Your dog really DOES love you Researchers find love hormone released in domesticated animals as well a humans .

  • Researchers tested levels of oxctocin in pets before and after interactions
  • Found boost similar to that of a human in love
  • Animals also responded strongly with other animals – of any species

By Mark Prigg

Domesticated animals really do love their owners, researchers have claimed.

Experiments found that animals release the same ‘love hormone’ used in humans to create bonds with friends.

Experts say they were ‘shocked’ by the levels of oxytocin released in animals.

Researchers found that animals release the same 'love hormone' found in humans and believed to help create bonds with friends and even between mothers and their children.

Researchers found that animals release the same ‘love hormone’ found in humans and believed to help create bonds with friends and even between mothers and their children.



The hormone oxytocin is released in our bodies in various social situations and our bodies create it at high concentrations during positive social interactions such as falling in love, experiencing an orgasm or giving birth and breastfeeding.

Oxytocin is also released during labour – triggering the production of breast milk – and floods the brain during breastfeeding, helping mother and baby bond.

Previous research has shown that it helps diffuse relationship squabbles and leads to married men physically distancing themselves from attractive women.

Paul Zak, a Professor at Claremont Graduate University in California, conducted several experiments to measure the levels of oxytocin, the body’s ‘happy hormone’ released when pets interacted with other animals and humans.

‘The results were kind of shocking,’ he told MailOnline.

At an animal refuge in Arkansas, researchers obtained blood samples from a domestic mixed-breed terrier and a goat that regularly played with each other.

Their play involved chasing each other, jumping towards each other, and engaging in simulated fighting (baring teeth and snarling), Professor Zak said.

‘We took their blood, had them interact in a closed pen, then took their blood again to check for changes in levels.

One experiment involved putting a pet dog and a goat together.

‘The result was very surprising.

‘The dog dog had a 48% increase, which was big for a human.

But the goat’s response was incredible – for humans this it was basically true love.

The only time I have seen such a surge in oxytocin in humans is when someone sees their loved one, is romantically attracted to someone, or is shown an enormous kindness.’

‘Given oxytocinn came about to help bonding, it seems that domesticated animals form bonds and feel love in the same way we do.’

Professor Zak said the key was that only animals that have been domesticated appeared to show this response.

The team say that animals also release the hormone when in the company of other animals - but believe only domesticated animals

The team say that animals also release the hormone when in the company of other animals – but believe only domesticated animals

 ‘It seems animals more social have higher densities of oxytocin in the front of the brain

This makes it feel good to co-operate.’

In a second experiment, 100 human participants came into the lab and gave blood samples to establish their baseline physiologic states.

Then they went into a private room and played with a dog or cat for 15 minutes. 

Subjects then gave more blood, and their levels of oxycotin measured.

Researchers found the changes in humans differed from person to person – but could be predicted by asking people how many pets they had had before.

He also found different animals produce different responses.

‘For dog people, they will admit to it, but cat people were in the minority and seem to have less of a bond.

Professor Zak also said that the research found that some people simply aren't 'animal people', showing no effect when given a puppy to hold

Professor Zak also said that the research found that some people simply aren’t ‘animal people’, showing no effect when given a puppy to hold

‘Dogs are best examples of humans playing god – they will always love their owners.’

Professor Zak also said that the research found that some people simply aren’t ‘animal people’

‘We were doing some filming with the BBC, so we also took a presenter and had her hold a cure puppy – we found she only had a 3% increase in oxytocin – and she also admitted babies do nothing for her.

 It shows we aren’t all pet people,’ said Professor Zal, who began the research after having to have his own dog, Teddy, put down.

Avoid New Lyme Culture Test, Say CDC and FDA

CDC and the FDA have again cautioned the public about the use of an unapproved test for diagnosing Lyme disease.

“As with any diagnostic test, it is critical that new tests for Lyme disease have adequate analytical and clinical validation to avoid misdiagnosis and improper treatment of patients,” wrote Christina Nelson, MD, and colleagues from the two agencies in the April 18 issue of MMWR.

