CDC now admits Ebola can spread through the air up to 3 feet away


When it comes to trusting the Obama Administration and, increasingly, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, no one is making it harder for Americans to do so than the White House and the bumbling gaggle of bureaucrats and political hacks that it employs.

For weeks now, the CDC chief, Dr. Thomas Frieden, has said that Ebola cannot be spread through casual contact — even as he also stated that persons suspected of being infected should avoid public transportation. President Obama has made similar statements.

Now, after a pair of northeastern state governors imposed (and then rescinded) 21-day quarantines for anyone returning from assisting infected patients in West Africa, word comes from the CDC that the virus can, in fact, be spread to others up to 3 feet away. In a new Ebola-related post that appears to be splitting hairs between “airborne” and “droplet” spread, the health agency claimed:

Airborne spread happens when a germ floats through the air after a person talks, coughs, or sneezes. Germs may land in the eyes, mouth, or nose of another person.

If a germ is airborne, direct contact with the infected person is NOT needed for someone else to get sick. Airborne spread diseases include: chickenpox, tuberculosis.

‘Well, at least the CDC is starting to move the narrative’

“Droplet spread,” the agency said, “happens when germs traveling inside droplets that are coughed or sneezed from a sick person enter the eyes, nose, or mouth of another person. Droplets travel short distances, less than 3 feet (1 meter) from one person to another.

“A person might also get infected by touching a surface or object that has germs on it and then touching their mouth or nose.

“Droplet spread diseases include: plague, Ebola.”

The online flyer went on to insist that, no, Ebola is not “airborne,” but it also made clear that, yes, it can certainly be spread through droplets — the manner in which people riding close to each other on, say, a NYC subway or in a cab or Uber ride-share car, or in a bowling alley, might be exposed (Dr. Craig Spencer, the Ebola-infected physician just back from treating patients in West Africa, did all of these things).

“Healthcare providers caring for Ebola patients and the family and friends in close contact with Ebola patients are at the highest risk of getting sick because they may come in contact with infected blood or body fluids of sick patients,” the online informational flyer states.

Some experts are already raising eyebrows of suspicion.

“Well, at least CDC is starting to move the narrative,” said Meryl Nass, M.D., an infectious disease physician, on her blog. “Maybe tomorrow it will be 5 feet. Then 10. Maybe next month they will tell us why all the victims’ possessions are being incinerated and apartments fumigated.

“Just remember: historically, Ebola spread fast in healthcare facilities.”

Spread via aerosol more likely in colder environments?

Dr. Nass had earlier focused on anthrax and the dangers it poses.

Also, in 1995, the U.S. Army’s Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases reported in the International Journal of Experimental Pathology (see it here [PDF]) that the deadly virus actually spreads faster in colder environs, not the hot, steamy climate in much of Africa [emphasis added]:

We also demonstrated aerosol transmission of Ebola virus at lower temperature and humidity than that normally present in sub-Saharan Africa. Ebola virus sensitivity to the high temperatures and humidity in the thatched, mud, and [wattle] huts shared by infected family members in southern Sudan and northern Zaire may have been a factor limiting aerosol transmission of Ebola virus in the African epidemics. Both elevated temperature and relative humidity (RH) have been shown to reduce the aerosol stability of viruses (Songer 1967). Our experiments were conducted at 24°C [75°F] and [such as Ebola],aerosol transmission is a greater threat in modern hospital or laboratory settings than it is in the natural climatic ranges of viruses.

But remember, you can’t get the disease sitting next to an infected person on a bus, in a subway or in a cab. The CDC and the Obama Administration have said so.
Learn all these details and more at the FREE online Pandemic Preparedness course atwww.BioDefense.com

Sources:

http://www.thedailysheeple.com

http://www.cdc.gov [PDF]

http://anthraxvaccine.blogspot.com

http://www.washingtonsblog.com

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [PDF]

http://science.naturalnews.com

Scientists have grown a functioning blood vessel in just seven days


Using just two tablespoons of blood, scientists have managed to grow a brand new blood vessel in a week – revolutionising the method used for creating new tissue with stem cells.

blood

Three years ago, a patient who was missing the vein that connects the gastrointestinal tract to the liver received a blood vessel transplant grown from their own stem cells. Shortly after this case, the pioneering transplant was performed again on two young children, but this time, the stem cells were extracted from just two tablespoons of blood instead of from the bone marrow.

