Poor Quality Sleep Could Lead To Brain Changes And Dementia, Study Finds

It’s bad enough being one of the millions of people suffering from sleep-disturbing conditions like emphysema and sleep apnea, waking up tired or having your spouse complain about your loud snoring. Now a new study reveals even scarier effects of not getting enough quality sleep.

Findings unveiled today in the journal Neurology, links the effects of sleep disturbances to brain changes that could lead to dementia later in life. Researchers looked at a cohort of 167 Japanese-American men with an average age of 84, following the mens’ sleep patterns from the start of the study until their death, an average of six years later.

They found that lower blood oxygen levels at night, due to sleep disturbances, made men more likely to have harmful brain changes. The men with the lowest levels of blood oxygen were four times as likely to have brain abnormalities than men with higher levels. Those who had less deep sleep, or “slow wave sleep,” were also more likely to have lost brain cells.


“These findings suggest that low blood oxygen levels and reduced slow wave sleep may contribute to the processes that lead to cognitive decline and dementia,” study author Rebecca P. Gelber of the VA Pacific Islands Health Care System said in a release. “More research is needed to determine how slow wave sleep may play a restorative role in brain function and whether preventing low blood oxygen levels may reduce the risk of dementia.”

Various studies have cautioned of the negative effects of lack of quality sleep on the brain. A Temple University study found that mice who were sleep deprived showed more plaques and tangles in the brain, a hallmark of Alzheimer’s, as well as memory problems, in just eight weeks. Another study found that in older men, sleep disturbances increased the risk of Alzheimer’s by up to 50 percent.

The researchers say that more studies could show whether or not getting more quality sleep or increasing blood oxygen levels could actually have the reverse effect on brain changes. Until then, let’s all try to get a better night’s rest.

The Pill Remains Most Common Method of Birth Control, U.S. Report Shows

The pill remains one of the most popular methods of birth control for women, along with female sterilization and condoms, a new report shows.

Among the two-thirds of women aged 15 to 44 who used birth control between 2011 and 2013, approximately 16 percent used the pill.

Female sterilization, where women have their fallopian tubes closed or blocked, was used by 15.5 percent of women, while 9.4 percent used male condoms, according to the report published Dec. 11 by the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS).

But intrauterine devices (IUDs) and implants, both types of long-acting reversible contraceptives, are close on the heels of these other forms of birth control, with 7.2 percent of women using them.

“Use of long-acting reversible contraceptives is becoming more popular,” said report author Kimberly Daniels, of the NCHS. Their use has nearly doubled since the last report on findings from five years earlier, when approximately 3.8 percent of women were using them, Daniels said.

The most popular long-acting reversible contraception is the IUD, used by 3.5 percent of women in 2006 to 2010 and by 6.4 percent of women in 2011 to 2013, according to Daniels. The IUDs available in the United States include two hormonal versions, Mirena and Skyla, and one containing copper, ParaGard.

This increase in long-acting reversible contraception has followed changes in guidelines by leading health care organizations that now recommend their use to younger women and those without children, said Laura Lindberg, a senior research associate at the Guttmacher Institute.

When IUDs came out years ago, there were concerns they might raise the risk of pelvic infection and jeopardize a woman’s fertility. But IUDs currently on the market don’t carry those risks, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics.

The academy now recommends these contraception devices as the first option for teens.

But Lindberg added that they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

“Currently, male and female condoms are the only methods on the market that prevent both pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections,” Lindberg said. “Until such time as other options become available, continuing to promote and support the use of these methods, either alone or in conjunction with a hormonal method, is critical to reducing the risk of STIs.”

Studies have shown that long-acting reversible contraceptive methods are more effective than the pill, patch or ring, even in young women, according to Dr. Vanessa Cullins, vice president for external medical affairs at Planned Parenthood Federation of America.

“They’re a great birth control option if you want to preserve your fertility — you think you may want kids in the future but not right now — but also desire long-term, highly effective pregnancy prevention,” Cullins said. “Their very low failure rates are because women who use them do not have to remember to do anything before sex, or daily or monthly or even every three months — once it’s been inserted, you can pretty much forget about it.”