Testing for Lyme disease has been fraught with difficulties over the years, and many patients and advocacy groups have argued that current approaches are inadequate, with the result that some patients have persisting symptoms such as arthritis for months or years.

Nearly a decade ago, the agencies warned against the use of “home brew” tests for Borrelia burgdorferi that have been developed and manufactured by individual laboratories, because of the possibility of inaccuracies.

Recently, the CDC was asked about a novel culture approach for identification of B. burgdorferi that is claimed to have a success rate of 94%.

The culture technique, published in the International Journal of Medical Sciences, “incorporates [a] two-step process that consists of a short-term starter culture that is used to seed a long-term phase, each utilizing different cultivation environments. Combining the two phases allows for more rapid initial growth and ultimately a higher yield than has previously been reported,” the authors stated.

They further reported that they were able to demonstrate growth of the pathogen from 50 seropositive individuals and an additional 72 patients with Lyme disease, with positive cultures in 47% after 6 days and in 94% after 4 months.

However, CDC subsequently reviewed the methods and results. The analysis raised “serious concerns about false-positive results caused by laboratory contamination and the potential for misdiagnosis,” the agency said in its weekly report.

The agency’s review, published in the Journal of Clinical Microbiology, found that 80% of supposed patient-derived bacterial gene sequences were, in fact, a laboratory strain.

CDC currently recommends two-tier testing for Lyme disease utilizing an FDA-approved enzyme immunoassay that can then be confirmed by an approved Western blot test.

So You Want to Be a Runner

Running is one of the fastest growing sports in the nation with more than 40 million people taking to the open road. Unfortunately, 60 to 65 percent of runners will be injured in a given year. Risk factors for injury include fewer than three years’ experience and running more than 40 miles per week.

Before getting started, consider these 4 tips to stay off the injured list:

1. Wear the right shoes

Getting a good running shoe for your foot and gait is an important part of injury prevention. Go to a sporting good or running shoe store and work with a shoe expert to find the right pair for your foot.

Take your old shoes to the store so the experts there can help find the appropriate running shoe for you. If you wear orthotics or shoe inserts, you should try the shoes on with the insert. Shoes should be replaced every four to six months depending on how much you run.

2. Plan and record your accomplishments and feelings

Whether you are running just to get in shape or have a goal of doing a 5k or local race, keep track of how many miles you are going and how you feel. A log recording your time or miles and how you feel during and after each run is very useful in identifying problems and motivating you to get better. When you first start, avoid running on consecutive days. The days of rest from running allow your body to recover.

Be careful about increasing your running mileage too quickly. Many injuries come from a sudden increase in miles or intensity such as with hill runs or going faster.

3. Cross-train your muscles in other ways

Cross-train with weights or low-impact activities to build strength in your running muscles. If you are hoping to run a 5k, you should build to a base of 15 miles per week for most weeks. There are many training groups and online programs to assist you with determining how much to run and when.

4. Understand aches and pains

If you have aches and pains at first, do not give up. Often just a subtle weakness or a slight issue with your posture can alter your gait and cause nagging and recurrent pains. Fifty percent of running injuries will happen in an area where there has been a prior injury.

Running is a rewarding sport, but it takes time to get your body to feel like you are a runner.

If despite good training habits, you have a recurrent injury, you may consider seeing a running specialist to evaluate your injury and analyze your running gait.

Who Is at Fault When a Driverless Car Gets in an Accident?

These are boom times for driverless car research. Google, the major automakers, and government agencies both in the U.S. and abroad are spending millions of dollars to support the development of vehicle-automation technology with the potential to make road travel far safer than it is today. But what will happen when automation is suspected of causing, as opposed to avoiding, an accident?

This won’t be a simple problem. How do you apportion blame between a human driver and a car’s automated systems? How do you apportion blame within those systems? Was it the software? Or the way the software was or wasn’t tested? Or maybe it was the hardware. Or perhaps it was due to the software and hardware interacting in unforeseen ways.

