Here’s Why You Should Convert Your Music To 432 hz


“If you want to find the secrets of the universe, think in terms of energy, frequency and vibration.” –Nikola Tesla

“What we have called matter is energy, whose vibration has been so lowered as to be perceptible to the senses. There is no matter.” –Albert Einstein

Tesla said it. Einstein Agreed. Science proved it. It is a known fact that everything—including our own bodies—is made up of energy vibrating at different frequencies. That being said, can sound frequencies affect us? They sure can. 

Frequencies affect frequencies; much like mixing ingredients with other ingredients affects the overall flavor of a meal. The way frequencies affect the physical world has been demonstrated through various experiments such as the science of Cymatics and water memory.


The science of Cymatics illustrates that when sound frequencies move through a particular medium such as water, air or sand, it directly alters the vibration of matter. Below are pictures demonstrating how particles adjust to different frequencies. (Click here to watch a video demonstrating the patterns of sound frequencies)

Here's Why You Should Convert Your Music To 432 hz - Cymatics
Water memory also illustrates how our own intentions can even alter the material world. This has been demonstrated by Dr. Masaru Emoto, who has performed studies showing how simple intentions through sound, emotions and thoughts can dramatically shape the way water crystallizes.

Here's Why You Should Convert Your Music To 432 hz - Water Memory
We all hold a certain vibrational frequency, not to mention our bodies are estimated to be about 70% water… so we can probably expect that musical frequencies can alter our own vibrational state. Some may call this ‘pseudoscience,’ however the science and patterns shown above don’t lie. Every expression through sound, emotion or thought holds a specific frequency which influences everything around it—much like a single drop of water can create a larger ripple effect in a large body of water.

Music Frequency

With this concept in mind, let us bring our attention to the frequency of the music we listen to. Most music worldwide has been tuned to A=440 Hz since the International Standards Organization (ISO) promoted it in 1953. However, studies regarding the vibratory nature of the universe indicate that this pitch is disharmonious with the natural resonance of nature and may generate negative effects on human behaviour and consciousness. Certain theories even suggest that the nazi regime has been in favor of adopting this pitch as standard after conducting scientific researches to determine which range of frequencies best induce fear and aggression. Whether or not the conspiracy is factual, interesting studies and observations have pointed towards the benefits of tuning music to A=432 Hz instead.

432 Hz is said to be mathematically consistent with the patterns of the universe. Studies reveal that 432hz tuning vibrates with the universe’s golden mean PHI and unifies the properties of light, time, space, matter, gravity and magnetism with biology, the DNA code and consciousness. When our atoms and DNA start to resonate in harmony with the spiraling pattern of nature, our sense of connection to nature is said to be magnified. The number 432 is also reflected in ratios of the Sun, Earth, and the moon as well as the precession of the equinoxes, the Great Pyramid of Egypt, Stonehenge, the Sri Yantra among many other sacred sites.

“From my own observations, some of the harmonic overtone partials of A=432hz 12T5 appear to line up to natural patterns and also the resonance of solitons. Solitons need a specific range to form into the realm of density and span from the micro to the macro cosmos. Solitons are not only found in water mechanics, but also in the ion-acoustic breath between electrons and protons.” – Brian T. Collins

Here's Why You Should Convert Your Music To 432 hz
Another interesting factor to consider is that the A=432 Hz tuning correlates with the color spectrum while the A=440 Hz is off.

Here's Why You Should Convert Your Music To 432 hz

“The Solar Spectrum & The Cosmic Keyboard:

All of the frequencies in the spectrum are related in octaves, from gamma rays to subharmonics. These colors and notes are also related to our Chakras and other important energy centers. If we are to understand that (…) Chakras are connected to the Seven Rays of the Solar Spectrum, then the notes and frequencies we use for the same should be the same. A432 Hz is the tuning of the Cosmic Keyboard or Cosmic Pitchfork, as opposed to the A440 Hz modern ‘standard.’ It places C# at 136.10 Hz ‘Om,’ which is the main note of the Sitar in classical Indian music and the pitch of the chants of the Tibetan monks, who tell us ‘It comes from nature.’” – Dameon Keller

Let’s explore the experiential difference between A=440 Hz and A=432 Hz. The noticeable difference music lovers and musicians have noticed with music tuned in A=432 Hz is that it is not only more beautiful and harmonious to the ears, but it also induces a more inward experience that is felt inside the body at the spine and heart. Music tuned in A=440 Hz was felt as a more outward and mental experience, and was felt at the side of the head which projected outwards. Audiophiles have also stated that A=432hz music seems to be non-local and can fill an entire room, whereas A=440hz can be perceived as directional or linear in sound propagation.

