Pharmaceutical companies have more power than ever, and the American people are paying the price—too often with our lives.By now you have probably seen John Oliver’s comic take on the pharmaceutical industry’s influence on doctors’ prescribing habits. Media outlets from Mother Jones to the Wall Street Journal commented admiringly, and even the American Medical Association felt compelled to declare they were “committed to transparency” around drug company payments to doctors.
But satire will do very little to focus on the real problem if we’re distracted by the humor inherent in self-important doctors being bought off by a steak. What’s not funny is that America is the most medicated nation on earth, with some 70 percent of Americans taking prescription drugs—yet we have worse health outcomes than other industrialized countries. Part of the problem may be the drugs themselves. As Slate’s devastating expose on the fraud in clinical drug trialsshows us: We don’t know much about the drugs we prescribe.But as physicians, we have very little good information to go on. Even our most prestigious journals publish research based on falsified studies, according to Charles Seife, a journalism professor whose class spent a semester trying to figure out why the data don’t get corrected once research fraud comes to light. “As a result,” Seife writes, “nobody ever finds out which data is bogus, which experiments are tainted, and which drugs might be on the market under false pretenses.”
Watch the video. URL: https://youtu.be/0XjietgsBDY
From the desk of Zedie.
Cosmologists are intellectual time travelers. Looking back over billions of years, these scientists are able to trace the evolution of our Universe in astonishing detail. 13.8 billion years ago, the Big Bang occurred. Fractions of a second later, the fledgling Universe expanded exponentially during an incredibly brief period of time called inflation. Over the ensuing eons, our cosmos has grown to such an enormous size that we can no longer see the other side of it.
But how can this be? If light’s velocity marks a cosmic speed limit, how can there possibly be regions of spacetime whose photons are forever out of our reach? And even if there are, how do we know that they exist at all?
The Expanding Universe
Like everything else in physics, our Universe strives to exist in the lowest possible energy state possible. But around 10-36 seconds after the Big Bang, inflationary cosmologists believe that the cosmos found itself resting instead at a “false vacuum energy” – a low-point that wasn’t really a low-point. Seeking the true nadir of vacuum energy, over a minute fraction of a moment, the Universe is thought to have ballooned by a factor of 1050.
Since that time, our Universe has continued to expand, but at a much slower pace. We see evidence of this expansion in the light from distant objects. As photons emitted by a star or galaxy propagate across the Universe, the stretching of space causes them to lose energy. Once the photons reach us, their wavelengths have been redshifted in accordance with the distance they have traveled.
This is why cosmologists speak of redshift as a function of distance in both space and time. The light from these distant objects has been traveling for so long that, when we finally see it, we are seeing the objects as they were billions of years ago.
The Hubble Volume
Redshifted light allows us to see objects like galaxies as they existed in the distant past; but we cannot see all events that occurred in our Universe during its history. Because our cosmos is expanding, the light from some objects is simply too far away for us ever to see.
The physics of that boundary rely, in part, on a chunk of surrounding spacetime called the Hubble volume. Here on Earth, we define the Hubble volume by measuring something called the Hubble parameter (H0), a value that relates the apparent recession speed of distant objects to their redshift. It was first calculated in 1929, when Edwin Hubble discovered that faraway galaxies appeared to be moving away from us at a rate that was proportional to the redshift of their light.
Dividing the speed of light by H0, we get the Hubble volume. This spherical bubble encloses a region where all objects move away from a central observer at speeds less than the speed of light. Correspondingly, all objects outside of the Hubble volume move away from the center fasterthan the speed of light.
Yes, “faster than the speed of light.” How is this possible?
The Magic of Relativity
The answer has to do with the difference between special relativity and general relativity. Special relativity requires what is called an “inertial reference frame” – more simply, a backdrop. According to this theory, the speed of light is the same when compared in all inertial reference frames. Whether an observer is sitting still on a park bench on planet Earth or zooming past Neptune in a futuristic high-velocity rocketship, the speed of light is always the same. A photon always travels away from the observer at 300,000,000 meters per second, and he or she will never catch up.
General relativity, however, describes the fabric of spacetime itself. In this theory, there is no inertial reference frame. Spacetime is not expanding with respect to anything outside of itself, so the the speed of light as a limit on its velocity doesn’t apply. Yes, galaxies outside of our Hubble sphere are receding from us faster than the speed of light. But the galaxies themselves aren’t breaking any cosmic speed limits. To an observer within one of those galaxies, nothing violates special relativity at all. It is the space in between us and those galaxies that is rapidly proliferating and stretching exponentially.
The Observable Universe
Now for the next bombshell: The Hubble volume is not the same thing as the observable Universe.
To understand this, consider that as the Universe gets older, distant light has more time to reach our detectors here on Earth. We can see objects that have accelerated beyond our current Hubble volume because the light we see today was emitted when they were within it.
Strictly speaking, our observable Universe coincides with something called the particle horizon. The particle horizon marks the distance to the farthest light that we can possibly see at this moment in time – photons that have had enough time to either remain within, or catch up to, our gently expanding Hubble sphere.
And just what is this distance? A little more than 46 billion light years in every direction – giving our observable Universe a diameter of approximately 93 billion light years, or more than 500 billion trillion miles.
