19-year-old girl wakes up during brain surgery, asks doctors ‘How’s it going?’


Iga Jasica, 19, of southwest Poland, woke up during a procedure to have a cancerous growth removed from her brain, The Daily Mirror reported. 

A teenage girl in Poland woke up during brain surgery and asked her doctors how the operation was going, The Daily Mirror reported.

Iga Jasica, 19, had been undergoing the procedure to have a cancerous growth removed from her brain. Doctors say she woke up halfway through the surgery when the anesthetic wore off. Her brain was exposed, but surgeons say the southwest Polish girl’s health was not in jeopardy.

“Despite coming round, she didn’t feel anything and was never in danger,” neurosurgeon Dawid Larysz told The Daily Mirror. He added that Jasica wouldn’t  have been able to see or feel anything. Jasica doesn’t remember waking up during the surgery.

Doctors are investigating whether the anesthetic may have been improperly administered. Other experts told The Daily Mirror that the operation itself could have triggered her waking up despite the anesthetic.

While chatting with doctors during the procedure, Jasica reportedly brought up cats. After the surgery, she reflected on the experience.

“I missed Christmas because of this operation, but it is the best present I could have had, as I am now feeling great,” Jasica told The Daily Mirror when the procedure was complete.

3 Reasons Everyone Should Try Cupping

In the West, acupuncture is still sometimes dismissed — even as more western doctors are incorporating the practice into their treatment plans. Nonetheless, acupuncture is becoming increasingly .

For many of us, the new year is a traditional time to set goals and enjoy an increased openness to new experiences. This willingness presents an opportunity to explore the benefits of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Better health is on everyone’s list for the new year and cupping is wonderful technique that can improve your health and provide numerous benefits.

One way to think about cupping is that it is the inverse of massage. Rather than applying pressure to muscles, the suction uses pressure to pull skin, tissue and muscles upward. I often combine cupping with acupuncture into one treatment, but it could also be used alone.

Cupping was developed thousands of years ago and though the techniques have modernized, the original philosophy remains the same.

Cupping involves placing glass, bamboo or plastic jars on the skin and creating a vacuum by suctioning out the air. The underlying tissue is raised, or sucked, partway into the cup. The purpose of cupping is to enhance circulation, help relieve pain, remove “heat” and pull out the toxins that linger in your body’s tissues.

You usually will feel a tight sensation in the area of the cup. Often, this sensation is relaxing and soothing. Depending on your comfort and your practitioner’s assessment of the problem, cups may be moved around or left in place. They may remain on your body briefly or for longer amounts of time. Each treatment is unique to you on that particular day. One very common area to be cupped is the back, although cups work well on other areas, too — particularly on fleshy sections of the body.

Cupping causes the skin to temporarily turn red, blue or purple, especially if there is an injury or energetic blockage under the area that was cupped. The skin discoloration can last anywhere from a few days to a couple of weeks, but is rarely painful. Once the marks have cleared, the procedure can be repeated until the condition or ailment is resolved.

There are a number of methods of cupping — the two most common here in the U.S. are “fixed cupping” and “moving cupping.”

Fixed Cupping:

The cups are placed on a selected area of your body and then left in place without being moved.

Moving Cupping:

As the name implies, in this method your practitioner applies massage oil or cream on your skin in selected places, puts the cups over the areas to be treated and then slides them around that region of the body — most commonly the back. The cups slide easily because the cream has lubricated your body.

You ought to consider exploring the benefits of cupping if you seek relief from stress, pain, allergies, fatigue, flu, colds, back pain, anxiety, muscle aches, red itchy skin conditions or fever.

Here are three reasons why cupping just might go mainstream this year:

1. Celebrity cupping enthusiasts are growing in numbers.

It was about 10 years ago when cupping first appeared in the tabloids. Actress Gwyneth Paltrow showed up on the red carpet with obvious round cupping marks on her back. She received a lot of press and later explained to Oprah, “It feels amazing and it’s very relaxing.”

Well, these days she is not alone among Hollywood stars who are devoted to this ancient healing technique. Last April, Jennifer Aniston arrived at the premiere of her movie, “Call Me Crazy” looking stunning in a strapless black dress which revealed cupping marks. She is known to be a long time fan of cupping and acupuncture.

