So what’s the deal with garlic and high blood pressure? Garlic has been recommended as a natural remedy to treat high blood pressure for a long time now, and research still claims that garlic does indeed lower blood pressure.
How can garlic help patients with high blood pressure?
What is in the garlic that lowers blood pressure? The same thing that makes the garlic have that strong smell. The allicin in the garlic is what is responsible for both the smell and the hypotensive effect of garlic. The hypotensive effects are due to a few known reasons including that it has to do with an increase in red blood cell velocity, and nitric oxide metabolism. (Bauman, 121) Since it is the allicin that makes the garlic smell as well as lower blood pressure, it is important to steer away from the odorless garlic supplements since they may be less affective.
Garlic also contains small amounts of selenium and selenium is believed to prevent abnormal blood clotting, to normalize blood pressure, and to prevent infections. (motherearthnew.com). Aside from lowering blood pressure, garlic can also help in lowering cholesterol, and can help fight off germs,
So how much garlic do you have to have to get the therapeutic value? Garlic has been shown to be effective in lowering systolic blood pressure with 600-900 mg of powdered garlic. (Silagy & Neil, 1994) This is equal to about 1 fresh clove.
Creative ways to eat garlic
– Sautéed in olive oil.
– Make your own homemade garlic bread with whole wheat bread, crushed garlic and olive oil.
– In homemade salsa.
– In homemade hummus
– As a seasoning for vegetables.
– Stirred into homemade marinara.
Attempting to understand the whole wide universe can be quite an uphill task. Over the years, scientists have found solutions to a number of different mysteries surrounding the world. For instance, why does the sky appear blue and how planets orbit around the Sun. Pursuing such challenges to unravel such mysteries is always a hard nut to crack. Physicists across the globe have come up with various theories only to face even more challenges along the way. Here is a list of five greatest mysteries of physics that remain unsolved to date. Mind you, even the greatest minds have failed.
It is something we can only test. Neither can one feel it, nor can one see it. Despite those facts, scientists believe 70 percent of the universe comprises dark energy. Many people believe that it is the reason why galaxies accelerate farther away from one another. One may perceive it as repulsive gravity which splits matter apart. Ofcourse, there is no way of saying how this works.
It does not just stop at dark energy, folks. Similar to dark energy, dark matter can neither be felt nor seen. There are some differences that exist, though. It can only be observed, indirectly. Since one is able to measure gravitational effects, we all are aware that there is matter in the universe that many of us have not even seen.
3. Wave or particle?
Rays of light suffer from split personality disorder. All these rays tend to make interference patterns which is a common sight in waves. The rays bounce off the surface. This goes to show that they could be either a particle or a wave or even both of those. These rays even have the ability to free electrons from their respective shells. That leaves us with the question: how would light determine if it must act as a wave or a particle?
It is no secret that time wears on and so does age. We grow older as time passes just as trees grow taller until they can not any further. Thus, time can only go in a single direction, further. Can you think of the obvious question? That is correct; why can we not reverse our clocks and go back in time just like in those movies?
5. Why can humans not imagine the four dimensions?
Human beings have a hard time viewing the world with four dimensions. A couple of theories require a total of eleven dimensions to be possible, hypothetically. If this string of theories happens to be true, one would have to determine how six missing dimensions can exist in our reality
Jamaican author Marlon James has won the Man Booker Prize for his novel inspired by the attempted assassination of Bob Marley in the 1970s.
Michael Wood, chair of the judges, described A Brief History of Seven Killings as the “most exciting” book on the shortlist.
The 680-page epic was “full of surprises” as well as being “very violent” and “full of swearing”.
James was announced as the winner of the £50,000 prize in London on Tuesday.
He is the first Jamaican author to win the Man Booker Prize. Receiving the award, he said a huge part of the novel had been inspired by reggae music.
“The reggae singers Bob Marley and Peter Tosh were the first to recognise that the voice coming out our mouths was a legitimate voice for fiction and poetry.”
The 44-year-old author was presented with his prize by the Duchess of Cornwall.
He admitted it was “so surreal” to win and dedicated the award to his late father who had shaped his “literary sensibilities”.
