What is a Wormhole?

A wormhole is a theoretical passage through space-time that could create shortcuts for long journeys across the universe. Wormholes are predicted by the theory of general relativity. But be wary: wormholes bring with them the dangers of sudden collapse, high radiation and dangerous contact with exotic matter.

Wormhole theory

In 1935, physicists Albert Einstein and Nathan Rosen used the theory of general relativity to propose the existence of “bridges” through space-time. These paths, called Einstein-Rosen bridges or wormholes, connect two different points in space-time, theoretically creating a shortcut that could reduce travel time and distance.

Wormholes contain two mouths, with a throat connecting the two. The mouths would most likely be spheroidal. The throat might be a straight stretch, but it could also wind around, taking a longer path than a more conventional route might require.

Einstein’s theory of general relativity mathematically predicts the existence of wormholes, but none have been discovered to date. A negative mass wormhole might be spotted by the way its gravity affects light that passes by.

Certain solutions of general relativity allow for the existence of wormholes where the mouth of each is a black hole. However, a naturally occurring black hole, formed by the collapse of a dying star, does not by itself create a wormhole.

Through the wormhole

Science fiction is filled with tales of traveling through wormholes. But the reality of such travel is more complicated, and not just because we’ve yet to spot one.

The first problem is size. Primordial wormholes are predicted to exist on microscopic levels, about 10–33 centimeters. However, as the universe expands, it is possible that some may have been stretched to larger sizes.

Another problem comes from stability. The predicted Einstein-Rosen wormholes would be useless for travel because they collapse quickly. But more recent research found that a wormhole containing “exotic” matter could stay open and unchanging for longer periods of time.

Exotic matter, which should not be confused with dark matter or antimatter, contains negative energy density and a large negative pressure. Such matter has only been seen in the behavior of certain vacuum states as part of quantum field theory.

If a wormhole contained sufficient exotic matter, whether naturally occurring or artificially added, it could theoretically be used as a method of sending information or travelers through space.

Wormholes may not only connect two separate regions within the universe, they could also connect two different universes. Similarly, some scientists have conjectured that if one mouth of a wormhole is moved in a specific manner, it could allow for time travel. However, British cosmologist Stephen Hawking has argued that such use is not possible. [Weird Science: Wormholes Make the Best Time Machines]

“A wormhole is not really a means of going back in time, it’s a short cut, so that something that was far away is much closer,” NASA’s Eric Christian wrote.

Although adding exotic matter to a wormhole might stabilize it to the point that human passengers could travel safely through it, there is still the possibility that the addition of “regular” matter would be sufficient to destabilize the portal.

Today’s technology is insufficient to enlarge or stabilize wormholes, even if they could be found. However, scientists continue to explore the concept as a method of space travel with the hope that technology will eventually be able to utilize them.

Scientists identify brain molecule that triggers schizophrenia-like behaviors, brain changes

Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have identified a molecule in the brain that triggers schizophrenia-like behaviors, brain changes and global gene expression in an animal model. The research gives scientists new tools for someday preventing or treating psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism.

“This new model speaks to how schizophrenia could arise before birth and identifies possible novel drug targets,” said Jerold Chun, a professor and member of the Dorris Neuroscience Center at TSRI who was senior author of the new study.

The findings were published April 7, 2014, in the journal Translational Psychiatry.

What Causes Schizophrenia?

According to the World Health Organization, more than 21 million people worldwide suffer from schizophrenia, a severe psychiatric disorder that can cause delusions and hallucinations and lead to increased risk of suicide.

Although psychiatric disorders have a genetic component, it is known that environmental factors also contribute to disease risk. There is an especially strong link between psychiatric disorders and complications during gestation or birth, such as prenatal bleeding, low oxygen or malnutrition of the mother during pregnancy.

In the new study, the researchers studied one particular known risk factor: bleeding in the brain, called fetal cerebral hemorrhage, which can occur in utero and in premature babies and can be detected via ultrasound.

In particular, the researchers wanted to examine the role of a lipid called lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which is produced during hemorrhaging. Previous studies had linked increased LPA signaling to alterations in architecture of the fetal brain and the initiation of hydrocephalus (an accumulation of brain fluid that distorts the brain). Both types of events can also increase the risk of psychiatric disorders.

“LPA may be the common factor,” said Beth Thomas, an associate professor at TSRI and co-author of the new study.

Mouse Models Show Symptoms

To test this theory, the research team designed an experiment to see if increased LPA signaling led to schizophrenia-like symptoms in animal models.

Hope Mirendil, an alumna of the TSRI graduate program and first author of the new study, spearheaded the effort to develop the first-ever animal model of fetal cerebral hemorrhage. In a clever experimental paradigm, fetal mice received an injection of a non-reactive saline solution, blood serum (which naturally contains LPA in addition to other molecules) or pure LPA.

The real litmus test to show if these symptoms were specific to psychiatric disorders, according to Mirendil, was “prepulse inhibition test,” which measures the “startle” response to loud noises. Most mice—and humans—startle when they hear a loud noise. However, if a softer noise (known as a prepulse) is played before the loud tone, mice and humans are “primed” and startle less at the second, louder noise. Yet mice and humans with symptoms of schizophrenia startle just as much at loud noises even with a prepulse, perhaps because they lack the ability to filter sensory information.

Indeed, the female mice injected with serum or LPA alone startled regardless of whether a prepulse was placed before the loud tone.

Next, the researchers analyzed brain changes, revealing schizophrenia-like changes in neurotransmitter-expressing cells. Global gene expression studies found that the LPA-treated mice shared many similar molecular markers as those found in humans with schizophrenia. To further test the role of LPA, the researchers used a molecule to block only LPA signaling in the brain.