The report found condom use to be similar, about 9 percent, across whites, blacks and Hispanics, but other contraceptive forms showed differences across various race/ethnicity groups.

Female sterilization, for example, was higher among black women, at 21 percent, than it was in white women, at 14 percent. But use of the pill by white women, at 19 percent, was almost double the use by Hispanic (11 percent) and black women (10 percent).

The reason for these differences relates to health care access, Cullins said.

“We know that black and Hispanic women are less likely to have access to regular affordable health care, less likely to have insurance, and access to contraception is part of that,” Cullins said. “Cost is a huge barrier. When a woman has to make a choice between her birth control and feeding her kids, birth control is going to get short shrift.”

Similarly, until the Affordable Care Act, uninsured women only qualified for insurance while pregnant or immediately postpartum, leading many to opt for sterilization while the health insurance was available to pay for it as a contraception method, Cullins said.

This situation applies to differences seen in educational levels as well: 27 percent of women with only a high school diploma or G.E.D. were using sterilization, compared to 10 percent of women with a bachelor’s degree or higher.

“This is one of the many reasons that the Affordable Care Act is so important,” Cullins said. “Because of the ACA’s birth control benefit, millions more women have access to no-copay birth control, so cost is no longer a barrier.”

Cullins said the popularity of the pill is predominantly due to familiarity — it has been around longer than most other methods — and pharmaceutical company marketing. But she said it’s important to recognize that women’s birth control needs change over time, so they need to pick the method that best fits their lives.

“Women who use a birth control method that fits their needs are more likely to prevent pregnancy because they are more likely to continue using their method,” Cullins said. “The easier it is for women to prevent unintended pregnancies, the better they are able to plan their futures, start their families when they’re ready, have healthy relationships with their life partners and take care of their health — and that’s good for all of us.”

Newly-found brain function could prevent obesity

A newly-discovered brain mechanism could help control glucose greed (file photo)

A newly-discovered brain mechanism could help control glucose greed (file photo)
Scientists have discovered a brain mechanism that could help treat obesity by impacting human’s desire for glucose-rich food.

Researchers at Imperial College London say the mechanism apparently senses how much glucose is reaching the brain and prompts it to seek more in case of shortage, Reuters reported.

In humans, the mechanism could have a role in the proclivity towards sweet and starchy foods.

“Our brains rely heavily on glucose for energy…  but in our evolutionary past it would have been hard to come by. So we have a deep-rooted preference for glucose-rich foods and seek them out,” said James Gardiner, who led the study and published its results in the Journal of Clinical Investigation on Monday.

In their experiments, the scientists found out that when rats are deprived of food for 24 hours, the activity of the glucokinase enzyme, involved in sensing glucose in liver and pancreas, rises sharply in an appetite-regulating center in the hypothalamus, which regulates food intake among other functions.

Using a virus, the scientists increased the activity of glucokinase in the rats’ hypothalamus, which made them consume more of a glucose solution than their normal food pellets, called chow.

Gardiner suggested that using a drug on this system and making changes in the diet could help control human cravings for glucose to potentially prevent obesity.

“People are likely to have different levels of this enzyme, so different things will work for different people,” Gardiner said in a statement, adding, “For some people, eating more starchy foods at the start of a meal might be a way to feel full more quickly by targeting this system, meaning they eat less overall.”