“The ancients tuned their instruments at an A of 432 Hz instead of 440 Hz – and for a good reason. There are plenty of music examples on the internet that you can listen to, in order to establish the difference for yourself. Attuning the instrument to 432 Hz results in a more relaxing sound, while 440 Hz slightly tenses up to body. This is because 440 Hz is out of tune with both macrocosmos and microcosmos. 432 Hz on the contrary is in tune. To give an example of how this is manifested microcosmically: our breath (0,3 Hz) and our puls (1,2 Hz) relate to the frequency of the lower octave of an A of 432 Hz (108 Hz) as 1:360 and 1:90.” – innergarden.org

“The overall sound difference was noticeable, the 432 version sounding warmer, clearer and instantly sounded more listenable but the 440 version felt tighter, with more aggressive energy.” – Anonymous guitarist


The video below was created by someone with no preference or opinion on whether A=432 Hz or A=440 Hz is better. Therefore, the way both versions of the melody is played is unbiased. It is up to us to tune in and feel which one feels more harmonious to us!

Here’s another example:
David Helpling – Sticks and Stones in 440 hz: http://youtu.be/PewsS9Y9pVo
David Helpling – Sticks and Stones in 432 hz: http://youtu.be/w8KEVikJMck

I personally have enjoyed many bands, artists and styles of music even though they were tuning in A=440 hz, however by comparing a few songs in both A=432 hz and A=440 hz, I can feel and hear the difference. I wouldn’t say that my experience of 440hz music has turned me into an aggressive person, but I can understand how an entire population being exposed to music that is more mind directed as opposed to heart directed—not to mention all of the materialistic and ego-driven lyrics in most popular music—is a perfect combination to maintain a more discordant frequency and state of consciousness within humanity.

“Music based on C=128hz (C note in concert A=432hz) will support humanity on its way towards spiritual freedom. The inner ear of the human being is built on C=128 hz” – Rudolph Steiner

I cannot state with complete certainty that every idea suggested in this article is 100% accurate, nor am I an expert on the subject. For this reason, I suggest that we each do our own research on the matter with an open yet discerning mind if we are looking for scientific validation. However, we all possess intuition and the ability to observe without judgment—which can be just as valuable (if not more) as filling our heads with external data and even scientific concepts. It is therefore up to us to tone down the urge to jump to conclusions and instead EXPERIENCE the difference between A=440 Hz and A=432 Hz. To do so, we need to listen with our entire body and a neutral awareness as opposed to with our mental ideas, judgments and preconceptions. Let me know which frequency resonates more with you!

If you are interested in changing your music’s pitch to A=432 hz, watch this video. URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KO1jSeP-e-o&feature=youtu.be



Credits: Collective Evolution

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Electronic cigarettes can be dangerous, even if you don’t smoke them


The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified a new health problem related to electronic cigarettes — the risk that the devices themselves or the liquid nicotine that goes into them will cause injury to eyes, skin or other body parts.

Calls to poison control centers to report problems related to e-cigarette exposures rose from one per month in September 2010 (when officials started to keep track of such calls) to 215 per month in February 2014, according to a report published Thursday in the CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. During that time, poison control centers fielded a total of 2,405 calls about e-cigarette injuries.

To put those numbers into some perspective, the report also notes that during the same period, Americans made 16,248 calls to poison control centers regarding exposures to regular cigarettes. The monthly number of cigarette-related calls varied between 301 and 512.

Electronic cigarettes are battery-operated devices that deliver users a hit of nicotine in vapor form without the carbon monoxide or tars that come from burning tobacco leaves. The CDC estimates that 10% of American high school students and nearly 3% of middle school students used e-cigarettes in 2012.