This treatment prevented schizophrenia-like symptoms.

Implications for Human Health

This research provides new insights, but also new questions, into the developmental origins of psychiatric disorders.

For example, the researchers only saw symptoms in female mice. Could schizophrenia be triggered by different factors in men and women as well?

“Hopefully this animal model can be further explored to tease out potential differences in the pathological triggers that lead to disease symptoms in males versus females,” said Thomas.

In addition to Chun, Thomas and Mirendil, authors of the study, “LPA signaling initiates schizophrenia-like brain and behavioral changes in a mouse model of prenatal brain hemorrhage,” were Candy De Loera of TSRI; and Kinya Okada and Yuji Inomata of the Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation.

The Future of Artificial Intelligence

Technologist Elon Musk, Bill Gates, and Steve Wozniak named artificial intelligence as one of humanity’s biggest existential risks. Will robots outpace humans in the future? Should we set limits on A.I.? Our panel of experts discusses what questions we should ask as research on artificial intelligence progresses.


The FDA Just Released Scary New Data on Antibiotics And Farms


A close-up of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria, which is commonly found on supermarket pork.

Back in April 2012, the Food and Drug Administration launched an effort to address a problem that had been festering for decades: the meat industry’s habit of feeding livestock daily low does of antibiotics, which keeps animals alive under stressful conditions and may help them grow faster, but also generates bacterial pathogens that can shake off antibiotics, and make people sick.

The FDA approached the task gingerly: It asked the industry to voluntarily wean itself from routine use of “medically important” antibiotics—those that are critical to human medicine, like tetracycline. In addition to the light touch, the agency plan included a massive loophole: that while livestock producers should no longer use antibiotics as a growth promoter, they’re welcome to use them to “prevent” disease—which often means using them in the same way (routinely), and at the same rate. How’s the FDA’s effort to ramp down antibiotic use on farms working? Last week, the FDA delivered an early look, releasing data for 2013, the year after it rolled out its plan. The results are … scary.


Note that use of medically important antibiotics actually grew 3 percent in 2013 compared to the previous year, while the industry’s appetite for non-medically import drugs, which it’s supposed to be shifting to, shrank 2 percent. A longer view reveals an even more worrisome trend: between 2009 and 2013, use of medically important drugs grew 20 percent.And the FDA data show that these livestock operations are particularly voracious for the same antibiotics doctors prescribe to people. Farms burn through 9.1 million kilograms of medically important antibiotics vs. 5.5 million kilograms of ones not currently used in human medicine. That means about 62 percent of their total antibiotic use could be be helping generate pathogens that resist the drugs we rely on. (According to Natural Resources Defense Council’sAvinash Kar, 70 percent of medically important antibiotics sold in the US go to farms.)

The report also delivers a stark view into just how routine antibiotics have become on farms.


Note that 74 percent of the medically important drugs being consumed on farms are delivered through feed, and another 24 percent go out in water. That means fully 95 percent is being fed to animals on a regular basis, not being given to specific animals to treat a particular infection. Just 5 percent (4 percent via injection, 1 percent orally) are administered that way.

Anyone wondering which species—chickens, pigs, turkeys, or cows—get the most antibiotics will have to take it up with the FDA. The agency doesn’t require companies to deliver that information, so it doesn’t exist, at least not in publicly available form. The FDA only began releasing any information at all on livestock antibiotic use in very recent years, after having its hand forced by a 2008 act of Congress.

Meanwhile, at least 2 million Americans get sick from antibiotic-resistant bacteria each year, and at least 23,000 of them die, the Centers for Disease Controlestimates. And while all of that carnage can’t be blamed on the meat industry’s drug habit, it does play a major role, as the CDC makes clear in this handy infographic.



Inside Fukushima’s ground zero

First robot sent inside melted reactor at tsunami-hit plant dies after just three hours – but not before sending back chilling pictures

  • Fukushima Nuclear Power plant went into meltdown in the 2011 disaster
  • Three reactors blew up after tsunami causing 300,000 to be evacuated
  • A robot was sent into one of the nuclear reactors to inspect melted fuel
  • But it stalled within three hours of the mission and has to be abandoned

The first robot to be sent into the radioactive reactor of Fukushima nuclear power plant has stalled just three hours into its mission.

These incredible pictures offer the first glimpse into the melted reactors at the Japanese plant after the 2011 nuclear disaster.

More than 300,000 people had to be evacuated after three of Fukushima’s six reactors blew up following the huge tsunami which devastated the country over three years ago. Nearly 16,000 people lost their lives in the natural disaster and subsequent devastation.

These are the first incredible pictures inside the melted nuclear reactor at Fukushima  power plant after the 2011 disaster

These are the first incredible pictures inside the melted nuclear reactor at Fukushima power plant after the 2011 disaster

The photographs were captured as part of the robot's mission to inspect melted fuel in one of the reactors 

The photographs were captured as part of the robot’s mission to inspect melted fuel in one of the reactors

The photographs were captured as part of the robot’s mission to inspect melted fuel in one of the reactors.

Developed by Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy and the International Research Institute for Nuclear Decommissioning, it was supposed to be able to function for about 10 hours at levels of radiation which would be fatal to humans and cause ordinary electronic devices to malfunction.

But decommissioning work at the plant suffered a setback after the adaptable ‘transformer’ robot stalled before it could complete its operation and had to be abandoned.

A second robot mission scheduled for Monday was postponed as engineers investigated the cause of the malfunction.

The Tokyo Electric Power Company, which operates the wrecked Fukushima nuclear plant, admitted the robot had only completed two-thirds of Friday’s planned mission inside the Unit 1 containment vessel before it failed.

But the company said it had collected enough data to indicate there was path to send robots deeper into the reactor.