Until now, stem cells have been extracted from the bone marrow, as it is a rich source of the cells. However, the procedure is invasive and extremely painful.

“Drilling in the bone marrow is very painful,” said Suchitra Sumitran-Holgersson, a professor of Transplantation Biology and lead author of the study, in a press release. “It occurred to me that there must be a way to obtain the cells from the blood instead.”

The research and transplants were carried out at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Sweden by Sumitran-Holgersson and Michael Olausson, a surgeon. Much to the researchers’ surprise, the extraction procedure was successful on the first try and the new blood vessel worked perfectly after being implanted into the patients.

“Not only that, but the blood itself accelerated growth of the new vein,” said Sumitran-Holgersson. “The entire process took only a week, as opposed to a month in the first case. The blood contains substances that naturally promote growth.”

The results from the study that were published last week in EBioMedicine reported that a total of three transplants have taken place so far using this technique. The breakthrough gives researchers the ability to produce new blood vessels in a few days, avoiding the need for a painful bone marrow procedure.

“We believe that this technological progress can lead to dissemination of the method for the benefit of additional groups of patients, such as those with varicose veins or myocardial infarction,who need new blood vessels,” said Sumitran-Holgersson. “Our dream is to be able to grow complete organs as a way of overcoming the current shortage from donors.”

Pope Francis declares evolution and Big Bang theory are right and God isn’t ‘a magician with a magic wand’ – Europe – World – The Independent


Francis goes against Benedict XVI’s apparent support for ‘intelligent design’ – but does hail his predecessor’s ‘great contribution to theology’

The theories of evolution and the Big Bang are real and God is not “a magician with a magic wand”, Pope Francis has declared.

Speaking at the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, the Pope made comments which experts said put an end to the “pseudo theories” of creationism and intelligent design that some argue were encouraged by his predecessor, Benedict XVI.

Francis explained that both scientific theories were not incompatible with the existence of a creator – arguing instead that they “require it”.

“When we read about Creation in Genesis, we run the risk of imagining God was a magician, with a magic wand able to do everything. But that is not so,” Francis said.

He added: “He created human beings and let them develop according to the internal laws that he gave to each one so they would reach their fulfilment.

“The Big Bang, which today we hold to be the origin of the world, does not contradict the intervention of the divine creator but, rather, requires it.

“Evolution in nature is not inconsistent with the notion of creation, because evolution requires the creation of beings that evolve.”

The Catholic Church has long had a reputation for being anti-science – most famously when Galileo faced the inquisition and was forced to retract his “heretic” theory that the Earth revolved around the Sun.

But Pope Francis’s comments were more in keeping with the progressive work of Pope Pius XII, who opened the door to the idea of evolution and actively welcomed the Big Bang theory. In 1996, John Paul II went further and suggested evolution was “more than a hypothesis” and “effectively proven fact”.

Yet more recently, Benedict XVI and his close advisors have apparently endorsed the idea that intelligent design underpins evolution – the idea that natural selection on its own is insufficient to explain the complexity of the world. In 2005, his close associate Cardinal Schoenborn wrote an article saying “evolution in the sense of common ancestry might be true, but evolution in the neo-Darwinian sense – an unguided, unplanned process – is not”.

Pope Francis look on during the unveiling of a bronze bust in honor of Pope Benedict XVI on October 27, 2014 at the VaticanPope Francis look on during the unveiling of a bronze bust in honor of Pope Benedict XVI on October 27, 2014 at the Vatican

Giovanni Bignami, a professor and president of Italy’s National Institute for Astrophysics, told the Italian news agency Adnkronos: “The pope’s statement is significant. We are the direct descendents from the Big Bang that created the universe. Evolution came from creation.”

Giulio Giorello, professor of the philosophy of science at Milan’s University degli Studi, told reporters that he believed Francis was “trying to reduce the emotion of dispute or presumed disputes” with science.

Despite the huge gulf in theological stance between his tenure and that of his predecessor, Francis praised Benedict XVI as he unveiled a bronze bust of him at the academy’s headquarters in the Vatican Gardens.

“No one could ever say of him that study and science made him and his love for God and his neighbour wither,” Francis said, according to a translation by the Catholic News Service.