The authors of the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report — from the CDC and the Food and Drug Administration — found records of 9,839 calls involving either regular or electronic cigarettes that included information on the side effects suffered by victims. Among these cases, 58% of calls involving e-cigarettes reported some kind of “adverse health effect.” In 68.9% of these cases, people became injured by ingesting something, 16.8% by inhaling something, 8.5% by getting something in their eye and 5.9% by getting something on their skin.

When people were injured by e-cigarettes, the most common side effects reported to poison control centers were nausea, vomiting and eye irritation. One person committed suicide by injecting the nicotine solution into his or her veins.

By comparison, only 36% of calls to poison control centers about regular cigarettes reported an adverse health effect — and in 97.8% of those cases, the problems were related to ingestion.

Young children were the ones most likely to be harmed by regular cigarettes, with 95% of victims under the age of 6. By comparison, 51% of those harmed by e-cigarettes were in that age group, and 42% of victims were over the age of 20.

“This report raises another red flag about e-cigarettes — the liquid nicotine used in e-cigarettes can be hazardous,” Dr. Tom Frieden, the CDC director and a vocal critic of e-cigarettes, said in a statement.  “Use of these products is skyrocketing and these poisonings will continue.”

The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report noted that the nicotine liquid used in e-cigarettes comes in flavors such as fruit, mint and chocolate. That could make them especially appealing to children, but Frieden warned that the liquid cartridges are not required to be sold in childproof containers.

Quantum photon properties revealed in another particle—the plasmon


For years, researchers have been interested in developing quantum computers—the theoretical next generation of technology that will outperform conventional computers. Instead of holding data in bits, the digital units used by computers today, quantum computers store information in units called “qubits.” One approach for computing with qubits relies on the creation of two single photons that interfere with one another in a device called a waveguide. Results from a recent applied science study at Caltech support the idea that waveguides coupled with another quantum particle—the surface plasmon—could also become an important piece of the quantum computing puzzle.

As their name suggests,  plasmons exist on a surface—in this case the surface of a metal, at the point where the metal meets the air. Metals are conductive materials, which means that electrons within the metal are free to move around. On the surface of the metal, these free electrons move together, in a collective motion, creating waves of electrons. Plasmons—the quantum particles of these coordinated waves—are akin to photons, the  of light (and all other forms of electromagnetic radiation). 

“If you imagine the surface of a metal is like a sea of electrons, then surface plasmons are the ripples or waves on this sea,” says graduate student Jim Fakonas, first author on the study. 

These waves are especially interesting because they oscillate at optical frequencies. Therefore, if you shine a light at the metal surface, you can launch one of these plasmon waves, pushing the ripples of electrons across the surface of the metal. Because these plasmons directly couple with light, researchers have used them in photovoltaic cells and other applications for solar energy. In the future, they may also hold promise for applications in quantum computing. 

However, the plasmon’s odd behavior, which falls somewhere between that of an electron and that of a photon, makes it difficult to characterize. “According to quantum theory, it should be possible to analyze these plasmonic waves using quantum mechanics”—the physics that governs the behavior of matter and light at the atomic and subatomic scale—”in the same way that we can use it to study electromagnetic waves, like light,” Fakonas says. However, in the past, researchers were lacking the experimental evidence to support this theory. 

To find that evidence, Fakonas and his colleagues in the laboratory of Harry Atwater, Howard Hughes Professor of Applied Physics and Materials Science, looked at one particular phenomenon observed of photons——to see if plasmons also exhibit this effect. 

The applied scientists borrowed their experimental technique from a classic test of quantum interference in which two single, identical photons are launched at one another through opposite sides of a 50/50 , a device that acts as an imperfect mirror, reflecting half of the light that reaches its surface while allowing the the other half of the light to pass through. If quantum interference is observed, both identical photons must emerge together on the same side of the beam splitter, with their presence confirmed by photon detectors on both sides of the mirror. 

Since plasmons are not exactly like photons, they cannot be used in mirrored optical beam splitters. Therefore, to test for quantum interference in plasmons, Fakonas and his colleagues made two waveguide paths for the plasmons on the surface of a tiny silicon chip. Because plasmons are very lossy—that is, easily absorbed into materials that surround them—the path is kept short, contained within a 10-micron-square chip, which reduces absorption along the way. 