It leaves the door open to a new generation of remote-controlled robot missions which may finally reveal the residue of the melted fuel for the first time since the 2011 disaster.

Robot captured this footage before stalling three hours in

But it stalled before it could complete its operation and had to be abandoned. A second robot mission scheduled for Monday was postponed as engineers investigated the cause of the malfunction

But it stalled before it could complete its operation and had to be abandoned. A second robot mission scheduled for Monday was postponed as engineers investigated the cause of the malfunction

The Tokyo Electric Power Company, which operates the wrecked Fukushima nuclear plant, admitted the robot had only completed two-thirds of Friday's planned mission inside the Unit 1 containment vessel before it failed

The Tokyo Electric Power Company, which operates the wrecked Fukushima nuclear plant, admitted the robot had only completed two-thirds of Friday’s planned mission inside the Unit 1 containment vessel before it failed

Robot films INSIDE the Fukushima nuclear plant

TEPCO spokesman Teruaki Kobayashi said the robot sufficiently collected temperature, radiation levels and images from parts of the platform just below the reactor core’s bottom by the time it got stuck and became unrecoverable.

Mr Kobayashi said the test also showed the robot tolerated radiation and that the radiation levels were significantly lower than anticipated.

That means robots can last longer and some wireless device may even be usable, even though the radiation levels were way too high for humans to enter the area, even wearing protective gear.


Although there were no fatalities from radiation exposure, 300,000 residents were moved from a 20-mile radius of the nuclear plant.

In total there were nearly 16,000 deaths reported from the natural disaster and subsequent devastation.

Three of the six reactors blew up when a tsunami measuring 9 on the Richter scale hit the region.

Clean-up expected to take decades, and cost more than £18 billion.

An investigation panel deduced the disaster had major elements of being ‘man-made,’ and there was a ”culture of complacency about nuclear safety and poor crisis management.’

Data will be used to improve future damage assessments, which are crucial to the safe decommissioning of the plant damaged by the 2011 earthquake and tsunami.

TEPCO plans to send in a different, amphibious robot next year for further investigation of the three reactors that suffered meltdowns.

Computer simulation and cosmic ray examinations have shown that almost all fuel rods in the Unit 1 reactor have melted, breached the core and are now lying at the bottom of the containment chamber.

The nuclear plant is still being taken apart, and it is estimated it will take decades to make the area safe, as well as cost billions of pounds.

With soil and water contaminated, nobody can live there yet, and it is unknown when the clean-up mission will be completed.

Reports found that few cancers would be expected as a result of accumulated radiation exposures, although people in the area worst affected by the accident may have a slightly higher risk of developing certain cancers such as leukemia, solid cancers, thyroid cancer and breast cancer.

Surveys show only a fifth of former residents want to return to living in the area.

The plant has six reactors, three of which were offline when disaster struck on March 11, 2011.

Eerie drone footage of Fukushima which is now a wasteland

More than 300,000 people had to be evacuated after three of Fukushima’s six reactors blew up following the huge tsunami which devastated the country over three years ago

Nearly 16,000 people lost their lives in the natural disaster and subsequent devastation

Nearly 16,000 people lost their lives in the natural disaster and subsequent devastation

A magnitude-9.0 earthquake triggered a huge tsunami which swept into the plant and knocked out its backup power and cooling systems, leading to meltdowns at the three active reactors.

The Fukushima Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission found the nuclear disaster was ‘manmade’ and that its direct causes were all foreseeable.

It stated that it had also failed to meet the most basic safety requirements, such as assessing the probability of damage, preparing for containing collateral damage from such a disaster, and developing evacuation plans.

Decommissioning and dismantling all six reactors is a delicate, time-consuming process that includes removing the melted fuel from a highly radioactive environment, as well as all the extra fuel rods, which sit in cooling pools at the top of the reactor buildings.

Workers, who wear protective suits when dismantling the plant, must determine the exact condition of the melted fuel debris and develop remote-controlled and radiation-resistant robotics to deal with it. The process is expected to take at least 40 years.

Contamination levels are low, which means people can, for a limited time, view the destruction site

Contamination levels are low, which means people can, for a limited time, view the destruction site

Decommissioning and dismantling all six reactors is a delicate, time-consuming process that includes removing the melted fuel from a highly radioactive environment, as well as all the extra fuel rods, which sit in cooling pools at the top of the reactor buildings 

Decommissioning and dismantling all six reactors is a delicate, time-consuming process that includes removing the melted fuel from a highly radioactive environment, as well as all the extra fuel rods, which sit in cooling pools at the top of the reactor buildings

Omnivores vs. Herbivores: How Meat Consumption Affects Our Health

In meat-loving America, vegetarians are still trying to find their footing on the kitchen table. They’re usually viewed as the all-stars of health and gurus of how to lose weight, but how healthy is it really? Meat stands to divide people into two different groups, some carrying with them varying morals and in many cases misconceptions about what it means to be healthy.

Meat Eaters Versus Vegetarians

Nutrition professionals rarely even use the term “healthy foods,” because the way food is labeled as healthy or not relies heavily upon how much we eat of it, according to the European Food Information Council. Meat consumption is not where the healthy diverge from the unhealthy, but rather where the balancing act changes.

A Meatless Existence

Vegetarians have long been considered the tree-hugging free spirits of the world: They care about the environment, or animals, or their body’s well-being. But since their diet doesn’t involve meat, it’s going against what this country is all about — hamburgers, hot dogs, meatloaf wrapped up in good ol’ red, white, and blue nationalism. Parks and Recreation’s very own Ron Swanson echoes the sentiment:

“I call this turf ‘n turf. It’s a 16-ounce T-bone and a 24-ounce porterhouse, also, a whiskey, and a cigar. I am going to consume all of this at the same time because I am a free American.”

