Graphene promise for body armour

Caught in the net: Microbullets were fired at sheets of graphene
Caught in the net: Microbullets were fired at sheets of graphene

The “wonder material” graphene could be used to make bulletproof armour.

US researchers carried out miniature ballistic tests by firing tiny silica spheres at sheets of graphene.

In Science magazine, they report that atom-thick layers of this material can be stronger than steel when it comes to absorbing impacts.

Graphene consists of a sheet of single atoms arranged in a honeycomb structure.

It is thin, strong, flexible and electrically conductive, and has the potential to transform electronics as well as other technologies.

Jae-Hwang Lee from the University of Massachusetts in Amherst and colleagues used lasers to observe the silica “microbullets” as they penetrated sheets of graphene between 10 and 100 layers thick.

They compared the kinetic energy of the spheres before and after they pierced the graphene sheets.

Observations using an electron microscope revealed that graphene dissipates energy by stretching into a cone shape and then cracking in various directions.

The mini-ballistic tests showed that grapheme’s extraordinary strength, elasticity and stiffness allowed it to absorb between eight and 10 times the impacts that steel can withstand.

However, the way in which graphene sheets responded to the microbullet also resulted in a wider impact hole – which could be a potential disadvantage.

Jae-Hwang Lee’s team proposes that combining graphene with one or more additional materials to form a composite could prevent the cracking and solve this problem.

In 2010, Manchester University, UK, researchers Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov shared the Nobel Prize in Physics for their discovery of graphene.

They published details of their advance in the academic journal Science in 2004.

Another study published in Nature this week revealed that graphene sheets allow proton particles to pass through them, a property that could improve the efficiency of hydrogen fuel cells.

Sony makes experimental paper watch

Sony has developed a watch made from e-paper as part of an initiative to experiment with the use of the material for fashion products.

The Fes Watch has a minimalist, monochrome design but falls short of the features offered by smartwatches.

E-paper watch

However, the battery of the e-paper watch could last far longer with an estimated 60 days of use.

The device has been described as “retro and cool” by gadget expert Stuart Miles from Pocket-lint.

“One of my predictions for next year is that fashion is going to play a huge part in shaping the tech industry.

“Having a phone that’s big and square is one thing, but if we’re actually wearing things, it has to look good.”

The watch face and straps have an e-paper display – comparable to the technology used in e-book readers such as Amazon’s Kindle.

It means the watch can alternate between several different styles of watch face and strap design.

Shoes and bow-ties

According to the Wall Street Journal, Sony had deliberately kept the development of the watch low-key, opting to use a spin-off division called Fashion Entertainments to work on the device.

Fashion Entertainments ran a crowdfunding campaign to fund the watch’s creation, the WSJ reported, in an attempt to gauge the public’s interest in the concept.

It raised 3.5 million yen ($30,000; £19,000).

“We hid Sony’s name because we wanted to test the real value of the product, whether there will be demand for our concept,” a person involved in the project told the newspaper. A spokeswoman for Sony confirmed to the BBC that Fashion Entertainments is a division of company’s New Business Creation Department, and was working on a number of e-paper prototypes.

E-paper glasses
Fashion Entertainments has been experimenting with the e-paper tech for a variety of uses

Other e-paper experiments being worked on by Fashion Entertainments include shoes, bow-ties and glasses.

One drawback of using e-paper rather than, for example, liquid-crystal displays (LCD) is a limitation on possible features due to the limitations of what e-paper can display.

However, Mr Miles said he did not envision that being too significant a drawback for e-paper wearable technology.

“Look at traditional watches now, they just tell the time and we’re happy with that,” he said, noting that one of the most popular smartwatches on the market, the Pebble, uses e-paper.

Sony has not provided a date for the Fes Watch’s release.

Gateway to memory in brain found

An international team has successfully determined with a level of precision never achieved before the location in the brain where memories are generated.

The team was able to pinpoint this location down to specific circuits of the human brain.

The results and method of the study is likely to assist in acquiring a better understanding of the effects Alzheimer’s disease has on the brain.