New Device Performs Eye Exams With Smartphone

Around 39 million people in the world are blind, with another 256 million suffering from visual impairments. The World Health Organization estimates that about 80% of these cases could be prevented or reversed if these people had adequate access to visual care. Bringing the necessary ophthalmological equipment to poor and remote areas could soon become a lot easier with the development of Peek Retina: the Portable Eye Examination Kit. This device, currently in development by Peek Vision, connects to smartphones and will allow doctors to easily and affordably complete eye exams. Peek Retina clips onto the camera of smartphones and allow physicians to examine the retina, using the appropriate amount of light intensity pointed at the necessary angle. Because it is combined with a camera, it produces high-quality images that can be referred to later in order to get a second opinion or to track progress if needed. The device assists in identifying conditions like glaucoma and cataracts, allowing patients to receive treatment to slow or reverse the disease. This can also be used to identify complications of diabetes, malaria, and meningitis which can impact vision and indicate swelling of the brain. Understanding the full scope of a patient’s health can impact how doctors proceed with treatments and therapies. Over the last two years, physicians have been testing a prototype of the device in remote locations such as Mali, Botswana, and Kenya, with encouraging results. The company predicts that health care workers could perform about 1,000 eye exams per week with this technology. In addition to using Peek Retina in remote locations, the device is also great for use in industrialized areas at prisons or nursing homes, and by non-health professionals at home. The company is currently undergoing a crowdfunding campaign, seeking to raise £70,000 (US$110,000) to develop the tools needed to manufacture Peek Retina on a larger scale. They hope to begin distribution by October of 2015. Initially, each unit will cost about £60 (US$95), but the price will likely go down over time as more units get manufactured.


‘Gluten Brain’: Wheat Cuts Off Blood Flow To Frontal Cortex .

As far back as 1954, reports of the full or partial resolution of schizophrenia following a gluten free diet began to surface in the medical literature. We covered this remarkable pattern of associations in a previous article titled, “60 Years of Research Links Gluten Grains to Schizophrenia.” While the explanation for this intriguing connection has remained focused on the disruption of the gut-brain axis and the presence in wheat of a wide range of pharmacologically active and mostly opioid receptor modulating polypeptides, a new and possibly more disturbing explanation is beginning to surface: wheat consumption cuts off blood flow to the brain.

grain brain damage gluten 224x300 Gluten Brain: Wheat Cuts Off Blood Flow To Frontal Cortex

Starting with a 1997 case study published in the Journal of Internal Medicine involving a 33-year-old patient, with pre-existing diagnosis of ‘schizophrenic’ disorder, who first came to medical attention for severe diarrhea and weight loss (classical symptoms of gluten intolerance), brain scan technology determined that cerebral hypoperfusion (decreased blood flow to the brain) was occurring within the patient’s frontal cortex.[i] A gluten free diet resulted not only in the normalization of intestinal damage and autoantibodies, but the return of blood flow to the frontal cortex, and the resolution of schizophrenic symptoms.

Then, in 2004, a follow up study was performed to verify if the 1997 case study was just a fluke, or perhaps a widespread effect of untreated celiac disease. Published in the American Journal of Medicine, researchers from the Institute of Internal Medicine, Catholic University, Rome, Italy, compared 15 untreated celiac patients without neurological or psychiatric disorders other than anxiety or depression, with 15 celiac patients who were on a gluten-free diet for almost 1 year, and 24 healthy volunteers of similar sex and age. All subjects underwent cerebral single photon emission computed tomography examination.

The results were remarkable, with dramatically increased incidence of impaired brain blood flow in untreated celiac patients, reported as follows:

Of the 15 untreated celiac patients, 11 (73%) had at least one hypoperfused brain region, compared with only 1 (7%) of the 15 celiac patients on a gluten-free diet and none of the controls (P = 0.01). Cerebral perfusion was significantly lower (P <0.05) in untreated celiac patients, compared with healthy controls, in 7 of 26 brain regions. No significant differences in cerebral perfusion were found between celiac patients on a gluten-free diet and healthy controls.”

They concluded: “There is evidence of regional cerebral blood flow alteration in untreated celiac patients.”


So, let’s take a closer look at what cerebral (brain) hypoperfusion means.

Hypoperfusion is simply decreased blood flow through an organ. Whether it is an internal organ like the kidney, a muscle or the brain, the organ will experience lower availability of oxygen (hypoxia) and nutrients, and will therefore function at a suboptimal level.  Cerebral hypoperfusion, therefore, is decreased blood flow to the brain – an organ with extremely high energy demands, and upon which our entire consciousness depends.