These sorts of head-scratchers have led to suggestions that liability concerns might become a major impediment to the rollout of advanced autonomous vehicle technologies. An article last year in the San Diego Union-Tribune observed that, according to “experts,”  “the issue of liability, if not solved, could delay or even wipe out the vision of driverless cars gaining widespread consumer use.” MSN ran a story under the title “Will lawsuits kill the autonomous car?,” and the Wall Street Journal published an article titled “Liability Issues Create Potholes on the Road to Driverless Cars.”

There’s no doubt that accidents involving autonomous vehicles will put challenging new liability questions before the courts. But that doesn’t mean the courts will be unable to address them. And it doesn’t mean that we have to put the autonomous-vehicle industry on hold so legislators can attempt to preemptively draft and enact an entirely new set of liability laws that anticipate everything that might go wrong. It’s an exercise that would be as impossible as it is unnecessary.

Why? Because we already have a legal framework that is basically up to the task, as I recently argued in detail in a Brookings Institution paper. Thanks largely to the tremendous technological change that has occurred since the middle of the last century, products liability has been a dynamic, rapidly evolving area of law. Notably, when confronted with new, often complex, questions involving products liability, courts have generally gotten things right.

Today’s products liability law is the result of decades—or more, if you take the longer view—of precedent that has established the responsibilities that accompany making and selling products. Plaintiffs in products-liability lawsuits can choose from among various (not mutually exclusive) “theories” of liability when seeking to recover damages.

Negligence occurs when manufacturers fail to design their products to be safe when used in reasonably foreseeable ways. Consider an autonomous steering technology that works well during the day but that tends to cause fender-benders when used at night. A person whose car is damaged as a result could assert that night driving is a reasonably foreseeable use of a vehicle, and that the manufacturer’s failure to ensure the technology worked effectively at night constitutes negligence.

Design defects are another commonly asserted theory of liability. Suppose that the software for controlling braking in an autonomous vehicle doesn’t sufficiently increase braking power when the vehicle needs to stop on a downhill slope. If, as a result, a vehicle causes a frontal collision (i.e., impacts a car in front of it), a person who suffers injuries or economic losses due to the collision could file a design-defects claim against the manufacturer.

Even when a design is sound, manufacturers can be liable for manufacturing defects. If an autonomous vehicle technology provider accidentally ships some vehicles with an early, non-market-ready version of software containing a flaw not present in the newer version that was supposed to have been shipped, a person injured in an accident attributable to this flaw could seek to recover damages from the technology provider.

Because the process of marketing and selling a product creates explicit and implicit warranties, products liability also involves contract law. Consider a provider of automated parallel parking solutions that claims in advertisements that the system can “parallel park in tight spaces equally well whether it’s day or night.” If, instead, the system only works during the day, and only in spaces that aren’t particularly tight, a purchaser of such a system could file a products liability claim citing breach of warranty (and would likely also allege that there was a design defect).

As these examples illustrate, while the specific fact patterns will vary, in products liability terms, manufacturers of autonomous vehicle technologies aren’t really so different from manufacturers in other areas. They have the same basic obligations to offer products that are safe and that work as described during the marketing and sales process, and they have the same set of legal exposures if they fail to do so. Products liability law has been highly adaptive to the many new technologies that have emerged in recent decades, and it will be quite capable of adapting to emerging autonomous vehicle technologies as the need arises.

Psychedelic Mushrooms Could Cure Anxiety for Cancer Patients .

When O.M. was 21 he was diagnosed with Hodgkin’s lymphoma. He was a pre-med student at the time. His first reaction was denial, followed by an overwhelming and lasting anxiety, as described in an April 22 Atlantic article by Roc Morin. Even after six rounds of chemotherapy helped O.M. kick the cancer, he was plagued with a devastating fear that the disease might return. He checked his lymph nodes so often to see if they’d grown that he developed callouses on his neck.

He experienced this debilitating end-of-life anxiety from the moment he was diagnosed until the day he ingested psilocybin, extracted from hallucinogenic mushrooms while laying on a psychiatrist’s couch during a New York University study. O.M. is one of 35 study participants, all of whom suffered from severe anxiety due to cancer.