“We have been able to locate the generation of human memories to certain neuronal layers within the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex. We were able to determine which neuronal layer was active,” explained Emrah Duzel, director, Institute of Cognitive Neurology and Dementia Research at University of Magdeburg, Germany.

For their study, the scientists used a particularly accurate type of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology. They examined the brains of persons who had volunteered to participate in a memory test.

“Previously used MRI techniques were not precise enough to capture this directional information. Hence, this is the first time we have been able to show where in the brain the doorway to memory is located,” noted Prof. Duzel.


Antibiotics for Children When Less Is More Hospitalized Kids Do Better When Taking Fewer AntibioticsMedical News & Perspectives

When Jason Newland, MD, MEd, launched a survey of freestanding children’s hospitals 3 years ago, he found that only 16 of 42 hospitals supported a formal antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP). But since then the number likely has increased.

“There’s definitely more interest in them now,” said Newland, medical director of patient safety and reliability at Children’s Mercy Hospital in Kansas City, Missouri. He expects that President Obama’s recent executive order outlining a national strategy to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria will further drive the development of pediatric ASPs (

Development of pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs could help combat the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Another driver may be Newland’s recent research findings, which showed that stopping antibiotics or shortening their duration not only doesn’t harm hospitalized children, it sends them home earlier and keeps them from being readmitted (

The findings may not surprise infectious disease specialists at adult hospitals, where ASPs have long been established and studies have demonstrated lower rates of Clostridium difficile infection, reduced mortality from sepsis, and more consults to infectious disease teams, leading to fewer treatment failures, according to David Haslam, MD, director of the ASP at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center.

“Multidrug-resistant organisms have been present in adult hospitals longer than in children’s hospitals, and adults have longer lengths of stay and tend to get more aggressive antibiotic therapy,” prompting earlier attempts by adult hospitals to reduce excessive antibiotic use, Haslam said.MOST FREQUENT ADVICE: STOP THE ANTIMICROBIAL

 The new 5-year study by Newland et al, presented recently to infectious disease specialists at IDWeek in Philadelphia, included 7051 children whose antibiotic use was reviewed by a physician and pharmacist ( Pediatric patients in intensive care, neonatal intensive care, and the hematology/oncology unit were excluded from the study. For 17% of the patients, a recommendation was issued to alter antibiotic use.

“The most common recommendation by far was to stop the antimicrobial,” Newland said. Other recommendations included discontinuing 1 of 2 or more antibiotics, changing the dose, shortening the duration, or consulting an infectious disease specialist.

In the study, 18% of physicians or other providers rejected the recommendations and continued giving their patients the antibiotics they had prescribed. Patients whose health care professionals didn’t follow those recommendations had a 3.5% readmission rate within 30 days and an 82-hour average length of stay. But when physicians and other providers did follow the guidance to stop or change an antimicrobial, their patients had no readmissions and a 68-hour average length of stay.

Inappropriate antibiotic use most likely occurred in patients receiving ceftriaxone/cefotaxime (62%), vancomycin (11%), and meropenem (5%). The most common diagnoses that triggered a recommendation to change antibiotic use were pneumonia (22%), urinary tract infection (19%), and presumed sepsis (9%).

Not all sick children benefited equally from ASP interventions. When Newland and colleagues stratified the data into 3 groups—children admitted to surgical floors, those admitted to medical units, and those with complex chronic conditions—he found that readmission rates differed substantially only in children without chronic diseases on medical units whose physicians and other providers followed stewardship recommendations compared with those who did not.

The ASP guidance was not associated with surgical patients’ readmission rates and produced only marginal improvement for children with chronic illnesses. Newland speculated that the readmission rates for those children were skewed because the study included only 150 children in each group. Nor did the study demonstrate an overall significant difference in average length of stay. “We had hoped to show that more kids were leaving the hospital sooner because they had stopped an antibiotic earlier or their physicians had switched them from an intravenous antibiotic to an oral one. But we didn’t see that,” Newland said.


 Regardless of the size of the effect, any improvement in clinical outcomes from a stewardship program is “a great first step toward getting physician buy-in,” said Jeffrey Gerber, MD, PhD, director of the ASP at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP). “This study will go a long way in helping clinicians understand that recommendations to reduce or optimize antimicrobial use do not harm patients,” he said.