Dr. David Perlmutter, author of the #1 New York Times best-selling book Grain Brain, has made great strides in introducing the concept to the world that grains adversely affect brain health. We know that the carbohydrate content of grains alone contribute to disrupting insulin-mediated glucose homeostasiswithin neurons, ultimately contributing to their suboptimal functioning and in some cases demise, but the discovery that wheat in particular has blood flow disrupting properties to the frontal cortex of the grain, has profound implications.

For example, it is know that the frontal lobe house the ‘executive functions‘ of the brain, including:

  • Recognizing future consequences resulting from current actions
  • Choosing between ‘good’ and ‘bad’ actions
  • Overriding and suppressing socially unacceptable responses
  • Retaining longer term memories which are not task-based.
  • Determine similarities and differences between things or events.

If wheat consumption, through some as of yet unknown mechanism, interferes with blood flow to the brain in susceptible individuals, and as a result disrupts the executive functions of the brain, abstaining from it should be considered a reasonable precautionary behavior, assuming we wish to retain these critical functions related to morality, cognizance, and social responsibility.

For additional research on the adverse health effects of wheat, read our article: Wheat: 200 Clinically Confirmed Reasons Not To Eat It.

Also, for more information on the brain-specific harmful effects of wheat, read the following articles or watch the video:

Article References

[i] A De Santis, G Addolorato, A Romito, S Caputo, A Giordano, G Gambassi, C Taranto, R Manna, G Gasbarrini. Schizophrenic symptoms and SPECT abnormalities in a coeliac patient: regression after a gluten-free diet. J Intern Med. 1997 Nov ;242(5):421-3. PMID: 9408073

Triclosan found to induce liver cancer in scientific study

The evidence continues to mount regarding the harmful health effects of triclosan, an antimicrobial agent found in many consumer care products, including toothpaste. Despite industry claims that the chemical is totally safe, the results of a new study performed by UC Davis scientists beg to differ.

A Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request filed in 2012 revealed that Colgate-Palmolive Co. conspired with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to deliberately withhold research on the safety of triclosan in the 1990s. Some of the information withheld included studies that showed issues in bone formation of fetal rats and mice exposed to the chemical.

Recent study contradicts manufacturer’s claims that triclosan doesn’t cause cancer

Colgate dismissed the findings and defended use of triclosan, issuing the following statement:

“Recent claims that triclosan in Colgate Total can lead to cancer are absolutely untrue. Global regulators have reviewed the issue of carcinogenicity and have concluded that triclosan in consumer products does not pose a human cancer risk.”

However, data obtained from the most recent study suggests that triclosan does in fact cause cancer, specifically liver cancer.

Published in the November 17 journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the study’s data shows that triclosan causes liver fibrosis and cancer in laboratory mice, findings that could be potentially be relevant to humans.

Estimated 75 percent of American adults have triclosan in bloodstream

Slightly soluble in water, triclosan is a white powdery substance added to cosmetics, deodorant, dental products, soap and kitchen tools, such as cutting boards and ice cream scoopers. It’s so widely used that an estimated 75 percent of Americans over five years old have traces of the chemical in their blood and urine, according to Morning Star Publishing. This includes in nursing women’s breast milk.

Researchers with the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine say long-term exposure to triclosan could potentially cause serious health consequences.

“Triclosan’s increasing detection in environmental samples and its increasingly broad use in consumer products may overcome its moderate benefit and present a very real risk of liver toxicity for people, as it does in mice, particularly when combined with other compounds with similar action,” said Robert H. Tukey, a professor in UC San Diego’s departments of Chemistry & Biochemistry and Pharmacology.

After observing the effects of mice exposed to triclosan for 6 months, the equivalent of 18 years for humans, scientists believe triclosan may make it harder for the body to purge itself of foreign chemicals.

Triclosan disrupted liver integrity and compromised liver function in mice, scientists say. Mice exposed to triclosan were also more susceptible to developing chemical-induced liver tumors, which were larger and more frequent than in mice not exposed to the chemical.

“The study suggests triclosan may do its damage by interfering with a protein called the constitutive androstane receptor, which is responsible for clearing foreign chemicals from the body,” according to a news release by UC Davis. “To compensate for this stress, liver cells proliferate and turn fibrotic over time. Repeated triclosan exposure and continued liver fibrosis eventually promote tumor formation.”