Others stars who are outspoken proponents of cupping are Jessica Simpson, Lady Gaga and Victoria Beckham. They have spoken about using cupping for various physical complaints as well as for relaxation. Exes have picked up on the treatment too. Chris Martin (Paltrow’s “consciously uncoupled” partner) showed off his cupping circles while working out in London. Brad Pitt is also rumored to have tried cupping.

2. Athletes use cupping as a secret weapon.

Wang Qun, a Chinese swimmer proudly showed off her marks during the 2008 Olympics in Beijing. Always looking for methods to naturally improve health and performance, more athletes have turned to cupping. Tennis ace Andy Murray said he used cupping in conjunction with other treatments to relieve stiffness and to help address a back injury.

Mets baseball players have also adopted the treatment. In August The Wall Street Journal reported on the multitude of Mets players using cupping. The trend started for them after their teammate Daisuke Matsuzaka appeared in the locker room with cupping marks. The 33-year-old started cupping about two years ago and was quoted in WSJ saying, “As an athlete, I want to play as long as possible, in order to do that, I need to find ways to protect my body. I’m always looking for something that might be better.”

But cupping is not just for movie stars and athletes … cupping is highly beneficial for everyone.

3. Cupping provides relief for many health conditions.

Cupping has numerous benefits — it can help remove toxins from the body and stimulate the flow of fresh blood, lymph, and Qi to the affected area and throughout the body. It often works wonders for patients with the flu, colds, coughs, back and muscle pain, poor circulation, anxiety, red itchy skin conditions (though cups are not applied to inflamed areas), allergies, fevers, aches and myriad other pains.

Cupping is not exclusive to Traditional Chinese Medicine. Variations of this treatment were used by ancient Egyptians, North American Indians, early Greeks, and in other Asian and European countries. Cupping therapy was recommended by Hippocrates, the man whom many consider to be the “Father of Modern Medicine,” in his guide to clinical treatment.

It should be noted that cupping is not be used on patients who bleed easily and/or cannot stop bleeding, have skin ulcers, or edema. It is unwise to cup over large blood vessels as well. Pregnant women should be cupped with extreme caution and never on their abdomen or lower back.

To be cautious I generally practice a less intense treatment the first time, and then see how the patient reacts before implementing longer amounts of time and more suction.

Will 2015 be the year that you try cupping?

This comet is blazing past Earth – and you can see it without a telescope

Comet Lovejoy is putting on an amazing show for us, and it’s only going to get brighter in the coming weeks.

This year is already shaping up to be a good one for sky watchers, with C/2014 Q2 (Comet Lovejoy) now visible to the naked eye, and getting brighter by the day.

And it looks amazing, as the three-hour time-lapse of the comet captured by Phil Hart on December 28th, 2014, shows above.

On January 7th, the comet will make a once-in-a-lifetime pass of Earth at a distance of around 70 million kilometres (44 million miles), and is predicted to have a fourth magnitude brightness – a measurement used by astronomers that means it will be easily visible in dark skies without the need of a telescope.

But even though the comet is visible to the naked eye, it looks even better through a telescope, as the footage above shows. Up close you can see that the comet glows green, as the molecules its made up of react to sunlight.

So how can you see it yourself? Luckily, the comet will be passing near Orion next week, which makes it relatively easy to find, but you can also find out more about its position with this Sky and Telescope path map.

Unfortunately the comet is moving out of the southern skies, but those living north of the equator should be able to see it quite easily.

Regardless of where you are in the world, you’ll also be able to see live footage of the comet over on Virtual Telescope Project on January 6th and 11th.

And it’s worth checking it out – this comet takes around 14,000 years to orbit the Sun, which means it started very very far out in our Solar System (its orbit takes it out to a distance of nearly 90 billion kilometres, as Phil Plait explains over at Slate’s Bad Astronomy blog). This also means that none of us are going to live long enough to see Comet Lovejoy pass by this way again.

So don’t forget to watch the skies in the coming weeks. Space is putting on a show for us.

Red Meat Increases Cancer Risk Through Immune Response

red meat

Consumption of red meat has long been linked to the development of certain types of cancer. Now scientists believe they’ve found the culprit behind red meat’s carcinogenic effects.

A new study reports that a sugar molecule found in the flesh of beef, lamb and pork could be triggering an immune response in humans that causes inflammation, which ultimately contributes to tumor growth. Long-term exposure to this sugar in mice caused a five-fold increase in their chances of developing cancer.