Set across three decades, the novel uses the true story of the attempt on the life of reggae star Marley to explore the turbulent world of Jamaican gangs and politics.
Wood said the judges had come to a unanimous decision in less than two hours.
He praised the book’s “many voices” – it contains more than 75 characters – which “went from Jamaican slang to Biblical heights”.
He said: “One of the pleasures of reading it is that you turn the page and you’re not quite sure who the next narrator will be.”
But he acknowledged that some of the content might be too much for some readers.
“Someone said to me they like to give Booker winners to their mother to read, but this might be a little difficult.”
Wood admitted his own mother wouldn’t have got beyond the first few pages on the basis of the swearing.
“A lot of it is very very funny,” he added. “It is not an easy read. It is a big book. There is some tough stuff and there is a lot of swearing but it is not a difficult book to approach.”
In his novel’s acknowledgements, Marlon James himself thanks his family but adds: “This time around maybe my mother should stay away from part four of the book”.
‘Visceral and uncompromising’
This is the second year the Man Booker prize has been open to all authors writing in English, regardless of nationality.
James, who currently lives in Minneapolis, US, can expect a dramatic boost in sales following his win. After A Brief History of Seven Killings was named on the Booker shortlist last month sales tripled to more than 1,000 copies a week, according to Nielsen Book Research.
“It’s a visceral and uncompromising novel that sheds a stark light on a profoundly disturbing chapter of Jamaica’s history, but it’s also an ingeniously structured feat of storytelling that draws the reader in with its eye-catching use of language,” said Jonathan Ruppin, web editor at Foyles bookshops.
“For booksellers, it’s truly heartening to see such ambition and originality recognised and rewarded, and readers have already been embracing it with great enthusiasm.”
Australian author Richard Flanagan won last year’s prize for his wartime novel The Narrow Road to the Deep North.
Man Booker 2015 shortlist
This year’s Man Booker shortlist featured two authors from the UK, two from the US and one each from Jamaica and Nigeria.
Marlon James (Jamaica), A Brief History of Seven Killings
If you’re lost, you need a map and a compass. The map pinpoints where you are, and the compass orients you in the right direction.Migratory birds, on the other hand, cantraverse entire hemispheres and end up just a couple miles from where they bred last year, using their senses alone. Their compass is the sun, the stars and the Earth’s magnetic field. But their map is a little more mysterious. One theory goes that they use olfactory cues—how a place smells. Another is that they rely on their sense of magnetism.
Researchers in Russia investigated the map issue in a past study by capturing Eurasian reed warblers on the Baltic Sea as they flew northeast towards their breeding grounds near Saint Petersburg. They moved the birds 600 miles east, near Moscow. And the birds just reoriented themselves to the northwest—correctly determining their new position.
Now the same scientists have repeated that experiment—only this time, they didn’t move the birds at all. They just put them in cages that simulated the magnetic field of Moscow, while still allowing the birds to experience the sun, stars and smells of the Baltic. Once again, the birds re-oriented themselves to the northwest—suggesting that the magnetic field alone—regardless of smells or other cues, is enough to alter the birds’ mental map. The study is in the journal Current Biology. [Dmitry Kishkinev et al, Eurasian reed warblers compensate for virtual magnetic displacement]
And if you’re envious of that sixth sense—keep in mind that since the Earth’s magnetic field fluctuates, the researchers say magnetic route-finding is best for crude navigation. Meaning for door-to-door directions—you’re still better off with your GPS.
Who do you know that smokes, takes medications and could care less about buying organic food? Who do you know that wears too much cheap makeup, or drinks too many mixed drinks at the bar, or who always orders enough food for three? Maybe it’s you that’s being labeled with one of these “allopathic assault” genres, or maybe a handful; either way, what you end up with is a need for chronic medical attention and you might not like what you find. Many large corporations make their biggest bucks from selling products that cost them nearly nothing to manufacture and aren’t tested for safety. This goes for drugs. Though you think they’re putting in the scientific “manpower” and “man-hours,” what they’re really doing is far from that. Statistics are simply made up out of thin air to suit the needs for contracts. Science is “for sale,” folks. Keep reading.