Reducing antimicrobial use can also be the right decision financially. A 4-month study of the ASP at CHOP in 2008 found a savings of $50 090—which translates into $150 270 annually—in drug acquisition costs alone, even though the program had already been in existence for more than 15 years (Metjian TA et al. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27[2]:106-111).

“That’s a very conservative number because it doesn’t take into account the cost of administering the drugs, the prolonged length of stay from adverse drug effects, or the potential for developing antimicrobial-resistant infections,” said Gerber.

Newland’s next step is to figure out why some physicians discount ASP recommendations. A review of hospitalists’ responses at Newland’s hospital, Children’s Mercy, showed they were most likely to reject the recommendation to obtain an infectious disease consult, which might be triggered when a patient’s care is exceedingly complex or will require follow-up with an infectious disease specialist anyway, as in conditions such as complicated pneumonia, osteomyelitis, or endocarditis.

“Our program works best when we try to collaborate instead of becoming the dictators of antibiotics, which means we have to understand why providers are disagreeing with our recommendations,” said Newland.

In some cases, lack of solid evidence for stopping a particular antibiotic may lead to disagreements, Newland acknowledged. For other physicians, “no” is more of a knee-jerk than an evidence-based decision, he added. Two years ago, Children’s Mercy’s ASP surveyed physicians’ attitudes about its work, discovering that 10% of providers felt that the recommendations challenged their autonomy, while another 3% admitted they felt threatened by the program.

In time, however, the number of physicians who resist an ASP will be fewer, Newland said. “The newer generation of providers doesn’t view physician autonomy as such a big deal; they’re used to using guidelines and in collaborating,” he said. As for the threatened 3%: “That’s a hard feeling, but I can live with that.”

‘Chernobyl Disaster City’ captured for first time in incredible drone footage

Incredible drone footage has been released that shows the abandoned remains of Pripyat, a Ukrainian city that was completely evacuated in the aftermath of the Chernobyl Disaster.

Pripyat once boasted 49,000 residents, 25 shops and 10 gymnasiums. However, it was completely abandoned after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant suffered an explosion in 1986.

Drone footage captured by British photographer Danny Cooke provides a harrowing insight into how Pripyat looks nearly thirty years later.

The footage shows a ghost city that has been frozen in time, still displaying much of the Soviet iconography that embodied the USSR during the Cold War period.

It also shows how the city has become a place of neglect with many of the streets and buildings overrun by trees.

The eerie images show a fairground littered with rusty dodg’ems, a disused ferris wheel, a room filled with gas masks and rows upon rows of abandoned blocks of flats.

Devon-based documentary maker Cooke was able to film the footage, titled Postcards from Pripyat, while filming a 60 Minutessegment for the American news network CBS.

Cooke used his spare time to go out and fly his DJI Phantom 2 drone and camera to capture aerial shots of the empty city.

Commenting on the footage, Cooke wrote on Vimeo: “Chernobyl is one of the most interesting and dangerous places I’ve been.

“There was something serene, yet highly disturbing about this place,” he added. “Time has stood still and there are memories of past happenings floating around us.

“The nuclear disaster, which happened in 1986 (the year after I was born), had and effect on so many people, including my family when we lived in Italy. I can’t imagine how terrifying it would have been for the hundreds of thousands of locals who evacuated.”

The Chernobyl disaster in April 1986 was one of the world’s worst nuclear accidents. The explosion and subsequent fire led to a number of harmful radioactive particles being released into the air and contaminating much of the surrounding areas with lethal levels of radiation, leading to acute radiation syndrome and long-term illnesses such as thyroid cancer.

Pripyat, which is situated just nine miles away from the Chernobyl Power Plant, was completely evacuated within days of the disaster, with the majority of the city’s residents being re-housed in the city of Slavutich.

The town has been largely empty since 1986 due to fears of lingering radiation. Recently however, it has been deemed safe for those that are visiting for short periods of time.

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Flying robots to work as waiters in Singapore .