The double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study, which is still ongoing, looks at the potentials for psilocybin to treat anxiety and other psychological distress stemming from  advanced cancer. The second half of the study will look at the effect of psilocybin on “pain perception, depression, existential/psychospiritual distress, attitudes toward disease progression, quality of life, and spiritual/mystical states of consciousness.”

O.M. told the Atlantic that when he ate the mushrooms, it was “like a switch went on.”

“I went from being anxious to analyzing my anxiety from the outside,” he said. “I realized that nothing was actually happening to me objectively. It was real because I let it become real. And, right when I had that thought, I saw a cloud of black smoke come out of my body and float away.”

Gabrielle Agin-Liebes, the research manager for the NYU study, told the Atlantic that O.M. had one of the highest possible anxiety ratings possible prior to the study. The day following his treatment, O.M. scored a zero. He had absolutely no anxiety, and stayed that way for seven months following the treatment.

As Morin’s Atlantic article notes, psilocybin was used for medicinal purposes for centuries by indigenous peoples before Western Christian globalization stomped out its mainstream usage. In the wake of WWII, hallucinogens-as-medicine made a comeback among psychiatrists. When psychoactive substances gained recreational popularity as street drugs, the Nixon administration waged its war on drugs, passing the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. Psilocybin was given restrictive Schedule I classification along with LSD, cannabis and other psychoactive substances. Nixon’s war on drugs still rages on today, filling prisons with nonviolent drug offenders and targeting minority populations.

1970s-era policies have also suppressed most research of psychedelics for decades, but thanks to the efforts of determined scientists and research groups like the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies ( MAPS), government-approved human studies of controlled psychedelic substances are breaking ground again. While the federal government still deems them dangerous and void of medical purpose, research continues to reveal a promising medical potential of most psychoactive Schedule I substances to treat issues ranging from pain and anxiety to addiction and cancer.

A recent FDA-approved study looked at LSD in the treatment of end-of-life anxiety. It was the first controlled study of LSD in humans in 40 years, and the results were overwhelmingly positive, with every patient reporting reduced anxiety and no negative side effects.

The NYU psilocybin study is not the first of its kind. Charles Grob conducted a study with similar outcome measures at Harbor-UCLA. However, the NYU study uses higher doses of psilocybin and examines 32 subjects instead of the 12 Grob examined. The results of the current psilocybin study are still being examined, but principal investigator Stephen Ross told the Atlantic that, “the vast majority of their patients have exhibited an immediate and sustained reduction in anxiety. Consistent with similar studies involving psilocybin, approximately three-fourths of the participants rate their experience with the drug as being one of the top five most significant events of their lives.”

O.M. was among the overwhelming success cases.

“At the hospital they gave me Xanax for anxiety,” he told the Atlantic. “Xanax doesn’t get rid of your anxiety. Xanax tells you not to feel it for a while until it stops working and you take the next pill. The beauty of psilocybin is: it’s not medication. You’re not taking it and it solves your problem. You take it and you solve your problem yourself.”

The Dangerous Reality Of Artificial Food Dye Consumption .

The food industry dumps over 15 million pounds of artificial food dyes into the food supply each year. Three of the dyes carry known carcinogens, and four can cause serious allergic reactions. Studies have shown that seven of them contributed to cancer in lab animals, including brain and testicular tumors, colon cancer, and mutations.

“These synthetic chemicals do absolutely nothing to improve the nutritional quality or safety of foods, but trigger behavior problems in children and, possibly, cancer in anybody,” said Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) executive director Michael F. Jacobson.

James Huff, an associate at the National Toxicology Program added, “Some dyes have caused cancers in animals, contain cancer-causing contaminants, or have been inadequately tested for cancer or other problems. Their continued use presents unnecessary risks to humans, especially young children. It’s disappointing that the FDA has not addressed the toxic threat posed by food dyes.”

The three most widely used dyes, Red 40, Yellow 5, and Yellow 6 are found in everything, from fruit snacks to salad dressings.