When did becoming a carnivorous being stand to represent the American way? More than one-third of adults in the United States are obese, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the kids are catching up.  The average American eats 270 pounds of meat a year, which is double what the U.S. Department of Agriculture recommends. It’s just too much animal protein for our bodies to process, especially when a large majority of the country is living a sedentary lifestyle.

Eating all that meat and other animal products like cheese and eggs, while ignoring the basic nutritional necessities found in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, doesn’t come without consequences.

Researchers from the University of Southern California found people with diets rich in animal protein were four times more likely to die of cancer than those who ate a low-to-moderate amount. By just dropping down to a lower daily quantity of meat, cheese, and eggs, and replacing them with some high-quality vegetables, nuts, and grains, your body will thank you — but only if you make sure you’re fulfilling your dietary needs with the right stuff and not just a load of macaroni and cheese just because it’s meatless.

“Being vegetarian does not guarantee health,” Nutritionist Jaime Mass, the founder of Jaime Mass Nutritionals, told Women’s Health. “It’s how you approach a vegetarian lifestyle that matters. A vegetarian who consumes legumes, fruits, vegetables, seeds, and nuts will have a different health profile than a vegetarian who consumes a diet high in refined carbohydrates like muffins, pasta, cookies, and cakes.”

Be mindful of what you’re putting into your body. Vegetarianism is not synonymous with good health. An illuminating study was published last year in the journal PLoS ONE, in which an Austrian team of researchers found when comparing omnivores to herbivores, “vegetarians are in a poorer state of health compared to the other dietary groups,” the authors wrote.

The study was very limited in how it compared the diets. Even the researchers admitted to faults on how their small 1,000 some odd participants could not represent the entire world. American vegetarians alone eat very differently than those found in other countries. It just depends how you lineup your everyday diet. Potato chips and cinnamon buns are vegetarian, but that doesn’t mean you should eat them on a regular basis; in fact, far from it.

“Any time you cut out a food group, there is a risk you could be missing out on certain nutrients,” Mass said. Vegetarians need to focus on getting enough protein into their diet while vegans need to prioritize iron, calcium, vitamin B12, and zinc. Vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may also be needed to sustain an active lifestyle.

Bottom line: Neither group should badger the other for their personal eating habits so long as they have a balanced variety of nutrient-rich proteins, carbohydrates, and healthy fats. A carnivorous flexitarian diet full of bountiful fruits, vegetables, and whole grains is completely possible to incorporate into a healthy lifestyle. Meat isn’t the end-all, be-all.

Scientists find link between muscle-building supplements and testicular cancer

Men who take body-building supplements such as creatine or androstenedione have up to a 177 percent higher chance of developing testicular cancer than men who don’t, new research suggests. And the risk is worse if you started using young.

It’s very preliminary work, but the results could help to explain why testicular cancer has become far more common (more than 1.5 times more common, to be precise) than it was in the ‘70s, along with society’s growing consumption of supplements.

“The observed relationship was strong,” said epidemiologist and study-leader Tongzhang Zheng, from Brown University in the US, in a press release. “If you used at earlier age, you had a higher risk. If you used them longer, you had a higher risk. If you used multiple types, you had a higher risk.”

This is the first study to link testicular cancer to body-building supplements, but it was inspired by earlier research that suggested body-building supplements, namely androstenedione, could damage the testes.

To work out what was going on, the team conducted detailed lifestyle interviews with nearly 900 men in the US – 356 of them had been diagnosed with testicular cancer, while 513 had not. They asked about how often they were using supplements, but also about other potential risk factors, such as smoking, drinking, exercise habits, previous injuries to the region, and family history.

After taking into account all these factors, the team found that men who took muscle-building supplements had on average a 65 percent greater risk of developing testicular cancer compared to those who didn’t. And this risk increased to 177 percent if the men used more than one type of supplement. It also shot up significantly if the men had started using supplements before the age of 25, or for more than three years.

The results have been published in the British Journal of Cancer, and offer epidemiologists an important insight into what causes the poorly understood cancer, and why it’s on the rise. “Testicular cancer is a very mysterious cancer,” said Zheng. “None of the factors we’ve suspected can explain the increase.”

Of course, correlation doesn’t equal causation, and more work needs to be done to find out exactly what’s happening here. But the researchers think they now have a solid lead to follow, and the best part is that, if this link is confirmed, it’ll be simple and quick for men to significantly reduce their testicular cancer risk.