Triclosan, one of 7 chemicals frequently detected in US streams

Most of the triclosan used in personal care products ends up being washed down the drain and sent for processing at the nearest water treatment plant, where it does not get filtered out. The chemical eventually makes it way to the soil where it accumulates and is taken up by plants, animals and humans.

Its effects on aquatic life are unknown, however, scientists do know that the presence of triclosan in the environment is contributing to bacteria resistance.

“Predominant bacteria like E.coli, salmonella, shigella, and other intestinal bacteria become resistant to triclosan fairly readily.”






Learn more: http://www.naturalnews.com/047952_triclosan_liver_cancer_evidence.html#ixzz3LnTooBwt

Curcumin, Compound In Turmeric, Found To Impair Fear Memories And Ease PTSD Symptoms

Turmeric, a common ingredient in curry, has been shown to have several health benefits; most recently, scientists found that curcumin can impair fear memories involved with PTSD. 

Turmeric is a main spice in curry — it’s a yellow-colored, bitter-tasting ginger root that can also be quite medicinal. Turmeric has been used to treat arthritis, heartburn, stomach issues, and diarrhea, among other things throughout human history — but now researchers have found a new potential outlet for the root in treating disorders involving fear memories, like post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

In a new study led by Glenne Schafe, a professor of psychology at Hunter College, researchers found that curcumin — the principal compound found in turmeric — impaired the formation of fear memories in the brain after a traumatic experience.

“We showed that rats freely fed a diet enriched with curcumin have impaired encoding of fear memories,” Schafe said in the press release. “We also showed that rats with a pre-existing fear memory can lose that memory when it is recalled while they are eating a curcumin-enriched diet.”

Curcumin has been examined in the past for its potential health benefits, such as its efficacy in treating multiple myeloma, pancreatic cancer, myelodysplastic syndromes, colon cancer, psoriasis, arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease, and even depression. A recent study, meanwhile, found that curcumin also proved able in fighting mesothelioma — a rare form of cancer that attacks the cells of the mesothelium, a protective lining around organs — when combined with other anti-cancer peptide molecules. In addition, researchers have examined curcumin’s effect on Alzheimer’s disease: A 2008 study claimed that “due to various effects of curcumin, such as decreased beta-amyloid plaques, delayed degradation of neurons, metal-chelation, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and decreased microglia formation, the overall memory in patients with [Alzheimer’s disease] has improved.”

But if curcumin truly has a beneficial effect on people suffering from PTSD or other psychological disorders, that brings the spice to a whole new level. The authors of the most recent study discovered that fear memories impaired by curcumin appeared to remain compromised for a long period of time — preventing them from “reconsolidating” or reappearing again. Of course, more research will be needed in order to solidify the evidence.

“Curcumin, a yellow-pigment compound found in the popular Indian spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), has been extensively investigated for its anti-inflammatory, chemopreventative and antidepressant properties,” the authors write in the Abstract. “Here, we examined the efficacy of dietary curcumin at impairing the consolidation and reconsolidation of a Pavlovian fear memory, a widely studied animal model of traumatic memory formation in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).”

The authors conclude that the findings may have “important clinical implications for the treatment of disorders such as PTSD that are characterized by unusually strong and persistently reactivated fear memories.”

PABA (Para-Amino benzoic Acid)

PABA is a naturally-occurring, water-soluble compound which is found in many foods as a cofactor of the vitamin B complex (associated with folate). It first became popular due to the writings of pioneer nutritionists like Gaylord Hauser, Lelord Kordell, and Adelle Davis. Several decades later, life extension scientists Durk Pearson and Sandy Shaw extolled the potential virtues of PABA in their best-seller, Life Extension-A Practical Scientific Approach. Pearson and Shaw described PABA as an antioxidant B vitamin which could: (1) slow cross-linking; (2) enhance flexibility; (3) promote membrane fluidity; (4) provide protection against ozone, secondhand smoke and other air pollutants; (5) alleviate the inflammation of arthritis; and (6) restore the original color of hair in perhaps 10-25% of cases. Pearson and Shaw reported they consumed as much as three grams of PABA per day.

