars, so your wisdom teeth grow in crooked and need to be pulled.

7. Foreskin

Male foreskin takes years to separate from the glans (head), which is unusual enough of a process to suggest one if its main functions may help prevent infection, especially in infants. It helps shield the opening of the urethra from any contaminates or bacteria, explains Weinhaus. It also protects your reproductive chances: Without a foreskin, the glans rubs against objects, like your clothes, and develops a thick layer of skin to desensitize itself, Weinhaus says. Foreskin keeps men more sexually sensitive, which would’ve encouraged our ancestors to reproduce more.

How To Turn Gray Hair To Its Original Color Naturally?


Gray hair, according to new findings, is caused by a massive buildup of hydrogen peroxide due to wear and tear on hair follicles. All hair cells make a small amount of hydrogen peroxide, but as you age, the amount increases. Essentially, you bleach our hair pigment from within and your hair turns gray and then white. Natural remedies can treat effectively problems such as thinning hair and premature graying.

Home Remedies for Premature Graying of Hair:

Flaxseed Oil Mix:

Flaxseed oil is commonly used oil in Ayurveda, and is used for reversing the premature graying of hair.

Method of Preparation:

-Put 3 small cloves of garlic and 4 medium sized lemons in a blender and mix.
-After that, add the 7 oz /200 grams of flaxseed oil and 2.2 lbs / 1 kg of honey and mix again.
-Place the mixture in a glass bowl and tightly close it with a lid. Keep this mixture in the refrigerator.
-Consume one tablespoon of the mixture half an hour before meal. Use wooden spoon only.
-It is recommended to consume this mixture three times a day.

Indian Gooseberry or Amla:

Indian gooseberry plays an important role in Ayurveda regarding the hair problems. Amla helps proper and faster hair growth and further prevents your hair from premature graying. Amla helps to revitalize the pigmentation in your hair and cures the gray hair problem.

Onion Juice:

Onion juice can control or reverse graying of hair.

-Take onion juice and apply this on the scalp.
-Massage it gently and let it sit for about 40 – 60 minutes.
-You can also mix a little bit of lemon juice in this onion juice and then apply this on the scalp. Or simply rub the onion piece (that cut into half) on the scalp.
-Reapply this process daily for few weeks till you get relief from the hair problems including premature gray hair.

Discovery about protein structure opens window on basic life process


Biochemists at Oregon State University have made a fundamental discovery about protein structure that sheds new light on how proteins fold, which is one of the most basic processes of life.

The findings, announced today in Science Advances, will help scientists better understand some important changes that proteins undergo. It had previously been thought to be impossible to characterize these changes, in part because the transitions are so incredibly small and fleeting.

The changes relate to how proteins convert from one observable shape to another—and they happen in less than one trillionth of a second, in molecules that are less than one millionth of an inch in size. It had been known that these changes must happen and they have been simulated by computers, but prior to this no one had ever observed how they happen.

Now they have, in part by recognizing the value of certain data collected by many researchers over the last two decades.

“Actual evidence of these transitions was hiding in plain sight all this time,” said Andrew Brereton, an OSU doctoral student and lead author on this study. “We just didn’t know what to look for, and didn’t understand how significant it was.”

Discovery about protein structure opens window on basic life process

All proteins start as linear chains of and then quickly fold to their proper shape, going through many high-energy transitions along the way. Proper folding is essential to the biological function of proteins, and when it doesn’t happen correctly, folding diseases can be one result—such as Alzheimer’s disease, Lou Gehrig’s disease, amyloidosis and others.

Proteins themselves are a critical component of life, the workhorses of biology. They are comparatively large, specialty molecules that can do everything from perceiving light to changing shape and making muscles function. Even the process of thinking involves proteins at the end of one neuron passing a message to different proteins on the next neuron.

A powerful tool called X-ray crystallography has been able to capture images of proteins in their more stable shapes, but what was unknown is exactly how they got from one stable form to another. The changes in shape that are needed for those transitions are fleeting and involve distortions in the molecules that are extreme and difficult to predict.

What the OSU researchers discovered, however, is that the stable shapes adopted by a few proteins actually contained some parts that were trapped in the act of changing shape, conceptually similar to finding mosquitos trapped in amber.