Visitors are served by an Infinium-Serve Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that is designed to serve food and wait tables, at the National Productivity Month exhibition in Singapore October 7, 2014.(Reuters / Edgar Su)

Visitors are served by an Infinium-Serve Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that is designed to serve food and wait tables, at the National Productivity Month exhibition in Singapore October 7, 2014.(Reuters / Edgar Su)

Flying robotic waiters, known as Infinium-Serve, will be launched in a Singapore restaurant chain by the end of 2015, local media reported on Thursday.

In what is believed to be the world’s first commercial attempt at replacing humans with machines in this field, Timbre Group plans to have robots waiting tables by the end of next year, Channel News Asia reported.

Infinium Robotics and Timbre Group – one of Singapore’s most popular restaurant chains – signed a memorandum of understanding on October 31 to launch the robots in five outlets.

They are looking for productivity-related government grants to help offset development costs, which are estimated to be a “low seven-figure sum,” according to Woon Junyang, chief executive officer at Infinium Robotics.

Woon said he believes that replacing waiters and waitresses with robots would help alleviate Singapore’s labor crunch and allow human waiters to focus on more interesting higher value tasks, such as getting feedback from customers and ordering wine.

“This will result in an enhanced dining experience which will eventually lead to increased sales and revenue for the restaurants,” he said.

Singapore has been facing a labor shortage, particularly in the service sector, due to ever stricter restrictions on the number of foreign workers allowed into the island state in recent years.

Infinium showed off a prototype of the flying robot to Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong at the inaugural launch of National Productivity Month in early October.

Chronic Or Permanent Stress Can Result In Mental Disorders Such As Schizophrenia.

Chronic or permanent stress can lead to the development of mental disorders. Brandi Eszlinger, CC by 2.0
We all have to deal with stress from time to time, but more and more research is suggesting we should find ways to manage our stress if we want to avoid both physical and mental side effects. A recent study published in the Rubin science magazine has revealed that chronic or permanent stress’s effect on microglial cells — immune-competent cells responsible for repairing synaptic links, removing damaged synapses, and facilitating the growth of new brain neurons — can lead to the development of mental disorders, such as schizophrenia.

“In stress situations, the body readies itself for fight or flight, prepares itself for potential injuries, too,” lead researcher Dr. Astrid Friebe said in a statement. “What is certain is that microglial cells adapt to the new conditions, in a way. The more frequently they get triggered due to stress, the more they are inclined to remain in that mode. This is when microglial cells start to pose a danger to the brain.”

Friebe and her colleagues have based their findings off ongoing research in the field of psychoneuroimmunology — the impact of the immune system on the progression of mental disorders. Experts in the this field of medicine focus on neural connections that go from the brain to organs of the immune system and back to the brain. Immune cells, like microglial cells, make their way to the brain where they are responsible for removing damaged synapses.

When the body senses a threat, as it does under stress, microglial cells are activated and turn destructive by triggering inflammation and releasing messengers that damage nerve cells. Multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease patients tend to have areas of the brain affected by inflammation or neurodegeneration that are bordered by microglial cells. The same cluster of microglial cells has been discovered in schizophrenic patients and are linked to the degeneration of synaptic links between neurons.

“Originally, the brain and the immune system were considered two separate systems,” said Dr. Georg Juckel, medical director at the RUB’s LWL university clinic for psychiatry, psychotherapy, and preventive medicine. “It was assumed that the brain operates independently from the immune system and has hardly anything to do with it. This, however, is not true.”

A similar study conducted by researchers from the University of California, Berkeley also found that chronic stress can lead to changes in the brain that cause the development of a mental disorder. The research team focused on the reduction of neurons and generation of white matter that results from chronic stress. This increase of white matter, particularly in the hippocampus, disrupts the balance and timing of communication in the brain.

“We studied only one part of the brain, the hippocampus, but our findings could provide insight into how white matter is changing in conditions such as schizophrenia, autism, depression, suicide, ADHD and PTSD,” lead researcher Daniela Kaufner said in a statement.

Source: Juckel G, Friebe A, et al. Mental disorders through permanent stress. Rubin. 2014.