The waveguides, which together form a device called a directional coupler, act as a functional equivalent to a 50/50 beam splitter, directing the paths of the two plasmons to interfere with one another. The plasmons can exit the waveguides at one of two output paths that are each observed by a detector; if both plasmons exit the directional coupler together—meaning that quantum interference is observed—the pair of plasmons will only set off one of the two detectors. 

Indeed, the experiment confirmed that two indistinguishable photons can be converted into two indistinguishable surface plasmons that, like photons, display quantum interference. 

This finding could be important for the development of , says Atwater. “Remarkably, plasmons are coherent enough to exhibit quantum interference in waveguides,” he says. “These plasmon waveguides can be integrated in compact chip-based devices and circuits, which may one day enable computation and measurement schemes based on quantum interference.” 

Before this experiment, some researchers wondered if the photon–metal interaction necessary to create a  would prevent the plasmons from exhibiting quantum interference. “Our experiment shows this is not a concern,” Fakonas says. 

“We learned something new about the quantum mechanics of surface plasmons. The main thing is that we were able to validate the theoretical prediction; we showed that this type of interference is possible with plasmons, and we did a pretty clean measurement,” he says. “The quantum interference displayed by  appeared to be almost identical to that of , so I think it would be very difficult for someone to design a different structure that would improve upon this result.”

Spike in Autism Numbers Might Reflect Rise in Awareness.


About 1 in 68 children in the U.S. is diagnosed with autism, according to the latest data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), scientists from the organization reported Thursday.

hand raised in classroom

This estimate represents a 30 percent increase in prevalence from the 1 in 88 children reported in 2012 to have autism.

The researchers evaluated school and medical records of 363,749 children who were 8 years old in 2010. The prevalence data are from 11 states but vary widely by geography, from 1 in 45 in New Jersey to 1 in 175 in Alabama. The numbers also vary based on ethnicity, sex and co-occurring conditions.

As in previous years, the gender ratio is skewed, at 4.5:1 for boys versus girls.

White children are more likely than black or Hispanic children to receive an autism diagnosis. And black children and girls are more likely to have intellectual disability along with their autism.

The most notable shift is the growing proportion of those who have average or above-average intelligence, rising from 30 percent in 2002 to nearly 50 percent in 2010.

“The picture of autism is changing,” Coleen Boyle, director of the CDC’s National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, said at a press conference on Thursday.

The increase in diagnosis in this subgroup is a “significant contributor to the increasing prevalence trend overall,” says Craig Newschaffer, director of the A.J. Drexel Autism Institute in Philadelphia, who was not involved in the study. Although changes in underlying risk cannot be ruled out, he says, the finding “suggests that parents, educators and clinicians are still becoming better equipped at recognizing [autism] in cognitively able children.”

Constant criteria:
The CDC began monitoring autism rates in 2000. Boyle notes that since then, the methods the CDC uses to estimate prevalence have stayed the same. “That’s been constant over time,” she says.

As in previous years, for example, the researchers relied on criteria outlined in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).

These criteria include separate diagnoses for classic autism (called ‘autistic disorder’), Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). The latter two are typically associated with average or above-average intelligence quotients.

The latest edition of the diagnostic manual, DSM-5, which debuted last Mayfolds these categories into a single diagnosis of autism. Newschaffer says that even the next CDC report, which will use data from 2012, will be based on the DSM-IV. Eventually, however, the DSM-5 criteria may affect autism prevalence, possibly excluding some individuals who would be diagnosed with PDD-NOS under DSM-IV guidelines.

In the meantime, the new estimates of prevalence may signal another kind of shift. “There’s greater awareness in the community around autism, more training of clinicians, more early childhood educators — that whole effort has increased awareness,” Boyle says.

Variations in awareness may also underlie the differences in numbers from state to state. One reason for this, experts say, is the wide variability in the resources available for diagnosing and serving children in different communities.

For example, New Jersey, which has the highest reported prevalence, is known for providing extensive services for people with autism, notes Rebecca Landa, director of the Center for Autism and Related Disorders at Kennedy Krieger Institute in Baltimore, who was not involved in the study. “There’s a lot of awareness among professionals in that state,” she says.

In contrast, in largely rural states such as Alabama, “we don’t know how much the media is penetrating into small communities; we don’t know what kinds of hardships families in some of these communities are having,” she says.