Is PABA a Vitamin?

By definition, a vitamin is a biologically active organic compound that is essential for an organisms normal health and growth, a deficiency of which results in a deficiency disease or disorder. Though PABA has many vitamin-like qualities, it fails to meet the strict definition. Early animal studies did, however, demonstrate that PABA increased lactation in rodents and increased the weight of chicks that were fed a diet with low levels of folate. These early studies suggested that PABA was essential, and it was given the preliminary designation vitamin Bx. Since then, it has erroneously been described as a B vitamin by many nutritionists and health educators in dozens of books. In fact, what was occurring in these folate-deficient animals was that PABA was being converted into folate (PABA is actually a structural part of folic acid) by intestinal bacteria. PABA is a vitamin for many bacterial species (bacterial vitamin H1) but not for humans or other large animals. Furthermore, animals lack the enzymes of the folate synthetic pathway, so it is impossible for them to incorporate PABA into folate. Though PABA is not technically a vitamin, it does appear to have a number of interesting and potentially valuable uses.

The Anti-Gray Hair Vitamin

One very interesting application for this versatile substance is its potential to restore hair to its natural color. In 1941, Sieve reported that administration of 200 mg of PABA per day for two months resulted in marked darkening of the hair in 30 patients who presented with achromotrichia (gray hair). In an attempt to replicate this study, Brandaleone and colleagues (1944) muddied the waters by administering 200 mg of PABA with 100 mg of calcium pantothenate (vitamin B5) and 50 grams (approx. 2 ounces) of brewers yeast for eight months to patients with gray hair. He found that only 2 of 33 individuals had significant hair color change. Dr. Chris Zarafonetis (1964) of Temple University followed these investigations with a report that described 5 cases of dramatic hair color change and hair regrowth in 20 patients who presented with markedly gray hair, who were taking 6-24 grams of PABA per day for other conditions. The hair color changes were serendipitous results of this therapy. Zarafonetis concluded that consumption of 6-24 grams of PABA per day for at least 6 weeks restored the natural hair color of 25% of people with markedly gray hair. He did not speculate on the mechanism for hair color restoration and pointed out that the effects were highly variable and might require extended periods of administration. Zvak (1986) confirmed that forty years ago, large doses of PABA were clearly shown to darken grey hair; the regained color was lost within 3-4 weeks of stopping the treatment. While it is clear that the hair color restoration effects of PABA were less than universal, any therapy which results in 10-25% reversal of what is generally considered to be an irreversible condition (like hair grayness) must certainly be considered significant.

PABA as an Antioxidant

It has been well established that PABA is a potent neutralizer of singlet molecular oxygen, a potent free radical, which is a common by-product of normal metabolism. In theory, use of antioxidants protects cellular membranes and mitochondrial DNA from free radical attack. The mitochondria are the energy-producers of the cells. Mitochondrial degradation results in reduced cellular energy production which causes numerous undesirable physiological conditions, which may include fatigue and the aging process itself. As an antioxidant, PABA also provides protection against ozone, smoking, and other air pollutants which damage other cell structures and membranes through oxidative stress. PABA promotes cell membrane fluidity by preventing such oxidant damage.

PABA as an Anti-Crosslinking Agent

The cross-linkage theory of aging was proposed by Professor Johan Bjorksten in 1974. Bjorksten believed that the aging process was due to cross-links—undesirable bonds induced by excess free radicals that formed between molecules, progressively impairing the function of the body, resulting in aging. PABA appears to slow and in some cases even reverse cross-linking in the protein structures of connective tissues such as collagen. Collagen cross-linking, in addition to resulting in the loss of flexibility with age, and perhaps the aging process itself, also is the primary process in a number of fibrotic diseases, including: Peyronies disease (formation of fibrotic plaques of the penis, usually in men over 50, resulting in painful, crooked erections, rendering intercourse difficult or impossible); Dupuytrens contracture (wherein the flexor tendons of the fingers of the hands become fibrotic and contract, rendering the fingers useless); and scleroderma (a rare condition characterized by heavily cross-linked skin and tissues, with disabling systemic results). Zarafonetis (1964) found PABA to have a marked therapeutic effect in these conditions, in doses of 12 grams per day. Zarafonetis also used PABA to treat dermatitis herpetiformis (200 mg, 4-5 times daily), and vitiligo (a depigmenting disease). By slowing cross linking, PABA may promote greater body flexibility in normally aging individuals. Williams (1973) reported dramatic life span increases in animal longevity studies performed with PABA at Texas University School of Medicine.

