Higher Calcium Intake Associated with Lower Risk for Hyperparathyroidism.

Women consuming higher levels of calcium through diet or supplements show a decreased risk for primary hyperparathyroidism, according to a BMJ study. An editorialist says the results support encouraging women to take daily calcium supplements, in modest doses.

Researchers followed some 58,000 U.S. women — participants in the Nurses’ Health Study — over a 22-year period. At the outset, none had a history of primary hyperparathyroidism. Calcium intake was estimated by regular food-frequency questionnaires, and on that basis the women were placed into one of five intake levels.

During follow-up, 277 women developed primary hyperparathyroidisim. The adjusted relative risk was 0.56 among those with the highest versus lowest dietary calcium intake. In women taking more than 500 mg/day of calcium supplements, the risk was 0.41 relative to those not taking supplements, after adjustment for dietary intake.

The authors speculate that calcium intake may influence the production of parathyroid hormone and, thus, the development of parathyroid adenomas.

Source: BMJ


Aspirin for Prostate Cancer?

In an observational study of men with localized prostate cancer, aspirin use was associated with lower cancer-specific mortality.

Recently published data suggest that daily aspirin use can lower cancer incidence and mortality (JW Gen Med Apr 24 2012). In the present study, researchers examined whether aspirin improved outcomes in 6000 patients with localized prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy. The data came from the multicenter CaPSURE study, an observational investigation of men with prostate cancer, about a third of whom used aspirin.

During median follow-up of 6 years, 3.2% of participants died of prostate cancer. Unadjusted 10-year estimated prostate cancer–specific mortality was significantly lower among aspirin users than nonusers (2% vs. 8%). In multivariable analysis (with adjustment for clinical stage, Gleason score, and treatment modality), cancer-specific mortality remained significantly lower among aspirin users than among nonusers (hazard ratio, 0.43).

Comment: This report has numerous limitations, including a lack of information on duration of aspirin use, comorbidities, and overall mortality in aspirin users versus nonusers. Still, the results are sufficiently provocative and plausible that it seems reasonable to offer aspirin therapy to men with prostate cancer who have no strong contraindications.

Source: Journal Watch General Medicine

Smallest Roadworthy Car [World Record In 2009].

This is the world recorded car. Because it is SMALLEST ROADWORTHY CAR in 2009.It was created by Perry Watkins(UK) finished and measured in Wingrave(UK), on 8 May 2009.The car took 7monyhs to build.This car has all the usual feactures such as lights, indicators, brake lights, washers, wipers, etc.

Car specification-

Hight-104.14cm(41 in)

Width-66.04cm(26 in)

Length-132.08cm(52 in)

Feactures-lights, indicators, brake lights, washers, wipers, etc.

Source: http://www.mostbeautifulpages.com

Daredevil Austrian skydiver Felix Baumgartner jumps from edge of space.

ROSWELL, N.M.: An Austrian daredevil lept into the stratosphere on Sunday from a balloon flying 24 miles (38 km) above the planet in an attempt to break the sound barrier.

Cheers broke out as Felix Baumgartner, 43, jumped from a tiny shelf outside the 11-by-8-foot (3.3-by-2.4 metre) fiberglass and acrylic capsule that was carried to 128,000 feet by an enormous balloon.

“We love you Felix!” screamed the crowd as he plunged through the stratosphere.

“My visor is fogging up,” he gasped over the radio and he fell through the air moments before his parachute opened to the applause of the crowd on the ground, including his teary-eyed mother, father and girlfriend, watching on monitors miles below.

He landed about 10 minutes later, having broken the world record for the highest altitude jump by a skydiver, sponsors said.

As he prepared to jump from the pressurized capsule, Baumgartner went through a checklist of 40 items with project adviser Joe Kittinger, holder of a 19-mile high altitude parachute jump record that Baumgartner hopes to smash.

He checked through an equipment list from his seat and expressed concern that his astronaut-like helmet was not heating properly.

“This is very serious, Joe,” said Baumgartner as the capsule, designed to remain at 55 degrees Fahrenheit ascended in skies where temperatures were expected to plunge below -91.8 F (-67.8 C), according to the project’s website. “Sometimes it’s getting foggy when I exhale. … I do not feel heat.”