What’s more, intellectual disability is more common in black and Hispanic children with autism than in white children with the disorder, suggesting that children in these groups with milder symptoms may be going undiagnosed.

That’s a “troubling” possibility, says Newschaffer. “Children with autism and intellectual disability tend to be diagnosed at earlier ages, so this suggests that the gap in diagnosis across ethnic groups may be even wider.”

On Thursday, the CDC also rolled out a new initiative intended to help families identify early milestones made or missed and to get early support and intervention for children showing delays.

Early identification of autism is critical, says Boyle. “The earlier a child with autism is diagnosed and connected to services, the better,” she says. “Our message to parents is, if you have a concern about how your child learns, plays, speaks, acts or moves, take action. Don’t wait.”

FDA approves pill that could replace some allergy shots


http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2014/04/02/fda-allergy-pill/7200539/

From the desk of Zedie.

Optimization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Treatment During IncarcerationViral Suppression at the Prison GateOptimization of HIV Treatment During IncarcerationOptimization of HIV Treatment During Incarceration


Importance  Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) management in correctional settings is logistically feasible, but HIV-related outcomes before release have not been recently systematically examined.

Objective  To evaluate HIV treatment outcomes throughout incarceration, including jail and prison.

Design, Setting, and Participants  Retrospective cohort study of longitudinally linked demographic, pharmacy, and laboratory data on 882 prisoners within the Connecticut Department of Correction (2005-2012) with confirmed HIV infection, who were continually incarcerated 90 days or more, had at least 2 HIV-1 RNA and CD4 lymphocyte measurements, and were prescribed antiretroviral therapy.

Main Outcomes and Measures  Three electronic databases (correctional, laboratory, and pharmacy) were integrated to assess HIV viral suppression (HIV-1 RNA levels, <400 copies/mL) on intake and release. Secondary outcomes were mean change in log-transformed HIV-1 RNA levels and mean change in CD4 lymphocyte count during incarceration. Demographic characteristics, prescribed pharmacotherapies, receipt of directly observed therapy, and duration of incarceration were analyzed as possible explanatory variables for HIV viral suppression in logistic regression models.

Results  Among 882 HIV-infected prisoners with 1185 incarceration periods, mean HIV-1 RNA level decreased by 1.1 log10 and CD4 lymphocyte count increased by 98 cells/µL over time, with a higher proportion achieving viral suppression by release compared with entry (70.0% vs 29.8%; P < .001); 36.9% of antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens were changed during incarceration. After adjusting for baseline HIV-1 RNA level, prerelease viral suppression correlated with female sex (adjusted odds ratio, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.26-2.59) and psychiatric disorder severity below the sample median (adjusted odds ratio, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.12-1.99), but not race/ethnicity, incarceration duration, ART regimen or dosing strategy, or directly observed therapy.

Conclusions and Relevance  Though just one-third of HIV-infected prisoners receiving ART entered correctional facilities with viral suppression, HIV treatment was optimized during incarceration, resulting in the majority achieving viral suppression by release. Treatment for HIV within prison is facilitated by a highly structured environment and, when combined with simple well-tolerated ART regimens, can result in viral suppression during incarceration. In the absence of important and effective community-based resources, incarceration can be an opportunity of last resort to initiate continuous ART for individual health and, following the “treatment as prevention” paradigm, potentially reduce the likelihood of HIV transmission to others after release if continuity of HIV care is sustained.

FDA approves pill that could replace some allergy shots.


The first pill that could replace allergy shots for some people has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration.

Oralair, from the French company Stallergenes, only works against certain grass pollens and, like shots, takes several months to start working. So it won’t help people allergic to other things or reach grass-allergy sufferers in time to ward off early summer symptoms this year.

A03 pollen 12

But it does signal a shift in immunotherapy – the practice of exposing allergy sufferers to small amounts of the substances that trigger symptoms in order to decrease sensitivity and reduce symptoms when sufferers encounter the real thing.

Up to now, that has usually meant returning to allergists’ offices many times over months or years to get shots. Some allergists also offer custom-made drops that can be placed under the tongue, but those have never been approved by the FDA.

Immunotherapy in take-home pill form “is a significant advance and certainly one of the few brand new products we’ve had in quite a long time,” says James Li, chairman of the division of allergy and immunology at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., and president of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.