Not So Sweet Sugar

Humans are the only carnivores that face an increased risk of cancer as a result of eating red meat, but no one really knew why. Although there’s an abundance of theories attempting to explain red meat’s ill effects, concrete evidence is still in short supply.

Researchers decided to focus on a single sugar molecule, called Neu5Gc, that has been found in high levels in cancerous tissues but isn’t produced by the human body – indicating that it comes from our diet. Neu5Gc is naturally produced in most mammals, but humans are the exception.

When researchers measured the amount of Neu5Gc in various foods, they found that red meat had especially high levels. Beef, bison, pork and lamb had the greatest amount of the sugar. Poultry, fish (with the exception of caviar), vegetables and fruits lacked Neu5Gc.

Testing Neu5Gc

Researchers suspected that the immune system could be to blame, launching antibodies against the sugar whenever humans ate it. That could cause chronic inflammation, a known contributor to cancer.

So researchers bred “humanized” mice that lacked the ability to produce Neu5Gc. They fed them the mouse equivalent of red meat, mouse chow enriched with Neu5Gc, for 12 weeks. The mice also received regular injections of Neu5Gc antibodies to mimic what happens in the human body.

And indeed, scientists found that the mice developed five times as many tumors as humanized mice fed a normal diet. The liver was the most common spot for tumors to develop, and biopsies of the tumors found Neu5Gc in them. Humans, by contrast, tend to develop cancer of the colon as a result of red meat-heavy diets. Researchers published their results in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

It’s Not All Bad News

Researchers told The Telegraph that red meat is an important source of iron, proteins and other vitamins; so moderate red meat consumption does yield nutritional benefits. And the study doesn’t indicate that eating red meat is the direct cause of cancer. Rather, Neu5Gc appears to accelerate the development of cancer.

There are still plenty of questions to answer in regard to red meat’s link to cancer in humans. Why does Neu5Gc cause liver cancers in mice and colon cancer in humans? What other dietary and biological factors contribute to cancer progression in humans?

Regardless, it may be a good time to heed the advice of those Chick-fil-A cows and “Eat Mor Chikin.”


Chinese Traditional Medicine, Visualized: The Human Brain On Acupuncture

Lying down on an exam table, spreading your arms and legs apart, and closing your eyes as fine needles are inserted into your skin sounds counterintuitive to pain relief. The ultra-thin stainless-steel acupuncture needles are strategically placed into your skin at acupuncture points to evoke “deqi” sensations that can lead to a relaxed and healthier you. The tiny sensations caused by the pricks on your skin actually activate the nervous system and the brain, but how does this all work?

Doctor putting acupuncture needles on woman's shoulder

The “qi” sensation that is widely discussed in acupuncture is produced when a needle is inserted. The aching, tingling sensation generates responses in different brain regions as acupoints are needled. In fact, specific acupuncture points have distinct deqi characteristics that have a consistent and unique ability to stimulate specific brain regions.

Stimulating acupuncture points leads to overlapping brain responses in a number of cortical and subcortical brain regions. This includes the insula, thalamus, anterior cingulate cortex and primary and secondary somatosensory cortices — all part of the sensorimotor cortical network, according to Medscape. At the same time, there is a deactivation in the limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network, which includes the medial prefrontal cortex, caudate, amygdala, posterior cingulate cortex, and parahippocampus. These brain areas are associated with a pain matrix that is responsible for modulating both the sensation of pain and affective pain perception.

In the YouTube video, “This Is Your Brain On Acupuncture,” user James Whittle, an acupuncturist in Asheville, N.C., shows the difference in brain activity during superficial needling and deep needling. Unlike superficial needling, deep needling has been shown to be more effective than the superficial one for the treatment of pain associated with myofascial (pressure) on trigger (sensitive) points. However, the superficial technique is more apt for treating areas with potential risk of significant adverse effects, such as lungs and large blood vessels.

A group of researchers in the video sought to delve deeper into the effects of both techniques on the brain. First, an MRI scan was taken of the brain at base line, meaning at rest, to observe the activity taking place. Then, the research team scanned the brain when the needles were inserted into the participant’s body using superficial and deep needling techniques, respectively.