(A quick note: the particle horizon is not the same thing as thecosmological event horizon. The particle horizon encompasses all the events in the past that we can currently see. The cosmological event horizon, on the other hand, defines a distance within which a future observer will be able to see the then-ancient light our little corner of spacetime is emitting today.
In other words, the particle horizon deals with the distance to past objects whose ancient light that we can see today; the cosmological event horizon deals with the distance that our present-day light that will be able to travel as faraway regions of the Universe accelerate away from us.)
Thanks to the expansion of the Universe, there are regions of the cosmos that we will never see, even if we could wait an infinite amount of time for their light to reach us. But what about those areas just beyond the reaches of our present-day Hubble volume? If that sphere is also expanding, will we ever be able to see those boundary objects?
This depends on which region is expanding faster – the Hubble volume or the parts of the Universe just outside of it. And the answer to that question depends on two things: 1) whether H0 is increasing or decreasing, and 2) whether the Universe is accelerating or decelerating. These two rates are intimately related, but they are not the same.
In fact, cosmologists believe that we are actually living at a time when H0 is decreasing; but because of dark energy, the velocity of the Universe’s expansion is increasing.
That may sound counterintuitive, but as long as H0 decreases at a slowerrate than that at which the Universe’s expansion velocity is increasing, the overall movement of galaxies away from us still occurs at an accelerated pace. And at this moment in time, cosmologists believe that the Universe’s expansion will outpace the more modest growth of the Hubble volume.
So even though our Hubble volume is expanding, the influence of dark energy appears to provide a hard limit to the ever-increasing observable Universe.
Our Earthly Limitations
Cosmologists seem to have a good handle on deep questions like what our observable Universe will someday look like and how the expansion of the cosmos will change. But ultimately, scientists can only theorize the answers to questions about the future based on their present-day understanding of the Universe. Cosmological timescales are so unimaginably long that it is impossible to say much of anything concrete about how the Universe will behave in the future. Today’s models fit the current data remarkably well, but the truth is that none of us will live long enough to see whether the predictions truly match all of the outcomes.
Disappointing? Sure. But totally worth the effort to help our puny brains consider such mind-bloggling science – a reality that, as usual, is just plain stranger than fiction.
Collagen extracted from the discarded skin of tilapia – a delicious freshwater fish – has been shown to accelerate healing when applied directly to wounds.
Researchers have known about the healing properties of collagen, which is the main structural protein found in the connective tissues of animals, for many years. Mammal collagen, especially from pigs and cows, has been extensively used for skin wound healing in hospitals all over the world. But the problem with mammal collagen is that it carries the risk of disease transmission, such as foot-and-mouth disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy, plus many people can’t receive it due to their religious beliefs.
But fish collagen? It’s cheaper, safer, and there’s a whole lot of it to go around.
Back in 2008, research showed that nanofibres made from collagen-rich, discarded fish scales had enough tensile strength to be used as a wound-dressing material, and when applied topically, encouraged the growth of skin cells. Containing around 70 percent collagen, fish skin is even better than fish scales, and is closer in form and structure to human skin, so a team of scientists from the Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine in the US decided to test out its healing powers.
Using a series of processing and purification technologies, the team managed to extract pieces of high-quality collagen sponge from discarded tilapia skin. They first tested to see if it would provoke an immune response, which would be bad, because it means the body is rejecting it.
To find out, they mixed mouse spleen lymphocytes – a type of white blood cell – and mixed them with the tilapia collagen sponge. The contact did not cause the lymphocytes to proliferate, which means there was no immune response. “Furthermore, tilapia collagen encouraged the growth of fibroblasts and increased the expression of genes involved in wound healing,” Alex B. Berezow reports at Real Clear Science. “Thus, these experiments indicated that tilapia collagen is well-suited for regenerative medicine.”
Next, the researchers tested the strength of a wound dressing made from tilapia collagen and found that it was tough, and stable at temperatures up to around 300 degrees Celsius.
The final test was its actual wound-healing ability. Rats with 1.8-centimetre long wounds on their backs were treated with either the new fish collagen wound dressings, an algae-based wound dressing called Kaltostat, or nothing at all. You can see the results below:
“Compared to the control groups, the wound-healing rate was significantly improved, crust started to disappear at day seven, and most of the wound area was covered with a continuous epidermis at day 14 in the collagen nanofibres group, while the skin wounds in the other two groups were not fully healed,” the team reports inApplied Materials & Interfaces. “The histopathological results confirmed that the collagen nanofibres caused the lowest degree of inflammatory response and induced the best growth status of new epidermis throughout the process of wound healing.”
The next step will be human trials, and turning it into a commercially viable product. But it won’t be easy. “They will face a tough marketplace,” says Berezow at Real Clear Science. “For instance, the company Eqalix, which uses a soybean protein to promote wound healing, has a head start of a few years. Currently, Eqalix is seeking FDA clearance for its product.”
I hope they get there. What they’re using is an abundant and cheap waste product, which is just sitting there waiting to be recycled. It’s not clear if Eqalix is using discarded soybean parts, but if they’re not, well, we really don’t need another excuse to grow more of them.