“We discovered that some proteins were holding single building blocks in shapes that were supposed to be impossible to find in a stable form,” said Andrew Karplus, the corresponding author on the study and a distinguished professor of biochemistry and biophysics in the OSU College of Science.

“Apparently about one building block out of every 6,000 gets trapped in a highly unlikely shape that is like a single frame in a movie,” Karplus said. “The set of these trapped residues taken together have basically allowed us to make a movie that shows how these special protein shape changes occur. And what this movie shows has real differences from what the computer simulations had predicted.”

As with most fundamental discoveries, the researchers said, the full value of the findings may take years or decades to play out.

What is clear is that proteins are key to some of the most fundamental processes of life, and this new information has revealed the first direct views of specific details of one aspect of protein folding in a way that had not been considered possible.

“In the 1870s an English photographer named Eadweard Muybridge made some famous photographs that settled a debate which had been going on for decades, about whether horses as they run actually lift all four feet off the ground at the same time,” Karplus said.

“His novel series of stop-action photos proved that they did, and opened up a whole new understanding of animal locomotion,” he said. “In a similar way, our results change the way researchers can now look at one of the ways proteins change shape, and that’s a pretty fundamental part of life.”

Nanodiamonds might prevent tooth loss after root canals


People undergoing root canals may have gained a powerful, if tiny, new ally. Researchers from the UCLA School of Dentistry have found that using nanodiamonds to fortify a material used in the procedure could significantly improve outcomes for patients.

A paper on their research is published in the current issue of the peer-reviewed journal ACS Nano.

Nanodiamonds are tiny particles formed as byproducts of diamond refining and mining. Thousands of times smaller than the width of a human hair, they have been widely explored for use in dentistry, cancer therapy, imaging and regenerative medicine, among other applications.

Each year, more than 15 million root canal procedures are performed in the United States. Dentists’ goal is to save their patients’ teeth from infected dental “pulp”—the part of the tooth that includes blood vessels and nerve tissue. During a root canal, inflamed dental pulp is removed and the empty space is then filled in with a polymer called gutta percha, which is used in part because it does not react within the body. But some root canals don’t entirely remove the infection, and residual infection after root canals can lead to tooth loss.

In addition, traditional gutta percha has certain shortcomings, including a limited capacity to ward off infection and less-than-optimal rigidity.

To overcome those issues, the UCLA team developed and tested two types of reinforced gutta percha: One strengthened with nanodiamonds and another strengthened with nanodiamonds that had been pre-loaded with antibiotics.

To evaluate the first type, Sue Vin Kim and Adelheid Nerisa Limansubroto, study co-authors who are UCLA Dentistry students, filled actual teeth from human patients. Using conventional radiography and micro-computed tomography, or micro-CT, they showed that the nanodiamond-enhanced gutta percha could be used to fill the tooth. Like the traditional formulation, the nanodiamond-enhanced compound did leave small gaps in the canal—where harmful bacteria could grow—but the CT imaging showed that the enhanced material filled the space just as effectively as traditional gutta percha.

“Validating this novel material in teeth extracted from patients serves as a strong foundation for the potential translation of nanodiamond-reinforced gutta percha toward clinical testing,” said Dean Ho, a senior author of the study and a professor of oral biology and medicine and co-director of UCLA Dentistry’s Jane and Jerry Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology.

In the research’s second phase, the scientists tested nanodiamonds that had been loaded with amoxicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic used to combat infection. The drug-reinforced , when combined with the gutta percha, effectively prevented bacteria growth.

“The nanodiamond-enhanced gutta percha combines many desirable properties into a single platform, including vastly improved mechanical characteristics and the ability to combat bacterial infection following a ,” said Dong-Keun Lee, a postdoctoral scholar in Ho’s lab.

The study involved UCLA researchers with expertise in a wide range of disciplines—materials science, nanotechnology, drug delivery, toxicology, oral radiology, endodontics, microbiology and other fields.

“Through their ingenuity and collaboration, Professor Ho’s team is poised to transform the way that dentistry is practiced,” said Dr. No-Hee Park, dean of UCLA Dentistry and a co-author of the study.

During the next two years, the team plans optimize the formulation of the nanodiamond-reinforced gutta percha and begin clinical trials at UCLA.