Potential Side Effects and Cautions

High-dose PABA is generally well-tolerated, with its most significant adverse side effects being diarrhea and nausea, which resolved with cessation of use, or lowering of the dose. As PABA is water soluble, it is rapidly excreted in the urine, and must therefore be administered in divided doses throughout the day. High-dose PABA should be discontinued when taking sulfa antibiotics (like Bactrim or Septra). We recommend that no more than 2-3 grams of PABA be consumed per day without the supervision of a physician.


Allen, J.M. Rapid Reaction of Singlet Molecular Oxygen (1O2) With P -Aminobenzoic Acid (PABA) in Aqueous Solution Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, July, 1995

Brandaleone, H., Maine, E., and Steele, J.M. The effect of calcium panthothenate and para-aminobenzoic acid on gray hair in man. Am J Medical Science, 1944, 206: 315.

Bjorksten, J. Crosslinkage and the aging process, in: Theoretical Aspects of Aging, by Morris Rockstein (ed), Academic Press, NY, 1974.

Pearson, D., and Shaw, S. Life Extension A Practical, Scientific Approach, 1982, Warner Books, New York.

Sieve, B.F. Clinical achromotrichia. Science, 1941, 94: 257.

Williams, R. Nutrition Against Disease, 1973.

Zarafonetis, C. Darkening of gray hair during para-amino-benzoic acid therapy. J Investigative Dermatology, 399-401.

Zarafonetis, C. Antifibrotic Therapy with POTABA. American Journal of Medical Sciences, 1964, 248:550-561.

Zvak, C. The Science of Hair Care, 1986, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, p. 450.

GLUTATHIONE and Skin Whitening / F.A.Q.s

The inner layer of the skin called dermis and the outer surface which is visible in our eyes is the epidermis. The primary determinant of variability in human skin color is the melanin in the skin and melanocyte is a cell that synthesizes it. L-glutathione, the whitening pill’s main component, starts the lightening process in the dermis working its way out to the surface.

There are certain kinds of compounds that inhibits the tyrosinase activity and L-glutathione is one of them. GSH(reduced glutathione) intervenes in the metabolism. The oral use of Reduced Glutathione(L-glutathione) inhibits the tyrosinase activity. Once the tyrosinase activity has been inhibited the metabolic pathway then reverses its course going to the synthesis of light pigmented melanin called Phaeomelanin instead of synthesizing dark pigmented melanin called Eumelanin. The cycle continously flow as long as the presence of L-glutathione co-exist in the metabolic pathway of melanin. Finally, light skin will reveal to the surface gradually changing your complexion.


As an anti-oxidant/ anti-aging medication: glutathione’s recommended dosage is between 10 and 20mg. per Kg. BW (body weight) per day divided into two doses.

As a whitening capsule: glutathione s recommended dosage is between 20 and 40mg. per Kg. BW (body weight) per day divided into two doses.


• • medium brown: 1-3 months

• • dark brown skin: 3-6 months

• • very dark skin: 6-12 months.

• • black skin: at least 2 years or even more

• • Once a person has her desired skin color, the maintenance dose will just be 500mg once a day.


A person taking L glutathione should take Vitamin C two to three times more than the dose of L Glutathione. Why is Vitamin C needed? This is to keep L Glutathione in its absorbable or reduced form. This will release the potential of Vitamin C s derivatives whitening properties.

L Glutathione has no known side effects or interactions even if given orally in prolonged use.

Frequently Asked Questions

When does the whitening of skin take place?