FDA tests show that these three dyes are tainted with low levels of cancer-causing compounds, including benzidine and 4-aminobiphenyl in Yellow 5. And actually, the levels could be much higher. In the 1990s the FDA and Health Canada found a hundred times as much benzidine in a bound form that is released in the colon, but not detected in the routine tests of purity conducted by the FDA.

The link between artificial colors and behavioral problems also of great concern, primarily for parents with children diagnosed with ADHD. But conflicting results from studies among scientists explains why there are still seven approved colors in the United States. The CSPI continues to push to ban the existing dyes, or at the very least, apply warning labels on the products that contain them.

The E.U. does so for six dyes: a study in 2007 at the University of Southampton, which came to be known as the “Southampton Six”, linked the food dyes to hyperactivity in children. Warning labels are now mandatory in the E.U.

The FDA, however, is not convinced that such labeling measures are necessary.

While the FDA does not dismiss the notion that the remaining approved artificial colors may carry adverse health effects, they refuse to require warning labels, stating that further evidence is needed before another ban is imposed. FDA scientists have surmised that bad reactions to artificial colorings in certain individuals may be similar to a food allergy, in that they only affect a small group of people. The FDA maintains that dyes need be avoided by those select individuals only, as opposed to the entire public.

CSPI counters that the FDA is failing to enforce the law and dismissing a public health threat in the following ways:

– ”Red 3 and Citrus Red 2 should be banned under the Delaney amendment, because they caused cancer in rats (some uses were banned in 1990), as should Red 40, Yellow 5, and Yellow 6, which are tainted with cancer-causing contaminants.

– Evidence suggests that Blue 1, Blue 2, Green 3, Red 40 and Yellow 6 cause cancer in animals. There is certainly not “convincing evidence” of safety.

– Dyed foods should be considered adulterated under the law, because the dyes make a food “appear better or of greater value than it is”–typically by masking the absence of fruit, vegetable or other more costly ingredient.”

CSPI accuses the FDA of knowing the health risks imposed by the presence of artificial dyes, but has not acted to protect consumers.

HowStuffWorks “Who was the first scientist?”

The word “scientist” entered the English language in 1834. That’s when Cambridge University historian and philosopher William Whewell coined the term to describe someone who studies the structure and behavior of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment. You could make the argument, then, that the first modern scientist was someone like Charles Darwin or Michael Faraday, two iconic figures who also happened to be Whewell’s contemporaries. But even if the term didn’t exist before the 1830s, people who embodied its principles did.

To find the very first scientist, we must travel back in time even further. We could go back to the most ancient of the ancient Greeks, all the way back to Thales of Miletus, who lived from about 624 B.C. to about 545 B.C. By many accounts, Thales achieved much in both science and mathematics, yet he left no written record and may have been, like Homer, a celebrated figure who received credit for many great achievements but who may never have existed at all.

We could consider other ancient Greeks as well, such as Euclid (the father of geometry) or Ptolemy (the misguided astronomer who put Earth at the center of the cosmos). But all of these men, although great thinkers, relied on making arguments instead of running experiments to prove or disprove hypotheses.

Greek Philosopher Image Gallery

Some scholars believe that modern science had its origins in an impressive class of Arabic mathematicians and philosophers working in the Middle East decades before the European Renaissance began. This group included al-Khwarizmi, Ibn Sina, al-Biruni and Ibn al-Haytham. In fact, many experts recognize Ibn al-Haytham, who lived in present-day Iraq between 965 and 1039 A.D., as the first scientist. He invented the pinhole camera, discovered the laws of refraction and studied a number of natural phenomena, such as rainbows and eclipses. And yet it remains unclear whether his scientific method was truly modern or more like Ptolemy and his Greek predecessors. It’s also not clear whether he had emerged from the mysticism still prevalent at the time.

It’s almost impossible to determine when the influence of mysticism had faded completely among scientists. What’s easier to identify are the characteristics of a modern scientist. According to author Brian Clegg, a modern scientist must recognize the importance of experiment, embrace mathematics as a fundamental tool, consider information without bias and understand the need to communicate. In other words, he or she must be unshackled by religious dogma and willing to observe, react and think objectively. Clearly, many individuals doing scientific work in the 17th century — Christiaan Huygens, Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton — satisfied most of these requirements. But to find the first scientist with these characteristics, you have to travel to the Renaissance, to the mid-16th century.