“On the contrary, knowledge, wisdom and prayer enlarged his heart and his spirit. Let us thank God for the gift that he gave the church and the world with the existence and the pontificate of Pope Benedict.”

Physicists closer to understanding balance of matter, antimatter in universe — ScienceDaily



The Large Hadron Collider at CERN.

Physicists in the College of Arts and Sciences have made important discoveries regarding Bs meson particles — something that may explain why the universe contains more matter than antimatter.Distinguished Professor Sheldon Stone and his colleagues recently announced their findings at a workshop at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. Titled “Implications of LHCb Measurements and Their Future Prospects,” the workshop enabled him and other members of the Large Hadron Collider beauty (LHCb) Collaboration to share recent data results.

The LHCb Collaboration is a multinational experiment that seeks to explore what happened after the Big Bang, causing matter to survive and flourish in the Universe. LHCb is an international experiment, based at CERN, involving more than 800 scientists and engineers from all over the world. At CERN, Stone heads up a team of 15 physicists from Syracuse.

“Many international experiments are interested in the Bs meson because it oscillates between a matter particle and an antimatter particle,” says Stone, who heads up Syracuse’s High-Energy Physics Group. “Understanding its properties may shed light on charge-parity [CP] violation, which refers to the balance of matter and antimatter in the universe and is one of the biggest challenges of particle physics.”

Scientists believe that, 14 billion years ago, energy coalesced to form equal quantities of matter and antimatter. As the universe cooled and expanded, its composition changed. Antimatter all but disappeared after the Big Bang, leaving behind matter to create everything from stars and galaxies to life on Earth.

“Something must have happened to cause extra CP violation and, thus, form the universe as we know it,” Stone says.

He thinks part of the answer lies in the Bs meson, which contains an antiquark and a strange quark and is bound together by a strong interaction. (A quark is a hard, point-like object found inside a proton and neutron that forms the nucleus of an atom.)

Enter CERN, a European research organization that operates the world’s largest particle physics laboratory.

In Geneva, Stone and his research team — which includes Liming Zhang, a former Syracuse research associate who is now a professor at Tsinghua University in Beijing, China — have studied two landmark experiments that took place at Fermilab, a high-energy physics laboratory near Chicago, in 2009.

The experiments involved the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and the DZero (D0), four-story detectors that were part of Fermilab’s now-defunct Tevatron, then one of the world’s highest-energy particle accelerators.

“Results from D0 and CDF showed that the matter-antimatter oscillations of the Bs meson deviated from the standard model of physics, but the uncertainties of their results were too high to make any solid conclusions,” Stone says.

He and Zhang had no choice but to devise a technique allowing for more precise measurements of Bs mesons. Their new result shows that the difference in oscillations between the Bs and anti-Bs meson is just as the standard model has predicted.

Stone says the new measurement dramatically restricts the realms where new physics could be hiding, forcing physicists to expand their searches into other areas. “Everyone knows there is new physics. We just need to perform more sensitive analyses to sniff it out,” he adds.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Syracuse University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.

Google[x] Reveals Nano Pill To Seek Out Cancerous Cells .


Detecting cancer could be as easy as popping a pill in the near future. Google’s head of life sciences, Andrew Conrad, took to the stage at the Wall Street Journal Digital conference to reveal that the tech giant’s secretive Google[x] lab has been working on a wearable device that couples with nanotechnology to detect disease within the body.

“We’re passionate about switching from reactive to proactive and we’re trying to provide the tools that make that feasible,” explained Conrad. This is a third project in a series of health initiatives for Google[x]. The team has already developed a smart contact lens that detects glucose levels for diabetics and utensils that help manage hand tremors in Parkinson’s patients.

The plan is to test whether tiny particles coated “magnetized” with antibodies can catch disease in its nascent stages. The tiny particles are essentially programmed to spread throughout the body via pill and then latch on to the abnormal cells. The wearable device then “calls” the nanoparticles back to ask them what’s going on with the body and to find out if the person who swallowed the pill has cancer or other diseases.

“Think of it as sort of like a mini self-driving car,” Conrad simplified with a clear reference to Google[x]‘s vehicular project. “We can make it park where we want it to.” Conrad went on with the car theme, saying the body is more important than a car and comparing our present healthcare system as something that basically only tries to change our oil after we’ve broken down. “We wouldn’t do that with a car,” he added.