// g?b=a+f+b:(g+=f.length,f=a.indexOf("&",g),b=0<=f?a.substring(0,g)+b+a.substring(f):a.substring(0,g)+b)}return 2E3<b.length?void 0!==d?q(a,c,d,void 0,e):a:b};var ca=function(){var a=/[&\?]exk=([^& ]+)/.exec(u.location.href);return a&&2==a.length?a[1]:null};var da=function(a,c,b,d){a.addEventListener?a.addEventListener(c,b,d||!1):a.attachEvent&&a.attachEvent("on"+c,b)};var ea=function(a){var c=a.toString();a.name&&-1==c.indexOf(a.name)&&(c+=": "+a.name);a.message&&-1==c.indexOf(a.message)&&(c+=": "+a.message);if(a.stack){a=a.stack;var b=c;try{-1==a.indexOf(b)&&(a=b+"\n"+a);for(var d;a!=d;)d=a,a=a.replace(/((https?:\/..*\/)[^\/:]*:\d+(?:.|\n)*)\2/,"$1");c=a.replace(/\n */g,"\n")}catch(e){c=b}}return c},v=function(a,c,b){a.google_image_requests||(a.google_image_requests=[]);var d=a.document.createElement("img");if(b){var e=function(a){b(a);a=e;d.removeEventListener?d.removeEventListener("load",a,!1):d.detachEvent&&d.detachEvent("onload",a);a=e;d.removeEventListener?d.removeEventListener("error",a,!1):d.detachEvent&&d.detachEvent("onerror",a)};da(d,"load",e);da(d,"error",e)}d.src=c;a.google_image_requests.push(d)};var w=document,u=window;var fa=String.prototype.trim?function(a){return a.trim()}:function(a){return a.replace(/^[\s\xa0]+|[\s\xa0]+$/g,"")},ga=function(a,c){return ac?1:0};var x=null,ha=function(a,c){for(var b in a)Object.prototype.hasOwnProperty.call(a,b)&&c.call(null,a[b],b,a)};function z(a){return"function"==typeof encodeURIComponent?encodeURIComponent(a):escape(a)}var ia=function(){if(!w.body)return!1;if(!x){var a=w.createElement("iframe");a.style.display="none";a.id="anonIframe";x=a;w.body.appendChild(a)}return!0},ja={};var ka=!0,la={},oa=function(a,c,b,d){var e=ma,f,g=ka;try{f=c()}catch(k){try{var t=ea(k);c="";k.fileName&&(c=k.fileName);var y=-1;k.lineNumber&&(y=k.lineNumber);g=e(a,t,c,y,b)}catch(r){try{var m=ea(r);a="";r.fileName&&(a=r.fileName);b=-1;r.lineNumber&&(b=r.lineNumber);ma("pAR",m,a,b,void 0,void 0)}catch(Ca){na({context:"mRE",msg:Ca.toString()+"\n"+(Ca.stack||"")},void 0)}}if(!g)throw k;}finally{if(d)try{d()}catch(Bb){}}return f},ma=function(a,c,b,d,e,f){var g={};if(e)try{e(g)}catch(k){}g.context=a;g.msg=c.substring(0,512);b&&(g.file=b);0<d&&(g.line=d.toString());g.url=w.URL.substring(0,512);g.ref=w.referrer.substring(0,512);pa(g);na(g,f);return ka},na=function(a,c){try{if(Math.random()b?Math.max(0,a.length+b):b;if(l(a))return l(c)&&1==c.length?a.indexOf(c,b):-1;for(;b<a.length;b++)if(b in a&&a[b]===c)return b;return-1},ta=B.map?function(a,c,b){return B.map.call(a,c,b)}:function(a,c,b){for(var d=a.length,e=Array(d),f=l(a)?a.split(""):a,g=0;g<d;g++)g in f&&(e[g]=c.call(b,f[g],g,a));return e};var ua=function(a,c){for(var b in a)c.call(void 0,a[b],b,a)},va=function(a){var c=arguments.length;if(1==c&&"array"==aa(arguments[0]))return va.apply(null,arguments[0]);for(var b={},d=0;dparseFloat(a))?String(c):a}(),Fa={},Ga=function(a){if(!Fa[a]){for(var c=0,b=fa(String(Ea)).split("."),d=fa(String(a)).split("."),e=Math.max(b.length,d.length),f=0;0==c&&f<e;f++){var g=b[f]||"",k=d[f]||"",t=RegExp("(\\d*)(\\D*)","g"),y=RegExp("(\\d*)(\\D*)","g");do{var r=t.exec(g)||["","",""],m=y.exec(k)||["","",""];if(0==r[0].length&&0==m[0].length)break;c=ga(0==r[1].length?0:parseInt(r[1],10),0==m[1].length?0:parseInt(m[1],10))||ga(0==r[2].length,0==m[2].length)||ga(r[2],m[2])}while(0==c)}Fa[a]=0<=c}},Ha=h.document,Ia=Da(),Ja=!Ha||!E||!Ia&&D()?void 0:Ia||("CSS1Compat"==Ha.compatMode?parseInt(Ea,10):5);var Ka={g:947190538,h:947190541,i:947190542,e:79463068,f:79463069},La={d:"ud=1",j:"ts=1",c:"sc=1"};if(w&&w.URL)var Ma=w.URL,ka=!(Ma&&(0<Ma.indexOf("?google_debug")||0b&&u.setTimeout(ra(c,d),100)};d()};var Oa=function(){try{u.localStorage.setItem("__sak","1");var a=u.localStorage.__sak;u.localStorage.removeItem("__sak");return"1"==a}catch(c){return!1}},Pa=function(a,c,b){a.google_image_requests||(a.google_image_requests=[]);var d=a.document.createElement("img");F(d,"load",b,"osd::ls_img::load");d.src=c;a.google_image_requests.push(d)};var G=function(a,c){this.b=a||0;this.a=c||""},H=function(a,c){a.b&&(c[4]=a.b);a.a&&(c[12]=a.a)};G.prototype.match=function(a){return(this.b||this.a)&&(a.b||a.a)?this.a||a.a?this.a==a.a:this.b||a.b?this.b==a.b:!1:!1};G.prototype.toString=function(){var a=""+this.b;this.a&&(a+="-"+this.a);return a};var Qa=function(){var a=I,c=[];a.b&&c.push("adk="+a.b);a.a&&c.push("exk="+a.a);return c},J=function(a){var c=[];ua(a,function(a,d){var e=z(d),f=a;l(f)&&(f=z(f));c.push(e+"="+f)});return c.join("\n")},K=0,Ra=0,Sa=function(a){var c=0,b=u;if(b&&b.Goog_AdSense_getAdAdapterInstance)return b;try{for(;b&&5>c;){if(b.google_osd_static_frame)return b;if(b.aswift_0&&(!a||b.aswift_0.google_osd_static_frame))return b.aswift_0;c++;b=b!=b.parent?b.parent:null}}catch(d){}return null},Ta=function(a,c,b,d){if(10<Ra)u.clearInterval(K);else if(++Ra,u.postMessage&&(c.b||c.a)){var e=Sa(!0);if(e){var f={};H(c,f);f[0]="goog_request_monitoring";f[6]=a;f[16]=b;d&&d.length&&(f[17]=d.join(","));try{var g=J(f);e.postMessage(g,"*")}catch(k){}}}},Ua=function(a){var c=Sa(!1),b=!c;!c&&u&&(c=u.parent);if(c&&c.postMessage)try{c.postMessage(a,"*"),b&&u.postMessage(a,"*")}catch(d){}};va("area base br col command embed hr img input keygen link meta param source track wbr".split(" "));var L=function(a,c){this.width=a;this.height=c};var Va;if(!(Va=!za&&!E)){var Wa;if(Wa=E)Wa=E&&(D()||9<=Ja);Va=Wa}Va||za&&Ga("1.9.1");E&&Ga("9");var Ya=function(){var a=u.parent&&u.parent!