New Ruling Finds Cannabis To Be The Most Medicinal Plant In The World.

More than a dozen U.S. states have now completely decriminalized the act of possessing marijuana and both Colorado and Washington have made it legal to possess, sell, transport and cultivate the plant. But soon it may be legalized across the entire country following a decision Thursday by the federal government.









In a historic and significant moment in American history, last November, Colorado became the first US state to legalize marijuana for recreational use. The impact of the decision could soon ripple across the entire country with vast opportunities to educate millions on the top health benefits of marijuana.

With the passage of I-502 in the 2012 Washington State election, marijuana also became legal in Washington–not just for medical use, but also for recreational use–and Alaska, California, Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, Nevada, New York, Nebraska, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, and Vermont have all decriminalized marijuana.

Consumption and sale of marijuana is still illegal in all other states, though some cities and towns have passed local laws decriminalizing it or making it a low priority for law enforcement officers.

There are also movements in many states to legalize pot, including legalization bills introduced in many other states.

For other states to mimic the systems in Colorado and Washington, they will first have to get legalization laws on their ballots or in their state houses, which could post a challenge, he said.

After Washington state and Colorado passed laws in November 2012 legalizing the consumption and sale of marijuana for adults over 18, lawmakers in both states waited to see whether the federal government would continue to prosecute pot crimes under federal statutes in their states.

Both Colorado and Washington have been working to set up regulatory systems in order to license and tax marijuana growers and retail sellers, but have been wary of whether federal prosecutors would come after them for doing so. They are the first states to legalize pot, and therefore to go through the process of trying to set up a regulatory system.

Ruling Signals The End is Near For Marijuana Prohibition

Last Thursday, the Department of Justice announced that it would not prosecute marijuana crimes that were legal under state law, a move that could signal the end of the country’s longtime prohibition on pot is nearing. “It certainly appears to be potentially the beginning of the end,” said Paul Armantano, deputy director of the pot lobby group NORML.

The memo sent to states Thursday by the DOJ said that as long as states set up comprehensive regulations governing marijuana, there would be no need for the federal government to step in, a decision that will save the Justice Department from having to use its limited resources on prosecuting individuals for growing or smoking marijuana.

“This memo appears to be sending the message to states regarding marijuana prohibition that is a recognition that a majority of the public and in some states majority of lawmakers no longer want to continue down the road of illegal cannabis, and would rather experiment with different regulatory schemes of license and retail sale of cannabis,” Armantano said.

In 2011 the federal government decreed that marijuana had no accepted medical use use and should remain classified as a highly dangerous drug like heroin. Accepting and promoting the powerful health benefits of marijuana would instantly cut huge profits geared towards cancer treatment and the U.S. would have to admit it imprisons the population for no cause. Nearly half of all drug arrests in the United States are for marijuana.

According to editor Richard Cowan, the answer is because it is a threat to cannabis prohibition “…there really is massive proof that the suppression of medical cannabis represents the greatest failure of the institutions of a free society, medicine, journalism, science, and our fundamental values,” Cowan notes.

While Colorado and Washington have not yet set up their regulatory systems, both states will likely sell licenses to farmers who want to grow marijuana as well as to manufacturing plants and retail sellers. The marijuana will also likely be taxed at each stage of its growth, processing, and sale.

“In both Colorado and Washington, legalization was done by citizens with no participation by elected representatives until they had to pass laws to comply with the initiative. In other initiative states I would expect such measures – I would expect a new one in California, for instance – and roughly half the states permit this and the rest don’t.

“In the states that do have initiatives I expect efforts to get it on the ballot. The other half it will be much tougher. It’s hard to get elected representatives to do this,” Collins said.