Patients will place the new grass pollen pills under their tongues – the first time in a doctor’s office, just in case of severe allergic reactions. After that, the pills will be taken once a day at home. The pills can cause some side effects: In studies, one third of patients developed itchy mouths and some reported throat irritation.

FDA says the pills reduced symptoms and the need for allergy medication by 16% to 30% in studies.

That’s somewhat lower than the effectiveness of shots in studies, but the two kinds of therapies have not been compared head to head, Li says.

One big drawback of the new pill is that it treats just one kind of allergy, says Stanley Fineman, an Atlanta allergist and past president of the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology.

“Most patients with allergies that we see here are allergic to grass pollens, tree pollens, ragweed and environmental allergens like dust mite and animal dander,” he says. A typical allergy shot contains all those extracts, he says.

But he says the tablets will give some patients a welcome new option. “We are going to have to get some hands-on experience before we say where it’s going.”

The Stallergenes pill works against five types of grass pollen common in the United States: Sweet Vernal, Orchard, Perennial Rye, Timothy and Kentucky Blue Grass.

It’s been approved for people ages 10 to 65. The company says the pills, which will be available in May, should be started four months before grass allergy season and continued through the season — a time period that differs by geographic region. It did not immediately release a price.

Additional immunotherapy pills are in the pipeline. FDA is expected to approve a second grass pollen pill, from Merck. That pill works against just one variety, Timothy grass. FDA also is reviewing a ragweed pill from Merck and the company has a dust mite pill in studies.

Not everyone with allergies needs immunotherapy. People with milder, easier-to-control symptoms can try limiting their exposure to the substances that bother them and many people can control runny noses, itchy eyes and sneezes with antihistamines and steroid nasal sprays, Li says.

SA flavoured condoms to fight HIV


South Africa’s government will distribute coloured and flavoured condoms among students to end “condom fatigue”, the health minister has said.

Aaron Motsoaledi’s comments came after a survey showed that condom usage had fallen in South Africa.

HIV/Aids in South Africa

  • 6.4 million HIV-positive, from population of 50 million
  • HIV infection rate up from 10.6% in 2008 to 12.2%
  • 2008: 85% of men and 66% of women used condoms
  • 2012: Down to 67% and 50%
  • 75% of those surveyed thought they had low risk of contracting HIV
  • 10% of them already infected
  • Colourful condoms in Malaysia's southern seaside town of Pontian (22 January 2013)

The decline in usage may be because “the standard-issued choice condoms just aren’t cool enough”, he added.

South Africa has some 6.4 million HIV-positive people – more than any other country.

The survey, by South Africa’s Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC), showed the rate of people with HIV had risen from 10.6% in 2008 to 12.2% in 2012.

This was because of the combined effects of “new infections and a successfully expanded antiretroviral treatment [ART] programme”, the report said.

Many of those infected with HIV are living longer because they are being given treatment which a previous government refused to make available in state clinics.

Some two million people are now on the ART programme, however charities have warned that local clinics are running short of the drugs, Reuters news agency reports.

The latest study shows that condom use had declined, especially in the 15 to 24 age group.

The 2008 survey showed that 85% of males used them and 66% of females, but this had dropped to 67% and 50% respectively in 2012.

“The increases in some risky sexual behaviours are disappointing, as this partly accounts for why there are so many new infections still occurring,” said Leickness Simbayi, an investigator on the study.

Some three-quarters of those surveyed said they had a low risk of contracting HIV, even though 10% were already infected.

In his response to the report, Mr Motsoaledi said: “We need to inject enthusiasm into the condom campaign, and we are about to start rolling out new types of free, coloured condoms which are also flavoured.”

The condoms will be distributed for free at South Africa’s universities and colleges, he added.

Ketamine ‘exciting’ depression therapy


The illegal party drug ketamine is an “exciting” and “dramatic” new treatment for depression, say doctors who have conducted the first trial in the UK.

Some patients who have faced incurable depression for decades have had symptoms disappear within hours of taking low doses of the drug.

Depressed woman

The small trial on 28 people, reported in the Journal of Psychopharmacology, shows the benefits can last months.

Experts said the findings opened up a whole new avenue of research.

Depression is common and affects one-in-10 people at some point in their lives.

Antidepressants, such as prozac, and behavioural therapies help some patients, but a significant proportion remain resistant to any form of treatment.