=u,c=a&&0<="//tpc.googlesyndication.com".indexOf(u.location.host);if(a&&u.name&&0==u.name.indexOf("google_ads_iframe")||c){var b;a=u||u;try{var d;if(a.document&&!a.document.body)d=new L(-1,-1);else{var e=(a||window).document,f="CSS1Compat"==e.compatMode?e.documentElement:e.body;d=new L(f.clientWidth,f.clientHeight)}b=d}catch(g){b=new L(-12245933,-12245933)}return Xa(b)}b=u.document.getElementsByTagName("SCRIPT");return 0<b.length&&(b=b[b.length-1],b.parentElement&&b.parentElement.id&&0<b.parentElement.id.indexOf("_ad_container"))?Xa(void 0,b.parentElement):null},Xa=function(a,c){var b=Za("IMG",a,c);return b||(b=Za("IFRAME",a,c))?b:(b=Za("OBJECT",a,c))?b:null},Za=function(a,c,b){var d=document;b=b||d;d=a&&"*"!=a?a.toUpperCase():"";b=b.querySelectorAll&&b.querySelector&&d?b.querySelectorAll(d+""):b.getElementsByTagName(d||"*");for(d=0;d<b.length;d++){var e=b[d];if("OBJECT"==a)a:{var f=e.getAttribute("height");if(null!=f&&0<f&&0==e.clientHeight)for(var f=e.children,g=0;g<f.length;g++){var k=f[g];if("OBJECT"==k.nodeName||"EMBED"==k.nodeName){e=k;break a}}}f=e.clientHeight;g=e.clientWidth;if(k=c)k=new L(g,f),k=Math.abs(c.width-k.width)<.1*c.width&&Math.abs(c.height-k.height)<.1*c.height;if(k||!c&&10<f&&10<g)return e}return null};var $a,M=0,N="",O=!1,P=!1,Q=!1,ab=!0,bb=!1,cb=!1,db=[],I=null,R="",eb=[],fb=[],gb=!1,S="",hb="",ib=(new Date).getTime(),jb=!1,kb=!1,lb="",mb=!1,nb=["1","0","3"],T=0,ob=!1,U=!1,V="",pb=null,W=0,X=0,qb=0,rb=function(a,c,b){O&&(ab||3!=(b||3)||cb)&&Y(a,c,!0);(Q||P&&bb)&&Y(a,c)},sb=function(a,c){if(ob){var b=V;try{a.localStorage[b]=c+"&timestamp="+n()+"&send"}catch(d){}}},Y=function(a,c,b){if((c=c||R)&&!gb&&(2==X||b)){var d=tb(c,b);!b&&U?(U=!1,pb&&(a.clearInterval(pb),pb=null),sb(a,d),5!=T&&Pa(a,d,function(){a.localStorage.removeItem(V)})):b||!ob||7!=T&&6!=T?v(a,d,void 0):(c=function(b){b&&"error"==b.type&&sb(a,d)},void 0===a.navigator.onLine||a.navigator.onLine?v(a,d,c):sb(a,d));b?O=!1:gb=!0}},tb=function(a,c){var b;b=c?"osdim":Q?"osd2":"osdtos";var d=["//pagead2.googlesyndication.com/activeview","?id=",b];"osd2"==b&&P&&bb&&d.push("&ts=1");N&&d.push("&avi=",N);$a&&d.push("&cid=",$a);0!=T&&d.push("&lsid=",T);U&&d.push("&cwls=1");d.push("&ti=1");d.push("&",a);d.push("&uc="+qb);jb&&(kb?d.push("&tgt="+lb):d.push("&tgt=nf"),d.push("&cl="+(mb?1:0)));b=d.join("");for(d=0;d<eb.length;d++){try{var e=eb[d]()}catch(f){}var g="max_length";2<=e.length&&(3==e.length&&(g=e[2]),b=q(b,z(e[0]),z(e[1]),g))}2E3<b.length&&(b=b.substring(0,2E3));return b},Z=function(a,c){if(S){try{var b=q(S,"vi",a);ia()&&v(x.contentWindow,b,void 0)}catch(d){}0<=sa(nb,a)&&(S="");var b=c||R,e;e=q("//pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/gen_204?id=sldb","avi",N);e=q(e,"vi",a);b&&(e+="&"+b);try{v(u,e,void 0)}catch(f){}}},ub=function(){Z("-1")},wb=function(a){if(a&&a.data&&l(a.data)){var c;var b=a.data;if(l(b)){c={};for(var b=b.split("\n"),d=0;d=e)){var f=Number(b[d].substr(0,e)),e=b[d].substr(e+1);switch(f){case 5:case 8:case 11:case 15:case 16:case 18:e="true"==e;break;case 4:case 7:case 6:case 14:e=Number(e);break;case 3:if("function"==aa(decodeURIComponent))try{e=decodeURIComponent(e)}catch(g){throw Error("Error: URI malformed: "+e);}break;case 17:e=ta(decodeURIComponent(e).split(","),Number)}c[f]=e}}c=c[0]?c:null}else c=null;if(c&&(b=new G(c[4],c[12]),I&&I.match(b))){for(b=0;bW&&2==X){var a=u,c="//pagead2.googlesyndication.com/pagead/gen_204?id=osd2&",b=[];b.push("ovr_value="+M);b.push("avi="+N);I&&(b=b.concat(Qa()));b.push("tt="+((new Date).getTime()-ib));a.document&&a.document.referrer&&b.push("ref="+z(a.document.referrer));b.push("hs="+W);c+=b.join("&");try{v(a,c,void 0)}catch(d){}}},vb=function(a){var c=a.match(/^(.*&timestamp=)\d+$/);return c?c[1]+n():a+"&timestamp="+n()},yb=function(){var a={};H(I,a);a[0]="goog_dom_content_loaded";var c=J(a);Na(function(){Ua(c)},"osd_listener::ldcl_int")},zb=function(){var a={};H(I,a);a[0]="goog_creative_loaded";var c=J(a);Na(function(){Ua(c)},"osd_listener::lcel_int");mb=!0},Ab=function(a){if(l(a)){a=a.split("&");for(var c=0;c<a.length;c++){var b=a[c],d=La;b==d.d&&(ab=!1);b==d.c&&(jb=!0)}}};p("osdlfm",A("osd_listener::init",function(a,c,b,d,e,f,g,k,t,y,r){M=a;S=c;hb=d;O=f;T=y||0;$a=r;k&&Ab(k);P=g&&f;1!=t&&2!=t&&3!=t||db.push(Ka["MRC_TEST_"+t]);I=new G(e,ca());F(u,"load",ub,"osd_listener::load");F(u,"message",wb,"osd_listener::message");N=b||"";F(u,"unload",xb,"osd_listener::unload");var m=u.document;!m.readyState||"complete"!=m.readyState&&"loaded"!=m.readyState?("msie"in ja?ja.msie:ja.msie=-1!=navigator.userAgent.toLowerCase().indexOf("msie"))&&!window.opera?F(m,"readystatechange",function(){"complete"!=m.readyState&&"loaded"!=m.readyState||yb()},"osd_listener::rsc"):F(m,"DOMContentLoaded",yb,"osd_listener::dcl"):yb();-1==M?X=f?3:1:-2==M?X=3:0u.localStorage.length)&&(V="LSPNGS-"+I.toString()+"-"+(""+Math.random()).split(".")[1]+n());2!=X||!ob||3!=T&&4!=T&&5!=T||(U=!0,pb=u.setInterval(ra("osd_listener::ls_int",function(){var a=u,b=V,c=a.localStorage[b];if(c)try{a.localStorage[b]=vb(c)}catch(d){}}),1E3));I&&(I.b||I.a)&&(W=1,K=u.setInterval(ra("osd_proto::reqm_int",ba(Ta,X,I,P,db)),500));jb&&(a=Ya())&&(kb=!0,lb=a.tagName,a.complete||a.naturalWidth?zb():F(a,"load",zb,"osd_listener::creative_load"))}));p("osdlac",A("osd_listener::lac_ex",function(a){eb.push(a)}));p("osdlamrc",A("osd_listener::lamrc_ex",function(a){fb.push(a)}));p("osdsir",A("osd_listener::sir_ex",rb));})();osdlfm(-1,”,’BvP81rVItVYngCJaRvgT_vIC4BgCjq4H78QEAABABOAHIAQHgAgDIA5oE4AQBoAYawhMDEIAB’,”,1675263636,true,true,”,0,0,”);
// ]]>