This has all sorts of implications in medicine. According to a separately released statement from Google today, “Maybe there could be a test for the enzymes given off by arterial plaques that are about to rupture and cause a heart attack or stroke. Perhaps someone could develop a diagnostic for post-surgery or post-chemo cancer patients – that’s a lot of anxious people right there (note: we’d leave this ‘product development’ work to companies we’d license the tech to; they’d develop specific diagnostics and test them for efficacy and safety in clinical trials.”

We essentially wouldn’t need to go into the doctor and give urine and blood samples anymore. According to Conrad, we’d simply swallow a pill and monitor for disease on a daily basis. We’d also be able to upload that data into the cloud and send it to our doctor. “So your doctor could say well for 312 days of this year everything looks good but these past couple of months we’re detecting disease,” Conrad said.

Privacy and security, particularly in health care is essential. Google came under fire in the last couple of years for handing over information to the U.S. government. Conrad was quick to mention that a partner, not Google would be handling individual data. “It’d be like saying GE is in control of your x-ray. We are the creators of the tech and they are the disseminators,” Conrad clarified.

The U.S. government has an active interest in this space, as well. It’s invested over $20 billion in nanotechnology research since 2013.

This project is in the exploratory phases but Conrad was hopeful that we’d be seeing this technology in the hands of every doctor within the next decade. He also mentioned that his team has explored ways of not just detecting abnormal cells but also delivering medicine at the same time. “That’s certainly been discussed,” he said, but cautioned that this was something that needed to be carefully developed so that the nanoparticles had a chance to show what was happening in the body before destroying the cells.

So far 100 Google employees with expertise in astrophysics, chemistry and electrical engineering have taken part in the nanoparticle project. “We’re trying to stave off death by preventing disease. Our foe is unnecessary death,” Conrad added.

Sex with 21 women lowers risk of prostate cancer, academics find .


The University of Montreal has found that men who had sex with more than 20 women lower their prostate cancer risk

Sleeping with more than 20 women protects men against prostate cancer, a study has suggested.

Men who had slept with more than 20 women lowered their risk of developing cancer by almost one third, and were 19 per cent less likely to develop the most aggressive form.

In contrast, men who slept with 20 men doubled their risk of developing prostate cancer compared with men who have never had sex with another man.

Researchers at the University of Montreal believe that intercourse protects men, and men who are more promiscuous have more sex than those in monogamous relationships.

However, for homosexual men the benefit is lost because of the increased risk of picking up a sexually transmitted disease, and the damage to their bodies from intercourse. However gay men with just one partner are at no greater risk.

But when asked whether public health authorities should recommend men to sleep with many women in their lives Dr Parent added: “We’re not there yet.”

The study looked at more than 3,200 men over a four year period between 2005 and 2009.

Overall, men with prostate cancer were twice as likely to have a relative with cancer. However, the researchers were surprised to find that the number of sexual partners also affected the development of their cancer.

Men who said they had never had sexual intercourse were almost twice as likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer as those who said they had.

When a man has slept with more than 20 women during his lifetime there was a 28 per cent reduction in the risk of having prostate cancer, and a 19 per cent reduction for aggressive types of cancer.

On the other hand, those who have slept with more than 20 men are twice as likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer of all types compared to those who have never slept with a man.

And their risk of having a less aggressive prostate cancer increases by 500 per cent compared to those who have had only one male partner.

Dr Parent said that she could only formulate “highly speculative” hypotheses to explain the association.

“It could come from greater exposure to STIs, or it could be that anal intercourse produces physical trauma to the prostate,” she said.

Previous studies have found that sexual intercourse may have a protective effect against prostate cancer because it reduces the concentration of carcinogenic crystal-like substances in the fluid of the prostate.

The study, published in the Journal Cancer Epidemiology is the first to find a link between the number of sexual partners and the risk of developing cancer.

“We were fortunate to have participants from Montreal who were comfortable talking about their sexuality, no matter what sexual experiences they have had, and this openness would probably not have been the same 20 or 30 years ago,” said lead researcher Dr Marie-Elise Parent.

“Indeed, thanks to them, we now know that the number and type of partners must be taken into account to better understand the causes of prostate cancer.”