In the superficial needling MRI, the researchers found there was an increase in blood flow in front of the brain. This is just the brain’s normal response to the needle being lightly inserted. The deqi sensation in deep needling was actually found to lead to a deactivation in areas of the brain further back. Scientific analysis has shown deqi can deactivate areas within the brain that are associated with the processing of pain. “That reinforces the idea that something quite special is happening, something unique to acupuncture, something physiological,” said Dr. George Lewith of the University of Southampton in the video.

MRI images of two acupuncture techniques

MRI images of brain activity in superficial needling (L) and deep needling (R)

A 2005 study published in the journal NeuroImage found acupuncture increased activity in a different brain area called the insula, which is part of the cerebral cortex. Although the researchers admit they don’t know what this activity means, it indicates acupuncture does have some real effect on the brain. “What we have demonstrated is that acupuncture is partially modulated by expectation but is probably also modulated by a real treatment effect,” Lewith said in the press release.

These studies add evidence that the already proven beneficial practice in Traditional Chinese Medicine does have a mysterious, unexplained effect on the brain. Acupuncture does cause an activation/deactivation of cerebral functional regions. However, there are those who believe much of the relief of acupuncture is simply due to a placebo effect.

In the U.S., there are more than 3,000 physicians who integrate acupuncture into their clinical practice, according to the Cleveland Clinic. Currently, chiropractors and acupuncturists are struggling to gain acceptance from the health insurance industry since acupuncture’s efficacy has yet to be confirmed in scientific studies. Traditional Chinese Medicine, such as acupuncture, still has a long way to go in the U.S. to be considered in the same caliber as other Western medical treatments.

Killing for DNA: A predatory device in the cholera bacterium.

Scientists have uncovered the unconventional way that the cholera bacterium stabs and kills other bacteria to steal their DNA, making it potentially more virulent. Cholera is caused when the bacterium Vibrio cholerae infects the small intestine. The disease is characterized by acute watery diarrhea resulting in severe dehydration.
This is an electron scanning microscopy image showing Vibrio cholerae bacteria attached to a chitin surface.

Cholera is caused when the bacterium Vibrio cholerae infects the small intestine. The disease is characterized by acute watery diarrhea resulting in severe dehydration. EPFL scientists have now demonstrated that V. cholerae uses a tiny spear to stab and kill neighboring bacteria — even of its own kind — and then steal their DNA. This mechanism, known as “horizontal gene transfer,” allows the cholera bacterium to become more virulent by absorbing the traits of its prey. The study is published inScience.

Killing neighbors and stealing genes

This spear-killing, predatory behavior is triggered by the bacterium’s environment. The cholera bacterium naturally lives in water, such as the sea, where it attaches onto small planktonic crustaceans. There, it feeds on the main component of their shells: a sugar polymer called chitin. When chitin is available, V. cholerae goes into an aggressive survival mode called “natural competence.” When in this mode, V. choleraeattacks neighboring bacteria with its spear — even if they are of the same species.

Melanie Blokesch set out to explore how V. cholerae uses this behavior to compete for survival in nature. Her lab tested different strains of the bacterium from all over the world, most of which have been implicated in the 7th cholera pandemic, which began in Indonesia in the 1960’s, spread rapidly to Asia, Europe, and Latin America, and still affects populations today.

The researchers grew these bacteria on chitin surfaces that simulated their natural habitat on crustaceans. What they found was that the tiny spear is not only part of V. cholerae‘s natural survival system, but it also contributed to the transfer of genes that could make the bacterium more resistant to threats, even to antibiotics. The researchers then used genetic and bioimaging techniques to identify, in real time, which mechanisms are involved in this event, which is called “horizontal gene transfer.”

“Using this mode of DNA acquisition, a single V. cholerae cell can absorb fragments containing more than 40 genes from another bacterium,” says Melanie Blokesch. “That’s an enormous amount of new genetic information.” This phenomenon is referred to as “horizontal” gene transfer, as opposed to the conventional “vertical” passage of genes from parent to offspring.

The importance of this study lies in the fact that horizontal gene transfer is a widespread phenomenon in bacteria, and it contributes to the dispersal of virulence factors and antibiotic resistances. In addition, the chitin-mediated activation of the spear-killing device most likely renders the bacterium more dangerous to patients when they ingest it, as this molecular spear might also kill protective bacteria in the human gut.

The researchers are now extending their investigation into the interplay between the chitin-induced production of the spear and horizontal gene transfer. “By studying this interplay, we can begin to better understand evolutionary forces that shape human pathogens and maybe also transmission of the disease cholera,” says Blokesch.

Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.

Journal Reference:

  1. S. Borgeaud, L. C. Metzger, T. Scrignari, M. Blokesch. The type VI secretion system of Vibrio cholerae fosters horizontal gene transfer. Science, 2015; 347 (6217): 63 DOI: 10.1126/science.1260064

The Dirty Truth About E-Cigs.

E-cigs are taking the world by storm, but not much is known about the negative side effects of vaping. It’s commonly thought that electronic cigarettes are safe, but is this true? Laci breaks down what we know so far about this new product, and why you should think twice before smoking one.

Read More:
9 chemicals identified so far in e-cig vapor that are on the California Prop 65 list of carcinogens and reproductive toxins
“California’s landmark Proposition 65, the Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986, was enacted as a ballot initiative in November 1986.”

Levels of selected carcinogens and toxicants in vapour from electronic cigarettes
“Electronic cigarettes, also known as e-cigarettes, are devices designed to imitate regular cigarettes and deliver nicotine via inhalation without combusting tobacco.”

E-cigarette use more than doubles among U.S. middle and high school students from 2011-1012
“The percentage of U.S. middle and high school students who use electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, more than doubled from 2011 to 2012, according to data published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.”

Are E-Cigarettes Safer Than Regular Cigarettes
“Electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, are being marketed as the “safe” new alternative to conventional cigarettes.”

Marketing rules too lax, critics say
“As federal regulators weigh what rules to impose on the booming electronic cigarette industry, consumer advocacy groups are working to mount a case for stricter limitations on marketing.”

Do E-Cigarettes Help Smokers Quit?
“Smokers who wish to quit commonly use electronic cigarettes to help them, despite the lack of evidence that the devices work, a new study finds.”

E-cigarettes expose people to more than harmless vapor, should be regulated
“Industry claims about e-cigarette devices are unsupported by evidence, including claims that e-cigarettes help smokers quit, concludes a major scientific review of research.”

12 Myths About Sex {Infographic}

Being a “taboo” subject, sex isn’t discussed even within the closest social circles. That leaves a lot of assumptions and myths about sex through hearsay that normally ends in funny situations but can be pivotal in making or breaking a relationship. Empower yourself with the “right” knowledge to make informed decisions in your life.

Here are 12 myths about sex posted on Visually that will shatter your deepest preconceived notions:

12 Myths about Sex

Innate behavior determines how we steer our car

Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology have solved a 70 year old mystery in traffic research: an until now inexplicable jerkiness when we steer a vehicle. The discovery may lead to safety systems in cars that can correct dangerous steering movements before they occur.

The ability to predict what a driver is going to do in the near future and to be able to prepare the car’s system for this sounds a little bit like science fiction, and it would naturally be a dream come true for the safety departments at car manufacturers. The dream is now one step closer to becoming reality.

“With the driver model I have developed, it is possible to predict what drivers are going to do with the steering wheel before they do it. It is possible to predict how far the driver is going to turn the wheel, right when the person starts a wheel-turning movement. It’s like looking into the future,” says Chalmers researcher Ola Benderius.

As a result of the recently published discovery, several applications for car support systems can be developed to make our cars safer. Smarter anti-skid systems and systems for fatigued are two examples of potential usage areas.

“Imagine a fatigued driver on the verge of running off the road. He or she suddenly wakes up and reflexively initiates a very large corrective manoeuvre, a potential misjudgement that can lead to something very dangerous. Since we are now able to predict how far the driver is going to turn the wheel, the vehicle’s support systems can identify potential misjudgements and intervene, which means a serious accident, such as the car travelling into approaching traffic, can be avoided,” says Ola Benderius.

What is the mystery that Ola Benderius has solved? As early as 1947, the well-known British researcher Arnold Tustin (1899-1994) produced the first model for how a person steers towards a target. He identified a continuous and linear control behaviour. When a car is driven, this corresponds to the driver gently and continuously following the road with the . This behaviour is known as tracking within control theory, and it has been the prevailing theory for car driving ever since. However, when comparing the linear model with actual measured data, some deviations become apparent, namely jerkiness in the steering signal.

Tustin saw these deviations from the continuous prediction as well, but the mystery has remained unsolved until now. Ola Benderius and his colleague Gustav Markkula got the idea while they were attending a lecture on neurocognition at Sahlgrenska University Hospital. The lecture addressed the behavioural theory of reaching, which concerns the basic human behaviour when we reach for something.