One definition of assault: “a concerted attempt to do something demanding.” Have you been vaccinated with everything the CDC says you should be? With or without your permission? The whole vaccine schedule? Because that’s a lot of mercury and aluminum swimming in your blood. Sounds like you’ve been assaulted.
Have you been informed of exactly what’s in your food? Are you given permission by the powers that be to look? Did someone exploit YOUR scruples? In other words, might you have filtered certain toxins out of your life had you known they were there? Sounds like you’ve been assaulted.
If you’re a smoker, then you made a choice… to smoke that first cigarette and the most recent one. You made a choice to drink six beers instead of one, or to eat a cheeseburger instead of steamed organic broccoli. Allopathic means never justify the results. Covering up symptoms and relieving you of them just puts off the inevitable. You don’t unscrew the bulb of the warning light on your vehicle when something goes wrong and figure the problem will work itself out — you call a mechanic. So why take prescription drugs for pain, depression, cholesterol and blood pressure, if the cause of your pain, depression and malnutrition stems from bad food choices? You make the choices, and the consequences are defined by your actions. Energy and immunity come from organic food. Period.
Fear-mongering fake news on TV: Do not be influenced by the hypochondriacs that feed off the fear-mongering fake news and fake CDC statistics. These are myths to keep you in a mode of fear-thinking, about infectious disease your body can defeat with nutrition. Sounds like you’ve been assaulted. Turn off the television and learn the natural ways to detoxify your body and never return to synthetic excuses for toxic indulgence. Help yourself; then, you can help your friends and family.
Cigarettes contain 7,000 chemicals: Is the answer to quitting smoking found in synthetic medications that give you side effects that include intolerable nightmares, depression and feelings of suicide? Is the answer to quitting smoking found in a patch that just keeps feeding your blood one of the most addictive substances in the world — nicotine? Is the answer found in an electronic cigarette which contains more nicotine? The answer is no to all of those questions. Quitting smoking means getting healthy, and that means educating yourself immediately about nutrition, because certainly any smoker is missing vital vitamins and minerals they must recover after however many years they’ve suffered CIGARETTES!
“The threat of multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens is growing, yet the pipeline of new antibiotics is drying up. We need to open the medicine cabinet and take a closer look at the potential infection-fighting properties of other drugs that we already know are safe for patients,” said senior author Victor Nizet, MD, professor of pediatrics and pharmacy. “Through this approach, we discovered that tamoxifen has pharmacological properties that could aid the immune system in cases where a patient is immunocompromised or where traditional antibiotics have otherwise failed.”
Tamoxifen targets the estrogen receptor, making it particularly effective against breast cancers that display the molecule abundantly. But some evidence suggests that tamoxifen has other cellular effects that contribute to its effectiveness, too. For example, tamoxifen influences the way cells produce fatty molecules, known as sphingolipids, independent of the estrogen receptor. Sphingolipids, and especially one in particular, ceramide, play a role in regulating the activities of white blood cells known as neutrophils.
“Tamoxifen’s effect on ceramides led us to wonder if, when it is administered in patients, the drug would also affect neutrophil behavior,” said first author Ross Corriden, PhD, project scientist in the UC San Diego School of Medicine Department of Pharmacology.
To test their theory, the researchers incubated human neutrophils with tamoxifen. Compared to untreated neutrophils, they found that tamoxifen-treated neutrophils were better at moving toward and phagocytosing, or engulfing, bacteria. Tamoxifen-treated neutrophils also produced approximately three-fold more neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), a mesh of DNA, antimicrobial peptides, enzymes and other proteins that neutrophils spew out to ensnare and kill pathogens. Treating neutrophils with other molecules that target the estrogen receptor had no effect, suggesting that tamoxifen enhances NET production in a way unrelated to the estrogen receptor. Further studies linked the tamoxifen effect to its ability to influence neutrophil ceramide levels.
The team also tested Tamoxifen’s immune-boosting effect in a mouse model. One hour after treatment with tamoxifen or a control, the researchers infected mice with MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), a “superbug” of great concern to human health. They treated the mice again with tamoxifen or the control one and eight hours after infection and monitored them for five days.