Eyeball link to Alzheimer’s studied


Eye

The study will investigate changes to veins and arteries in the eyeball

Researchers at Dundee University are to lead a £1.1m study into whether eye tests can reveal the onset of Alzheimer’s disease.

A team from the university’s school of computing will carry out the three-year study with colleagues in Edinburgh.

Evidence suggests changes to veins and arteries in the eye could be linked to diseases including stroke and cardiovascular disease.

The team will study if this could act as an “early warning” of Alzheimer’s.

The new study uses specially-developed computer software to analyse high-definition images of the eye from multiple instruments to establish whether such changes in the eye could act as an early indicator of Alzheimer’s disease.

The team will further develop existing software and cross-reference data with medical history information stored at Ninewells Hospital to see if a relationship can be established.

‘Interesting proposition’

Emanuele Trucco, professor of computational vision at the school of computing, is leading the project.

He said: “If you can look into someone’s eyes using an inexpensive machine and discover something which may suggest a risk of developing dementia, then that’s a very interesting proposition.

“There is the promise of early warning in a non-invasive way and there is also the fact that we even might be able to use the test to differentiate between different types of dementia.”

The project has been funded as part of an £8m investment at 11 universities by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.

The body’s chief executive Prof Philip Nelson said: “The UK faces a huge challenge over the coming decades, we have an ageing population and a likely rise in the numbers of people suffering from dementias.

“These research projects will improve our abilities to detect and understand dementias and how the disease progresses.”

The study will begin in April 2015 and run for three years.

Two genes linked with violent crime


 

DNA molecule computer artwork
The association between genes and violence was strongest for repeat violent offenders

A genetic analysis of almost 900 offenders in Finland has revealed two genes associated with violent crime.

Those with the genes were 13 times more likely to have a history of repeated violent behaviour.

The authors of the study, published in the journal Molecular Psychiatry, said at least 5-10% of all violent crime in Finland could be attributed to individuals with these genotypes.

But they stressed the genes could not be used to screen criminals.

Many more genes may be involved in violent behaviour and environmental factors are also known to have a fundamental role.

Even if an individual has a “high-risk combination” of these genes the majority will never commit a crime, the lead author of the work Jari Tiihonen of the Karolinska Institutet in Sweden said.

“Committing a severe, violent crime is extremely rare in the general population. So even though the relative risk would be increased, the absolute risk is very low,” he told the BBC.

“Start Quote

We’re all products of genetics and the environment but I don’t think that robs us of free will or understanding right and wrong”

Dr Christopher FergusonStetson University, Florida

The study, which involved analysis of almost 900 criminals, is the first to have looked at the genetic make-up of so many violent criminals in this way.

Warrior gene

Each criminal was given a profile based on their offences, categorising them into violent or non-violent. The association between genes and previous behaviour was strongest for the 78 who fitted the “extremely violent offender” profile.

This group had committed a total of 1,154 murders, manslaughters, attempted homicides or batteries. A replication group of 114 criminals had all committed at least one murder.

These all carried a low-activity version of the MAOA gene, which previous research has dubbed the “warrior gene” because of its link to aggressive behaviour.

line

Crime genes

  • The two genes associated with violent repeat offenders were the MAOA gene and a variant of cadherin 13 (CDH13)
  • The MAOA gene codes for the enzyme monoamine oxidase A, which is important for controlling the amount of dopamine and serotonin in the brain
  • CDH13 has previously been associated with substance abuse and ADHD
  • Those classified as non-violent offenders did not have this genetic profile
line

A deficiency of the enzyme this controls could result in “dopamine hyperactivity” especially when an individual drinks alcohol or takes drugs such as amphetamines, said Prof Tiihonen. The majority of all individuals who commit severe violent crime in Finland do so under the influence of alcohol or drugs.

Free will

For now, a person’s genetic information should not have any influence on conviction outcomes in criminal courts, Prof Tiihonen added.

“There are many things which can contribute to a person’s mental capacity. The only thing that matters is the mental capacity of the individual to understand the consequences of what he or she is doing and whether or not the individual can control his or her own behaviour.”

Christopher Ferguson of Stetson University in the US state of Florida agreed. He said it must be remembered that there was not “one or even two genes that by themselves code for violence or crime”.

“To some extent we’re all products of genetics and the environment but I don’t think that robs us of free will or understanding right and wrong.”