Graphene could be used to filter fuel out of thin air .

Researchers have discovered that protons can pass through graphene – the world’s thinnest and strongest material. This means that it could one day be used to “sieve” hydrogen gas straight out of the atmosphere.

Scientists in the UK have found that graphene isn’t just incredibly strong and light – it also allows protons, or positively charged hydrogen atoms, to pass through it.

This means that in the future it could be used to build fuel cells that generate electricity from nothing but the hydrogen in the atmosphere.

“We are very excited about this result because it opens a whole new area of promising applications for graphene in clean energy harvesting and hydrogen-based technologies,” the co-author of the study, Marcelo Lozada-Hidalgo of Manchester University, told Reuters.

The team was led by Andre Geim – the scientist who was involved in first isolating graphene back in 2004 – and their discovery is just one of many revolutionary property displayed by the material.

First of all, graphene is just one-carbon-atom thick, making it one of the thinnest and lightest materials on Earth, and it’s also 200 times stronger than steel, flexible and highly conductive.

It’s also impermeable to gasses and liquids, and even the smallest of atoms.

But in the new study, the researchers decided to test whether it also repelled protons – hydrogen atoms that had been stripped of all their electrons.

Surprisingly, they found that the protons could pass through the material quite easily, especially when the temperatures were raised and the graphene was coated in nanoparticles, such as platinum, which acted as a catalyst. Their results are published in Nature.

This means that graphene could one day be used to build more efficient fuel cells by being incorporated into proton-conducting membranes – crucial elements of fuel cell technology.

Fuel cells are devices that trigger a reaction of oxygen and hydrogen fuel, and convert chemical energy into electricity with only water as a byproduct.

These are already used in some electric cars, but currently they’re not as efficient as they need to be to replace fossil fuels.

The major issue is that the fuels leaks across the existing proton membranes, effectively poisoning the process and making the fuel cell less effective – something that the researchers have now shown could be overcome by using impermeable graphene.

Even more excitingly, the researchers found that the graphene membrane could actually be used to extract hydrogen straight from the atmosphere, which means it could be used to create mobile electric generators that are power by nothing more than hydrogen in air.

“Essentially, you pump your fuel from the atmosphere and get electricity out of it,”Geim told Reuters. “Our [study] provides proof that this kind of device is possible.”

Obviously the research is in its very early stages, and we still need to learn more about how protons pass through graphene. It’s also not clear exactly how much electricity could be generated out of the tiny amounts of hydrogen that are present in the atmosphere. But it’s a fascinating discovery that could change the way we harvest electricity, and that’s pretty damn exciting.

Pranic Healing Through Chakra Colors.

Chakras belong to the subtle world of our energy body or aura. For sure, they are not something physical, we can’t see them. They are aspects of our energy system. We may not be able to see them, but we can teach ourselves to feel them.

But, one thing is for sure, chakras help us live healthy and strong! Strong chakras mean a healthier us, and weak chakras means- a weaker, disease -prone us!

Another fact is that, treating with color, or more specifically chakra colors and color prana can heal our body. Yes, chakra colors and prana really heal, and there is increasing evidence for the same!

If you want to understand the relationship between our chakras and their relationship with colors and healing of the physical, mental and emotional problems and diseases, read on. We are going to explore this dynamic in detail here, because of its importance in keeping us strong and healthy throughout our lives.

How can Chakra Colors be used for Healing?

Virtually all of us would’ve heard of “Chromotherapy” or color therapy. It is a very important holistic therapy. Almost all of us also know that colors influence our health, emotions and that they also possess a phenomenal ability to negatively or positively affect our moods.

Hence, colors can be used to calm frayed nerves, minimize food cravings, uplift our mood, activate our energies, improve sleep and also help us lose or gain weight.

But how many of us have heard of chakra colors for healing? What if I tell you that colors are more than just visual and that each color has a vibration in the form of energy, which has an impact on the different systems and energy centers, or chakras in the body.

Welcome to the world of chakra colors and healing! Let’s dig deeper into this subject now, shall we?