A team at Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust gave patients doses of ketamine over 40 minutes on up to six occasions.

Eight showed improvements in reported levels of depression, with four of them improving so much they were no longer classed as depressed.

Some responded within six hours of the first infusion of ketamine.

Lead researcher Dr Rupert McShane said: “It really is dramatic for some people, it’s the sort of thing really that makes it worth doing psychiatry, it’s a really wonderful thing to see.

He added: “[The patients] say ‘ah this is how I used to think’ and the relatives say ‘we’ve got x back’.”

Dr McShane said this included patients who had lived with depression for 20 years.

Stressed manThe testing of ketamine has indentified some serious side-effects

The duration of the effect is still a problem.

Some relapse within days, while others have found they benefit for around three months and have since had additional doses of ketamine.

There are also some serious side-effects including one case of the supply of blood to the brain being interrupted.

Doctors say people should not try to self-medicate because of the serious risk to health outside of a hospital setting.

“It is exciting, but it’s not about to be a routine treatment as where we need to be going is maintaining the response… it’s not about to replace prozac.”

However, it does offer a new avenue of research into a field that has struggled to find new treatments for depression.

‘Something chemical’

David Taylor, professor of psychopharmacology at King’s College London, told the BBC: “In these kinds of patients, spontaneous remission almost never happens, people going to these clinics are at the end of the road.

“It shows that depression is something chemical, that it can be reversed with chemicals, it dispenses for once and for all that you can just pull your socks up.

“What restricts it is the potential for disturbing psychological adverse effects and the route by which is given – intravenous – does restrict it to a small number of people.”

He said in the future drug companies would develop a chemical that had the benefits, but without the side-effects, and that could be taken by something such as an inhaler.

The Home Office is reclassifying ketamine in the UK to be a class B drug, although it is already used in medicine for the treatment of back pain and as an anaesthetic.

‘Love drug’ increases group lying


Members of a group are more likely to lie after they inhale the “love hormone” oxytocin, a study has found.

This hormone is known to be released during close bonding between groups, and mothers also release it during childbirth and breastfeeding.

Mother and baby

The results suggest that individuals in closely bonded groups are more likely to lie when it benefits the group than when it only benefits the individual.

The study is reported in PNAS journal.

When partaking in a financially rewarding task, groups given oxytocin nose spray lied significantly more than those doing the task alone. Those not given the hormone still occasionally lied, but a lot less.

Lead author Shaul Shalvi of Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel, said his team was interested in how far people would go for their loved ones.

Dr Shalvi explained: “Do people do all they can to serve the group they belong to, even when it includes bending ethical rules such as lying?

“Our assumption is that our results support the functional approach to morality, where you decide what’s right or wrong depending on the context of whether the act serves your loved ones, the group members.

“So participants inflated their outcomes in order to gain more money for their team.”

In the task, participants inhaled oxytocin spray or a dummy spray and completed a computerised coin-flip task.

They were asked to predict whether the coin would land on heads or tails and only received a financial reward if they reported it correctly.

When completing the task in a group, each “correct” prediction earned the group money. Doing the task alone participants received the comparative same reward.

Tug of war competitionPeople are more willing to lie when it benefits their group

Crucially they had free reign to lie as the experimenter conducting the task could not see the results.

Some companies are now marketing oxytocin spray as an off-the-shelf “love hormone” but Dr Shalvi said his results suggested people “may want to be careful about pursuing such a route”, as his results show that the hormone can also make people more dishonest.

But he added that the study once again highlights that lying is not necessarily always immoral.

“Our results indicate that people feel justified to bend ethical rules when their dishonesty serves people they care about,” Dr Shalvi told BBC News.

Indeed there are countless examples of “flexible” honesty, such as when parents lie about their address to get their children into a good school.

Another prominent example that irate England football fans may remember, Diego Maradona’s 1986 “hand of god” goal which helped Argentina secure a 2-1 victory against England.

Much to the dismay of his opposition, Maradonna later admitted that he knew it was a hand ball. He remains unrepentant.

Commenting on the research, Thomas Baumgartner from the University of Basel, Switzerland, said: “The study is interesting and well-conducted and provides further evidence about the complex role oxytocin might play in modulating social decision-making and behaviour.”