When Your Child Does Not Need Antibiotics

During childhood, most children get many colds, infections, and minor illnesses. Infections in childhood are typically caused by viruses or bacteria.

Image not available.

Viruses cause most colds, most sore throats, most cases of pneumonia, and most cases of diarrhea, and it is the most common cause of vomiting in children. Antibiotics do not help to kill viruses, but they can cause adverse effects if your child unnecessarily takes an antibiotic during a viral infection.

A green or yellow nasal discharge and green or yellow phlegm are symptoms that are sometimes mistaken for a bacterial infection. It is important for parents to know that green or yellow discharge is usually a normal part of recovery from a cold, rather than a clue to a sinus infection, and that green or yellow phlegm is a normal part of viral bronchitis. High fevers (even in patients with a temperature >40°C) can be caused either by a virus or by bacteria.


  • Use antibiotics for diagnosed bacterial infections, when your child can benefit from them.

  • Do not pressure your child’s pediatrician for a prescription for an antibiotic.

  • Treat your child’s cold symptoms with traditional remedies, such as rest and fluids.

  • Remember that fever is a natural response by the body to illness and helps your child fight the virus.


  • Children can become quite sick from viruses, with symptoms that include a high fever, listlessness, and a cough. The severity of illness does not mean that it is caused by bacteria. Parents can help their children get better by providing a quiet place to rest, and encouraging rest by reading books or listening to calm music. Parents can also help by making sure their child stays hydrated by offering liquids.

My child had a cold that my child’s pediatrician said was caused by a virus. My child seemed to get better, but then my child developed a new fever and says his ear hurts. Is this still the same virus?