Seven major chakras:

Chakras are surrounded by a great sense of mystery. Whenever the word “Chakra” pops up in a conversation, there is the illusion of wheels of energies that can lead to a spiritual gestalt or alchemy.

But chakra healing can and does, go beyond just the spiritual and /or psychic and heal our physical bodies as well! This happens because the chakras control several organs in the body; hence, healing with chakra colors works directly on our body’s organs.

That’s what the masters do in advanced Pranic healing, which uses colors to balance and heal chakras. This type of healing in fact, has the capacity to heal any disease known to man.

The 7 Chakras

Chakra Colors and Its Meaning:

1. The seven chakra colors

Chakras or the ‘whirling wheels’ are the energy centers in our bodies. Each chakra is directly connected to, and controls a major organ in the body.
Like the Heart chakra controls the physical heart and the Solar plexus chakra controls the pancreas and the liver. They also control the physical, mental and emotional health of a person.
There are a number of chakras in the human body, but only seven constitute the main energy centers and are called, major chakras.
All seven chakras have their own personality-they have a specific color as well as a fixed shape, shown in the form of ‘petals’. Chakra colors are colors we see in the rainbow, i.e., VIBGYOR or: violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange and red.

Each of these seven chakras vibrates with the specific frequency related to their color, like: 

  • The Basic or Root chakra at the base of our spine vibrates with the frequency of Red.
  • The Sacral chakra vibrates with the frequency of Orange.
  • The Solar plexus chakra vibrates with the frequency of Yellow.
  • The Heart chakra vibrates with the frequency of Green.
  • The Throat chakra vibrates with the frequency of Blue.
  • The Third eye chakra vibrates with the frequency of Indigo.
  • The Crown chakra at the top of the head, vibrates with the frequency of Violet.

2. How are Chakra colors used for treating and balancing chakras?

What is done in Basic Pranic healing is that the pranic healer cures and balances chakras by giving the patient’s body and chakras white light, or prana. This white prana is received by chakras of the receiver, and is broken down and benefits various organs of the receiver.

3. The different color pranas used in Pranic healing

Each of the colors or the color prana has a specific frequency associated it. Hence, each of the color has a specific purpose, for example, red color prana is used for dilation. So, when a pranic healer treats someone with asthma, he gives red prana to the lungs which helps them dilate faster.
This principle of colors is used in color therapy or chromotherapy also.

Green prana has a disinfecting effect, so if someone has aches and pains, or has blockages in the digestive system, or difficulty swallowing, a healer uses green prana because it has the ability to break down such blockages.
Blue prana has a cooling, calming as well as anti-inflammatory effect. So, if someone has severe pain and let’s say, his arm or shoulder has arthritic pain, blue prana can be projected to help bring down the arthritic inflammation and decrease pain.
Another color that is usually used in this healing modality is violet. Violet prana is used for regeneration.

4. What happens while using chakra colors during advanced Pranic healing?

While Pranic healing, a healer projects red and orange light from his own Basic chakra. He projects green and blue prana from his Throat chakra, and violet prana from his Crown chakra, as a knife to cut through blockages as well as, cure energy congestion and depletion of chakras in the patient’s aura or energy field. Congestion or too much energy in a chakra, or depletion of energy in a chakra, show up as diseases in the physical body.

This is usually followed by energizing the affected chakra with a colored prana. Apart from using red, yellow, orange, green and blue pranas, advanced pranic healers also use healing properties of Gold, Electric Violet and higher colors for chakra color healing.

5. Do’s and Dont’s while using chakra colors

Advanced Pranic healing using chakra colors does not use red or orange prana on the higher chakras, which means on the Heart chakra and the chakras above it. Violet prana is usually used by healers to treat higher chakras safely. Green and blue prana can also be used on higher chakras.

Lower chakras like Basic, Sacral and Sex chakras can be healed using red, orange and yellow prana. Blue and green prana are also effective in healing these chakras but, the fine energy of violet prana may be too subtle for treating these lower chakras.

When we are healthy, our chakras are healthy and strong, as well as balanced! But, unhealthy chakras are almost akin to a blocked artery which does not allow a smooth flow of blood. There is either too less energy or too much energy in an unhealthy chakra. This is what results in imbalance and thus, disease.