When studying how we humans move our hand from Point A to pick up something from Point B, the speed of the movement has a direct relationship with the distance – the longer the distance, the quicker the movement. The interesting effect of this is that the time for the movement is the same regardless of the distance.

“We immediately recognised this pattern from our measured steer signals,” says Ola Benderius. “It was a bit of a eureka moment. Was it possible that this basic human behaviour also controlled how we steer a car?”

With the idea in mind, Ola Benderius extracted over 1,000 hours of car and truck driving from real driving data, which resulted in 1.3 million steer corrections. It turned out that 95 per cent of these correspond with the reaching theory. Ola Benderius and Gustav Markkula had discovered that steering is not linear when the driver follows the road, but rather that the driver turns the wheel according to the special reaching pattern.

“We were able to use the theory to explain what researchers had been trying to solve for a long time. This was the answer to the previously inexplicable jerkiness in the control signal. Rather than looking upon steering as continuously following the road, steering corrections seem to be applied in a very predetermined manner,” says Ola Benderius. “The control behaviour has also proven to be very natural; I saw this in an earlier study where I examined driving behaviour in 12 year olds and their parents.”

With this new knowledge, he was able to develop a mathematical model that can explain many observed steering behaviours, which means that the driver response to different situations can be predicted before it occurs. Ola Benderius believes the discovery will have an impact on an entire research field.

“This might completely change how we regard human control of vehicles, crafts and vessels. I hope and believe that many researchers will utilise the findings and start to think in new ways. Control behaviour has traditionally been studied on the basis of control theory and technical systems. If it is instead studied on the basis of neuroscience with focus on the human, an entire new world opens up. This could push the research field in an entirely different direction,” says Ola Benderius.

A 20-Minute Body Weight Routine Even the Busiest Woman Has Time For

Brett Hoebel has trained models (Doutzen Kroes and Karolína Kurková) and busy professionals who don’t always have hours for the gym. So he draws on his martial-arts background to create quick, high-intensity workouts that can be done anywhere, anytime.

Your trainer: Hoebel, creator of the 20-Minute Body DVD series and upcoming book, developed these capoeira-inspired moves.

Your workout: Warm up with 2 minutes of light cardio. Begin each move in its designated start position and flow through the steps, in one smooth motion, for 30 seconds. Each move is challenging, so try it slowly before you start. Rest 30 seconds between each. Do 3 sets.

Start [A]

A 20-Minute Body Weight Routine Even the Busiest Woman Has Time For

Crouched position: knees bent, back flat, hands and feet aligned in a square

Start [B]


Supported sitting position: knees bent, feet on floor, hands by hips, hips and butt raised

Start [C]


Squat position: knees over toes, back flat, hands in front of chest

Capoeira Hop


Start in position A. Hop forward as you rise into a low squat, hands in front of chest (as shown). Reverse move to return to start. Repeat.

Works butt, thighs

Rio Swivel


Start in position A. Bring right knee to chest. In one swift motion, lift left arm and pivot on left foot and right hand to flip into a supported sitting position. Extend right leg and bring left arm to chest (as shown). Lift hips to flip back over and return to start. Continue, alternating sides.

Works core, triceps, shoulders

Duck and Escape


Start in position C. Step left foot across body, pivoting 90 degrees to the right, holding squat, feet parallel, chest close to thighs. In the same motion, bring right arm in front of chest as left arm reaches back (as shown). Return to start. Continue, alternating sides.

Works legs, back

Carnaval Kick


Start in position B. Lift left arm and leg off floor. Flip over by leaning to the right and pivoting on right hand and foot, landing with hands parallel and left knee at chest. Extend left leg straight up with heel toward ceiling (as shown). Pull knee into chest and flip back over. Continue, alternating sides.

Works core, butt

São Paolo Sweep


Start in position B. Slide hips toward heels. Bring left arm across body and place hand on floor by right hip while extending right leg parallel to floor, foot flexed (as shown). Return to start. Continue, alternating sides.

Works abs, inner thighs

Brazil Booty Lunge


Start in position C. Step back with left leg into a low lunge, chest close to thigh. At the same time, place right hand on floor outside right foot and bring left hand in front of chest (as shown). Return to start. Continue, alternating sides.