Criminal court
Researchers say genetic profiling should not yet be used in criminal courts

Despite this view, echoed by many other scientists, there have been several instances of defence lawyers using genetic information to reduce sentences.

In 2009, a court in Italy reduced the sentence of a criminal with genes linked to bad behaviour. In a similar case in the US a murderer’s genetic profile was highlighted as a contributing factor for his crime.

Commenting on the latest study, Dr Ferguson said it added to our understanding of the factors involved in violent crime.

“Studies like this really document that a large percentage of our behaviour in terms of violence or aggression is influenced by our biology – our genes – and our brain anatomy.

“It’s important to conceptualise crime and violence, where it comes from, even if we would not want to radically change the criminal justice system.”

Brett Haberstick from the University of Colorado, Boulder in the US, said the work illustrates that “finding genes for criminal behaviour is going to be difficult”, despite a long tradition of biological work in the area of criminology.

He said it would be important for others with similar data to replicate the study.

“It is worthwhile to look for biological contributions to criminal or antisocial behaviour as their impact on individuals, communities and society in general is sizeable. What I think, however, is that it is vital that environmental influences are considered as well,” he told BBC News.

Jan Schnupp at the University of Oxford was critical of the work. He commented that up to half the population could have one of the genes involved.

“To call these alleles ‘genes for violence’ would therefore be a massive exaggeration. In combination with many other factors these genes may make it a little harder for you to control violent urges, but they most emphatically do not predetermine you for a life of crime.”

‘Shazam for birds’ set for launch


Florence Wilkinson
Florence Wilkinson, Warblr chief executive, demonstrates the app

An app that can automatically recognise bird sounds is to be launched in time for spring, its creators have said.

Warblr has been developed by two scientists using a grant from Queen Mary University of London.

They hope to raise more money in a crowdfunding drive but, after tests with the BBC that suggested problems, admitted there was still work to do.

In three separate attempts, the app was unable to correctly identify the bird in question.

“It is not perfect… this is obviously very new technology, so we have a bit of work to do still,” said Warblr’s co-founder and chief executive Florence Wilkinson, who demonstrated the app to BBC producer Jat Gill.

The app works by identifying a recorded sound and returning a list of the most likely results, with percentage weightings indicating their respective levels of likelihood.

Canada geeseWarblr struggled to distinguish between a canada goose and screaming child

In the first test, Ms Wilkinson recorded a canada goose. But she said that interference from a “screaming child” caused the app to misidentify the calls as those of a crow, with the correct answer in second place.

“Bearing in mind it had quite a lot of background noise in there, I think that’s a pretty good result.”

In test two, she tried to identify a moor hen and some coots. “I don’t know if we can count that as a victory because [the coot] came up as the last result [on the list], although they are all pretty close,” she said.

Moor henWarblr also had trouble identifying the moor hen

“We’ve got a few that are clearly wrong there, we’ve got the black-tailed godwit, a fieldfare, for example. The bottom result that we’ve got at six per cent is the coot, which is actually the bird that was making the noise.”

The final test was more successful in picking out the same species, with the coot listed second – not first, again. “I’m pretty pleased with that.”

Dan Stowell, a Queen Mary University of London academic and one of Warblr’s co-founders, developed the technology on which the service runs. He said the app was similar to the music-recognition service Shazam.

‘Challenge’

“It’s really surprisingly difficult to recognise automatically any particular bird, what species it is, because a single species can make a different sound, depending on the time of day, depending on how old it is, depending on whether it is mating or not,” said Mr Stowell, who is an expert in natural sciences.

“If you think about the challenge of trying to recognise ‘which music recording is this?’ it’s exactly the same recording every time, whereas, here we are trying to recognise a general category of bird sounds.”

He said the system used “machine learning” to take examples labelled by the developers and learn to generalise from them.

He said the app was able to recognise 88 species, covering most common birds in Britain, plus some less common ones.

Mr Stowell said the technology had other possible applications, including recognising genres and emotions in music, and could also be adapted for bird species in other countries.

The pair plan to raise £50,000 towards their planned spring launch using the crowdfunding website Kickstarter. At the time of writing, they had raised more than £1,100.

Although other apps, such as Bird Song ID, which can recognise and identify bird calls exist, Warblr’s developers claim its database is significantly larger.