Tamoxifen significantly protected mice — none of the control mice survived longer than one day after infection, while about 35 percent of the tamoxifen-treated mice survived five days. Approximately five times fewer MRSA were collected from the peritoneal fluid of the tamoxifen-treated mice, as compared to control mice.
There are two caveats, the researchers said. First, while tamoxifen was effective against MRSA in this study, the outcome may vary with other pathogens. That’s because several bacterial species have evolved methods for evading NET capture. Second, in the absence of infection, too many NETs could be harmful. Some studies have linked excessive NET production to inflammatory disease, such as vasculitis and bronchial asthma.
“While known for its efficacy against breast cancer cells, many other cell types are also exposed to tamoxifen. The ‘off-target effects’ we identified in this study could have critical clinical implications given the large number of patients who take tamoxifen, often every day for years,” Nizet said.
Tamoxifen is taken daily by hundreds of thousands of patients worldwide for the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. The World Health Organization considers tamoxifen an “essential medicine,” due to its cost-effectiveness and safety profile. According to the breast cancer organization Susan G. Komen, generic tamoxifen cost patients about $100 per month in 2010.
Tamoxifen is not the only drug prescribed for other indications that just happen to also boost neutrophil activity. In 2010, Nizet and team reported that cholesterol-lowering statins also enhance NET formation. That study can be found here.
Center for Food Safety (CFS) today released a new searchable database of consumer food products that contain nanotechnology. Common food related products that contain nanotechnology include candies (M&M’s, Skittles), baby bottles, and plastic storage containers. Nanotechnology is a powerful but novel platform for taking apart and reconstructing nature at the atomic and molecular level with important human and environmental health ramifications. The database contains almost 300 food products and food contact products that use nano.
“Scientists agree that nanomaterials create novel risks that require new forms of toxicity testing. But very little testing and regulation of these new products exists, and consumers have almost no information,” said Jaydee Hanson, senior policy analyst at Center for Food Safety. “This easy to use database is a step to fill the information gap, to alert consumers of just how widespread this technology is and to improve transparency in our food supply.”
Because of their unique properties, nanomaterials pose new risks for human health and the environment. For example, nanomaterials have unprecedented mobility for a manufactured material. Nanomaterials can penetrate human skin and when ingested, reach sensitive places like bone marrow, lymph nodes, the heart, and the brain.
Despite these novel properties, nanomaterials are regulated the same way as larger materials of the same substance. Although they have not been properly evaluated, they are popping up in a wide variety of consumer goods.
The release of the database comes after a new study published by Friends of the Earth (FOE)- Australia that showed the presence of nanomaterials, specifically nano titanium dioxide and nano silica, in all 14 food products the group tested. None of these products were labeled as containing nano ingredients nor were they submitted for nano-specific regulation. Most of these products are being sold in the U.S.
This new database covers over 40 different types of nanomaterials and is the only database to focus exclusively on food and food contact products. Of particular concern is the prominence of nano ingredients in so many foods frequently consumed by children.
“The FDA is failing to prevent nano-laced foods from being sold. Our food safety agency should demand that these products be taken off the market, as companies are using food additives and food contact materials not approved at the nano scale,” said Hanson.
Bulk scale titanium dioxide is used as a food coloring agent, often to make foods look whiter or brighter, but the FDA has not set exposure limits yet for its use at the nano scale in the US. Moreover, the largest review of nano titanium dioxide studies show that many basic questions have not been answered. Candies like M&M’s, processed cheeses, and chewing gum have all been found to contain nano titanium dioxide. Nano titanium dioxide is small enough to cross through the intestine and into organs where it can damage DNA and disrupt cell function.
Silica is an anti-caking agent used in powdered food products, but it, too, could cause health problems at the nano-scale. The European Commission’s Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) found evidence that nano silica can damage DNA and concluded that the data is inadequate and no conclusion of safety can be made. Several recent studies have shown that nano silica can cause liver toxicity.