  • This is a situation in which there may be a new bacterial infection after a virus. Sometimes a viral infection can lead to lots of nasal drainage and mucus. This can put a child at risk for what is called “a secondary infection,” meaning an infection that takes place after the first one is resolving. Signs of a secondary infection are developing a new fever that occurs when the viral infection is getting better or developing new symptoms (ear pain or cough) that get worse as the viral infection is getting better. The secondary infection may be caused by either a bacteria or a virus, and it is a good time to see your child’s pediatrician.

Seeds Of Watermelon Hide A Bunch Of Secrets For Our Health.

Most of you are throwing watermelon’s seeds while eating a watermelon. If you eat them, you probably don’t know that they benefit your digestion, but the digestive tract ejects them untouched. Therefore their usefulness is almost not used.

Seeds Of Watermelon Hide A Bunch Of Secrets For Our Health

If you like to use the benefits of the seeds, you must to boil, crush or bake them to get to the content. The fibers included in the seeds are vital for normal functioning of the digestive tract. They will help against intestinal parasites, also for patients that are suffering from jaundice, guided diseases and inflammatory issues.

The citrulline substance included in the seeds affects as an antioxidant, which helps to augment blood vessels, arteriosclerosis, with high blood pressure and angina pectoris. According to the American scientists from the early 20th century, the watermelon’s seeds are very helpful for the kidney and the urinary tract. They said that you can use a tea from the fresh seeds, which is helpful diuretic and is good for cleansing stones and sand from the kidneys and urinary tract.

It is considered that the seeds are boosting the heart and the body’s muscle structure. Watermelon’s seeds are useful for memory and concentration, and the blaze and tightness of the skin. You can use them in the form or tea or snacks. Tea seeds are very efficient in treating diabetes type 2 and are highly recommended for diabetics. The men can use the seeds to bolster their libido and potency.

Magnesium, vitamins A, B, C, iron, antioxidants, manganese, calcium, polyunsaturated and mono saturated fats, are all included in the watermelon’s seeds.

Preparation of the tea:

Take 4 tablespoons of fresh and crumbled watermelon seeds. Boil them in 2 liters of water for 15 minutes. You should consume this amount of tea for two days and pause in the third day. Continue this process for several weeks.


China Poised To Top U.S. As Biggest Cause Of Modern Global Warming

China is poised to overtake the United States as the main cause of man-made global warming since 1990, the benchmark year for U.N.-led action, in a historic shift that may raise pressure on Beijing to act.


China’s cumulative greenhouse gas emissions since 1990, when governments were becoming aware of climate change, will outstrip those of the United States in 2015 or 2016, according to separate estimates by experts in Norway and the United States.

The shift, reflecting China’s stellar economic growth, raises questions about historical blame for rising temperatures and more floods, desertification, heatwaves and sea level rise.

Almost 200 nations will meet in Paris in December to work out a global deal to fight climate actions beyond 2020.

“A few years ago China’s per capita emissions were low, its historical responsibility was low. That’s changing fast,” said Glen Peters of the Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, Oslo (CICERO), who says China will overtake the United States this year.

Using slightly different data, the U.S.-based World Resources Institute think-tank estimated that China’s cumulative carbon dioxide emissions will total 151 billion tonnes for 1990-2016, overtaking the U.S. total of 147 billion next year.

The rise of cumulative emissions “obviously does open China up to claims of responsibility from other developing countries,” said Daniel Farber, a professor of law at the University of California, Berkeley.

In a U.N. principle laid down in 1992, rich nations are meant to lead in cutting greenhouse gas emissions because their wealth is based on burning coal, oil and natural gas since the Industrial Revolution began in the 18th century.

Emerging nations, meanwhile, can burn more fossil fuels to catch up and end poverty. But the rapid economic rise of China, India, Brazil and many other emerging nations is straining the traditional divide between rich and poor.


“All countries now have responsibility. It’s not just a story about China — it’s a story about the whole world,” said Ottmar Edenhofer of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research and co-chair of a U.N. climate report last year.

India will overtake Russia’s cumulative emissions since 1990 in the 2020s to rank fourth behind China, the United States and the European Union, according to the CICERO calculations.

China surpassed the United States as the top annual emitter of carbon dioxide in around 2006 and now emits more each year than the United States and the European Union combined. Per capita emissions by its 1.3 billion people are around EU levels.

Beijing says the best yardstick for historical responsibility is per capita emissions since the 18th century, by which measure its emissions are less than a tenth those of the United States.

But stretching liability so far back is complicated.

Should heat-trapping methane gas emitted by rice paddies in Asia in the 19th century, now omitted, count alongside industrial carbon emissions by Europe? Should Britain be responsible for India’s emissions before independence in 1947?

Lawyers say it is difficult to blame people living today for emissions by ancestors who had no inkling that greenhouse gases might damage the climate.

“I feel very uneasy about going back more than a generation in terms of historic responsibility,” said Farber, arguing that Berlin could hardly be blamed if someone died by setting off a rusting German World War One landmine in France.

All governments are now working out plans for a climate summit in Paris in December that will set targets for 2025 or 2030. Beijing set a goal last year of peaking its rising emissions around 2030, perhaps before.

“China is acting. It has acknowledged its position as a key polluter,” said Saleemel Huq, of the International Institute for Environment and Development in London.

And historical responsibility is at the heart of talks on solving the problem.

The U.N. panel of climate scientists estimated last year that humankind had emitted 1.9 trillion tonnes of carbon dioxide since the late 19th century and can only emit a trillion more before rising temperatures breach a U.N. ceiling of 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial times.

Any fair formula for sharing out that trillion tonnes, or roughly 30 years of emissions at current rates, inevitably has to consider what each country has done in the past, said Myles Allen, a scientist at Oxford University.

“Until people start thinking about blame and responsibility they are not taking the problem seriously,” he said.