Armantano is more optimistic about the spread of legalized pot. He compared the DOJ’s announcement to the federal government’s actions toward the end of alcohol prohibition in America a century ago, when states decided to stop following the federal ban on alcohol sales and the federal government said it would not step in and prosecute crimes.

“For first time we now have clear message from fed government saying they will not stand in way of states that wish to implement alternative regulatory schemes in lieu of federal prohibition,” Armantano said.

He predicted that within the next one to three years, five or six other states may join Colorado and Washington in legalizing the drug, setting the stage for the rest of the country to follow.

The Age of Deception is Ending

In 2003, the U.S. Government as represented by the Department of Health and Human Services filed for, and was awarded a patent on cannabinoids. The reason? Because research into cannabinoids allowed pharmaceutical companies to acquire practical knowledge on one of the most powerful antioxidants and neuroprotectants known to the natural world.

The U.S. Patent 6630507 was specifically initiated when researchers found that cannabinoids had specific antioxidant properties making them useful in the treatment and prophylaxis of wide variety of oxidation associated diseases, such as ischemic, age-related, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The cannabinoids are found to have particular application as neuroprotectants, for example in limiting neurological damage following ischemic insults, such as stroke and trauma, or in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and HIV dementia. Nonpsychoactive cannabinoids, such as cannabidoil, are particularly advantageous to use because they avoid toxicity that is encountered with psychoactive cannabinoids at high doses useful in the method of the present invention.

Besides the top 10 health benefits below, findings published in the journalPLoS ONE, researchers have now have now discovered that marijuana-like chemicals trigger receptors on human immune cells that can directly inhibit a type of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) found in late-stage AIDS.

Recent studies have even shown it to be an effective atypical anti-psychotic in treating schizophrenia, a disease many other studies have inconsistently found it causing.

Top 10 Health Benefits of Marijuana

1. Cancer
Cannabinoids, the active components of marijuana, inhibit tumor growth in laboratory animals and also kill cancer cells. Western governments have known this for a long time yet they continued to suppress the information so that cannabis prohibition and the profits generated by the drug industry proliferated.

THC that targets cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 is similar in function to endocannabinoids, which are cannabinoids that are naturally produced in the body and activate these receptors. The researchers suggest that THC or other designer agents that activate these receptors might be used in a targeted fashion to treat lung cancer.

2. Tourette’s Syndrome
Tourette’s syndrome is a neurological condition characterized by uncontrollable facial grimaces, tics, and involuntary grunts, snorts and shouts.

Dr. Kirsten Mueller-Vahl of the Hanover Medical College in Germany led a team that investigated the effects of chemicals called cannabinols in 12 adult Tourette’s patients. A single dose of the cannabinol produced a significant reduction in symptoms for several hours compared to placebo, the researchers reported.

3. Seizures

Marijuana is a muscle relaxant and has “antispasmodic” qualities that have proven to be a very effective treatment for seizures. There are actually countless cases of people suffering from seizures that have only been able to function better through the use of marijuana.

4. Migraines

Since medicinal marijuana was legalized in California, doctors have reported that they have been able to treat more than 300,000 cases of migraines that conventional medicine couldn’t through marijuana.

5. Glaucoma

Marijuana’s treatment of glaucoma has been one of the best documented. There isn’t a single valid study that exists that disproves marijuana’s very powerful and popular effects on glaucoma patients.

6. Multiple Sclerosis

Marijuana’s effects on multiple sclerosis patients became better documented when former talk-show host, Montel Williams began to use pot to treat his MS. Marijuana works to stop the neurological effects and muscle spasms that come from the fatal disease.

7. ADD and ADHD

A well documented USC study done about a year ago showed that marijuana is not only a perfect alternative for Ritalin but treats the disorder without any of the negative side effects of the pharmaceutical.

8. IBS and Crohn’s

Marijuana has shown that it can help with symptoms of the chronic diseases as it stops nausea, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.

9. Alzheimer’s

Despite what you may have heard about marijuana’s effects on the brain, the Scripps Institute, in 2006, proved that the THC found in marijuana works to prevent Alzheimer’s by blocking the deposits in the brain that cause the disease.