CollagenWIKIMEDIA, NEVIT DILMENResearchers in Sweden and the U.K. have announced that they will begin a stem cell clinical trial in several months to treat brittle bone disease, a rare disorder that causes frequent bone fractures, impaired growth, and even death. The plan is to deliver stem cells that will produce collagen and strengthen bones—half of the babies will receive the therapy in utero, the other half shortly after birth.
One child, now 13, has already received the stem cells and Cecilia Götherström, who is leading the study at Sweden’s Karolinska Institute, said in a press release that the patient is doing well and still growing. Her team’s study will be the first to try the stem cell treatment in the womb. “[W]e believe that we can improve the treatment for other patients by administering it to the foetus and again in repeated doses during the child’s first years of life.”
Dusko Ilic, a stem cell researcher at King’s College London, told BBC News that “any attempt to help the patients suffering this terrible, debilitating disease is more than welcome.” He also pointed out a potential limitation of the study, regarding the fact that people develop different severities. “How will we know whether a milder phenotype [symptoms] in a child that received the treatment is natural or is a result of the treatment?”
Götherström told BBC News that fetuses will receive the first infusion of donor cells at 20 weeks to 34 weeks gestation. The trial is slated to begin in January.
When children are prescribed antibiotics that they don’t need, doctors often point to pressure from parents, saying that they demand the drugs for their kids.
But a new study suggests that this may not be the case with parents whose kids are sick — and, in fact, many parents are cautious about giving the drugs to their children.
In the study, the researchers interviewed more than 100 parents in Pennsylvania who took their children to the doctor for symptoms of a respiratory infection, like a cough or cold. Before the parents met with the doctor, the researchers asked them about their view of antibiotics and whether they planned to ask for the drugs. The parents were from a variety of educational and racial backgrounds.
None of the parents said they had planned to ask the doctor for antibiotics at the visit, the researchers found.
Instead, most parents said they wanted to learn what was wrong with their child, and that they trusted their doctors’ advice on treatment, the study found. Most parents didn’t have a strong opinion about antibiotics, but some were hesitant to use the drugs, describing them as “a necessarily evil.”
Study co-author Julia Szymczak, a postdoctoral fellow at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia who studies medical sociology, said she was surprised by the results. “The overwhelming wariness [towards antibiotics] was a real surprise,” Szymczak said. [6 Superbugs to Watch Out For]
In a prior study, Szymczak and colleagues asked pediatricians why they sometimes prescribed antibiotics when they are not necessary — for example, when a child’s infection is caused by a virus, which won’t be helped by antibiotics. Most doctors cited parents’ demand for the drugs.
But the new findings suggest that, for doctors, “parents may actually be your ally,” in efforts to use antibiotics only when they are needed, Szymczak said. “It may not take much for you to partner with parents to wisely use antibiotics,” she added.
The overuse of antibiotics is a problem because over time, it can promote the evolution of strains of bacteria that are resistant to the drugs.
It’s not clear why doctors say they feel pressure from parents to prescribe antibiotics, when parents appear to be cautious about using the drugs.
But doctors often have only a short amount of time to spend with their patients during each appointment, and the time pressure that doctors feel could contribute to a misperception of parents’ attitudes.
“When you feel rushed and pressured, you are going to jump to conclusions about somebody that you wouldn’t if you had more time,” Szymczak said.
Szymczak noted that most parents “want reassurance that their child is not gravely ill, or that the symptoms that they’re experiencing are going to resolve.”
Providing doctors with a tool kit of words or phrases to help reassure parents might be one way to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use, Szymczak said.
Ever wondered what it takes for a potential cystic fibrosis drug to become FDA-approved? Here’s an explanation of the four phases of clinical research.
This is an exciting time for cystic fibrosis research, with more than two dozen potential drugs being tested in clinical trials.
But in order for any new drug to become available to the public, it must pass through three phases of clinical trials to show that it is safe and effective in treating the disease, and receive approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). If the FDA approves the drug, it will continue to be monitored for safety and effectiveness in what is known as a Phase 4 study.
Here’s a breakdown of the questions that researchers try to answer, the number of participants needed and the time per participant for each phase of research.