L glutathione reduces melanocytes which produces melanin. Reducing the melanin in the body would make your skin fairer. L-glutathione’s whitening process starts inside the skin (dermal layer) going outside (epidermal layer), that’s the reason why it takes a little time for you to see initial change in your skin tone. The whitening process goes head to foot, meaning that you will have an even white skin tone in your whole body.

How long would take to see the initial results?

Glutathione is not a major surgical operation, and even medical operation takes time to heal, restoration on anything would take a lot of painstaking effort to produce a high quality and a good product. Glutathione would help you to be healthy and not to be changed on an instant. This is not an overnight fix; therefore you would undergo the natural process “reap what you sow”. In taking 2 capsules per day 1000mg glutathione you can see the results in two weeks time, however if you take once a day for 1000mg it would take a month for you to see and feel the results.

Why do glutathione have different effects on other people?

People have different metabolism, weight, and skin color. The very reason why some people see the results quickly is because they’re taking the right combination of vitamins and taking the proper dosage that makes the body absorbs the components well.

Is there any harmful effects?

“No side effects or interactions are known with oral administration of Glutathione even in prolonged use.”

Is it fine to take a higher dosage to what is usually required or prescribed by the experts?

Glutathione is water-soluble, meaning that if there would be an excessive amount of intake it would still be excreted through urine. On the other hand, there is still no reported case or documentation about glutathione overdose.

What makes L-Glutathione different compared to other whitening pills / capsules?

Unlike any other whitening pills / capsules, glutathione don’t just concentrate on whitening of the skin itself, it is also an anti oxidant and anti aging pill which makes us healthy and stress free. No harmful effects on the body and is recommended by eminent dermatologist and doctors for people with liver problems.

Is it ok to continue your regular skin regimen such as applying of creams, lotions, gels while taking glutathione?

Yes! Because these products can also help you enhance your smooth and supple white skin.

Are the whitening effects of the Glutathione permanent? Will my skin tone go back to its original color once I stop using it?

In taking care and maintaining something in our body, you must have a healthy habit and discipline to stay with the ideal effects that we want. Therefore, we must take 1 capsule a day for our maintenance and we should not expose ourselves from the harmful rays of sun.

And in regards to the exposure of sunlight, will it affect the whitening process?

Even though the sunlight was said that it provides vitamin D, everyone is aware of the depletion of the ozone layer, and anything that is over wouldn’t have a better result in the body. In fact too much exposure will increases the melanin pigments in the skin, thus, might delay the whitening process. It’s not really bad to be exposed to sunlight as long as we have protection such as sun block.

I wanted to see the results fast and also I want to LOSE weight while I am taking the whitening capsules, is it ok to take diet / slimming pills or other products?

As it was stated above Glutathione is a whitening capsule that is considered to be a supplement. Therefore it is fine to take it with other vitamins, supplements and other medications except for anti-psychotic drug and chemotherapeutic drug.

Is L-Glutathione safe for young adults (teenagers)?

Yes, certainly for (L-glutathione) is considered as a supplement and anti oxidant. Therefore it is 100% safe to be taken by young teens who also want to have a fairer skin.

Is it true from what I’ve heard that whitening of the hair is a side effect in taking these whitening capsules (L-glutathione)?

It is not true. The side effect in taking L-glutathione is the whitening of the skin already. In fact I have read about whitening capsules containing Tyrostat (L Tyrosine) that makes the hair gray/white.

Is it much better to take Glutathione with an empty stomach or should I eat my meal first before taking it?

Research has proved that it’s much better to take the whitening capsules with an empty stomach. Because an empty stomach can fully absorb the pills contents compared when you have eaten your meal already because there are already substances present in your stomach that might hinder the process of absorption.

Is it FDA or BFAD approved?

L-Glutathione is considered a food/dietary supplement. Therefore, it is not necessarily need to be FDA / BFAD approved. Only manufactured drugs, foods, medical devices and cosmetics required undergo these departments quality control. Also, there are no provisions in the law for FDA to “approve” dietary supplements for safety or effectiveness before they reach the consumer, though some brands or manufacturers get approval for their consumer’s assurance.

Palpitations after Dinner


From the desk of Zedie.

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