10. Premenstrual Syndrome

Just like marijuana is used to treat IBS, it can be used to treat the cramps and discomfort that causes PMS symptoms. Using marijuana for PMS actually goes all the way back to Queen Victoria.

Mounting Evidence Suggests Raw Cannabis is Best

Cannabinoids can prevent cancer, reduce heart attacks by 66% and insulin dependent diabetes by 58%. Cannabis clinician Dr. William Courtney recommends drinking 4 – 8 ounces of raw flower and leaf juice from any Hemp plant, 5 mg of Cannabidiol (CBD) per kg of body weight, a salad of Hemp seed sprouts and 50 mg of THC taken in 5 daily doses.

Why raw? Heat destroys certain enzymes and nutrients in plants. Incorporating raw cannabis allows for a greater availability of those elements. Those who require large amounts of cannabinoids without the psychoactive effects need to look no further than raw cannabis. In this capacity, it can be used at 60 times more tolerance than if it were heated.
Raw cannabis is considered by many experts as a dietary essential. As a powerful anti-inflammatory and antioxidant, raw cannabis may be right u there with garlic and tumeric.

Clinical Manifestations of Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis .

Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) is a common, rheumatic disease of children and a major cause of chronic disability. It is characterized by a synovitis of the peripheral joints manifesting in soft tissue swelling and effusion.

In the Classification Criteria of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR), JRA is regarded not as a single disease but as a category of diseases with three principal types of onset:

(1) oligoarthritis or pauciarticular disease,

(2) polyarthritis, and

(3) systemic-onset disease.

Initial symptoms may be subtle or acute, and often include morning stiffness and gelling, easy fatigability, particularly after school in the early afternoon, joint pain later in the day, and objective joint swelling. The involved joints are often warm, resist full range of motion, are painful on motion, but are not usually erythematous.

Oligoarthritis (pauciarticular disease) predominantly affects the joints of the lower extremities, such as the knees and ankles . Often, only a single joint is involved at onset. Isolated involvement of upper extremity large joints is not characteristic of this type of onset. Involvement of the hip is almost never a presenting sign of JRA. Hip disease may occur later, particularly in polyarticular JRA, and is often a component of a deteriorating functional course.

Polyarthritis (polyarticular disease) is generally characterized by involvement of both large and small joints of both upper and lower extremities . As many as 20–40 joints may be affected in the more severely involved child, although inflammation of only ?5 joints is required as a criterion for classification of this type of onset. Polyarticular disease may resemble the characteristic presentation of adult rheumatoid arthritis and the HLA profile is often similar. Rheumatoid nodules on the extensor surfaces of the elbows and over the Achilles tendons, while unusual, are associated with a more severe course. Micrognathia reflects chronic temporomandibular joint disease. Cervical spine involvement of the apophyseal joints  occurs frequently with a risk of atlantoaxial subluxation and potential neurologic sequelae.

Systemic-onset disease is characterized by arthritis and prominent visceral involvement that includes hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, and serositis, such as a pericardial effusion. It is characterized by a quotidian fever with temperatures to ?39°C, sometimes followed by mildly hypothermic temperatures for ?2 wk. Each febrile episode is frequently accompanied by a characteristic faint, erythematous, macular rash; these evanescent salmon-colored lesions may be linear or circular, from 2–5 mm in size, and are often distributed in groups with a linear distribution most commonly over the trunk and proximal extremities . This rash is not pruritic. Its most diagnostic feature is its transient nature, with a group of lesions usually lasting <1 hr. The Koebner phenomenon, which is cutaneous hypersensitivity to superficial trauma resulting in a localized recurrence of the rash, is suggestive, but not diagnostic, of systemic-onset disease. Heat, such as a warm bath, also evokes a reappearance of the rash.

Man takes picture of birds on electric wires, plays them like musical notes | ScienceDump

While reading the newspaper one morning, Brazilian musician Jarbas Agnelli sees a picture of birds on electrical wires and gets inspired to make a song. He takes the picture and replaces the birds with exact musical notes corresponding to their positions.