Diseases that can be treated using Chakra Healing with Color?

Root or Basic chakra: Healing this chakra with red, orange, green, blue, golden and electric violet prana can treat digestive problems, especially the ones related to the large intestine. Healing the Basic chakra can get rid of all kinds of joint pains, especially pain in the lower back as well as immune-related disorders and lack of energy.

Sacral chakra: Healing this chakra with red, orange, green, blue, golden and electric violet prana can treat loss of appetite, blood cancer, and dysfunction of reproductive organs, spleen and urinary system.

Solar plexus chakra: Healing this chakra with red, green, blue, golden and electric violet prana can treat stomach and liver problems leading to digestive disorders, diabetes and pancreatitis etc.

Heart chakra or the Anahata: Healing this chakra with green, blue, violet, golden and electric violet prana can treat disorders of the heart or lungs, asthma, allergies, immune deficiency problems and tension between shoulder blades.

Throat chakra: Healing this chakra with green, blue, violet, golden and electric violet prana can treat problems related to organs of the throat like thyroid and ear. Healing this chakra can also get rid of mouth ulcers, headaches, laryngitis and pain in the neck and shoulders.

Third eye chakra or the Ajna: Healing this chakra with green, blue, violet, golden and electric violet prana can treat headaches, ear and eye problems, brain tumor, stroke, neurological disturbances, learning disabilities and spinal disorders.

Crown Chakra or Sahasrara: Healing this chakra with green, blue, violet, golden and electric violet prana can treat depression and anhedonia. Healing of this chakra can help in treating migraines and brain tumors as well.

Chakra Balancing can also be done using other alternate therapies like aromatherapy, yoga, Reiki meditation, Sound therapy and physical exercises, apart from color therapy and pranic healing using chakra colors.

A word of caution here- These therapies are extremely powerful, especially advanced Pranic healing using chakra colors, and should be practiced by senior pranic healers only.

So, find a good healer and use chakra colors to treat the diseases that you have and also the ones that may be on the way! Or, you can learn advanced Pranic healing and become your own healer. Remember, what Shakespeare said,”Our remedies oft in ourselves do lie which we ascribe to heaven”.

‘Teenagers shut down their brains when being criticised,’ according to study

Young people who seem stroppy and uncooperative are not doing it just to be difficult, a study shows, as they simply cannot help blocking out negative remarks when they feel they are under verbal attack.

A group of 40 teenagers between the ages of 11 and 17 – with the average age of 14 including 25 girls – were tested in a lab in a study by University of Pittsburgh, California-Berkeley and Harvard neuroscientists who published results in theDevelopmental Cognitive Neuroscience journal.

The subjects – 26 of whom had no psychiatric health history and 14 that were diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder – each listened to two 30-second audio clips of their own mother, one of which talking about mundane every day things such as shopping and the other criticising them on their habits and behaviour.

A sample audio, as reported by Wired, said: “One thing that bothers me about you is that you get upset over minor issues. I could tell you to take your shoes from downstairs. You’ll get mad that you have to pick them up and actually walk upstairs and put them in your room.”

Researchers found that during criticism and for a period afterwards, teenagers were found to have reduced activity in the areas relating to emotional control and empathy, with an increase in negative feelings.

The shutting-down can also be considered as a preventative measure to stop an already negative situation from spiralling out of control.

The study suggests that the results are not significantly impacted by the gender, age or mental health of the teenagers.

The study concluded: “Youth shut down social processing [and] possibly do not think about their parents’ mental states.”

“Parents may benefit from understanding that when they criticize their adolescents, adolescents may experience strong negative emotional reaction, may have difficulty cognitively controlling this emotion and may also find it challenging to understand the parent’s perspective or mental state,” it added.

Participants were excluded if they had a current diagnosis of other mental health issues such as OCD, PTSD, schizophrenia, bipolar, psychotic depression or schizoaffective disorder. Those taking SSRIs were also excluded.

The experiment did not state or test out whether the same situation occurred when fathers criticised their children.

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