Baumgartner’s ascent into the stratosphere took about 2 1/2 hours.

The 30 million-cubic-foot (850,000-cubic-metre) plastic balloon, is about one-tenth the thickness of a Ziploc bag, or roughly as thin as a dry cleaner bag.

Source: NYT


Protein linked to male infertility .

In a study published in the journal PLoS Genetics, researchers from Monash University, the University of Newcastle, John Curtin School of Medical Research and Garvan Institute of Medical Research, in Australia; and the University of Cambridge, in the UK, have shown how a protein called RABL2 affects the length of sperm tails, crippling their motility (or swimming ability), and decreases sperm production.

Professor Moira O’Bryan from Monash University’s School of Biomedical Sciences (SOBS) led the research. In laboratory tests, the team found that a mutation in RABL2 resulted in sperm tails that were 17 per cent shorter than normal. Dysfunctioning RABL2 also negatively affected sperm production, resulting in a 50 per cent decrease.

Professor O’Bryan said the research fitted another piece in the jigsaw puzzle of sperm development.

“The mutations in the RABL2 gene are very likely to cause infertility,” Professor O’Bryan said.

“Further, as motility is absolutely essential for fertility, insights into tail function may reveal options for urgently needed male-based contraception.”

Lead author and PhD student Jennifer Lo, also from the School of Biomedical Sciences, said RABL2 worked with other molecules known as intraflagellar transport proteins that carry genetic cargo along the sperm tail.

“Intraflagellar transport proteins are like a train. Our data suggests that the reloading of the train is defective if RABL2 dysfunctions,” Ms Lo said.

“The train is still running in sperm tails with dysfunctional RABL2, but it contains fewer passengers. The end result is that sperm formation and motility are abnormal.”

Ms Lo said that as mutations in RABL2 decrease sperm count and sperm swimming ability, it may be possible to inhibit this protein in a future male pill.

However, as RABL2 is also found, albeit in lower concentrations, in other tissues, such as the brain, kidney and liver, an inhibitor specific to the testes would need to be developed.

Professor O’Bryan said that male infertility was often the canary in the coal mine of general health.

“Many of the basic processes of sperm development occur at lower levels in other organs of the body. As such, the presentation of a man for infertility treatment offers the opportunity not only to give him the children he desires but also to mitigate future disease,” Professor O’Bryan said.

Source: http://www.sciencealert.com.au



Activating the immune system.

An Australian research team has discovered how specialised immune cells recognise products of vitamin B synthesis that are unique to bacteria and yeast, triggering the body to fight infection.

The finding opens up potential targets to improve treatments or to develop a vaccine for tuberculosis.

The study, jointly led by the University of Melbourne and Monash University and published in the journal Nature, has revealed for the first time that the highly abundant mucosal associated invariant T cells (MAIT cells), recognise products of vitamin B synthesis from bacteria and yeast in an early step to activating the immune system.

The research revealed how by-products of bacterial vitamin synthesis, including some derived from folic acid or vitamin B9 and riboflavin or vitamin B2, could be captured by the immune receptor MR1 thus fine-tuning the activity of MAIT cells.

Dr Lars Kjer-Nielsen from the University of Melbourne led the five year study.

“Humans are unable to make vitamin B and obtain it mostly from diet. Because bacteria can synthesise vitamin B, our immune system uses this as a point of difference to recognise infection,” he said.

“Given the relative abundance of the MAIT cells lining mucosal and other surfaces, such as the intestine, the mouth, lungs, it is quite probable that they play a protective role in many infections from thrush to tuberculosis.

“This is a significant discovery that unravels the long sought target of MAIT cells and their role in immunity to infection.”

Professor James McCluskey of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the University of Melbourne said the discovery opened up opportunities for vaccine development and other potential therapeutics.

“This is a major breakthrough in which Australian researchers have beaten many strong research teams around the world, becoming the first to unlock the mystery of what drives a key component of our immune system,” he said.

Monash University’s Professor Jamie Rossjohn said the findings had major implications for understanding the interplay between gut bacteria and the immune system.”Some vitamin by-products appear to drive immunity while others dampen it,” Professor Rossjohn said.

The next step is to explore whether MAIT cells might also be involved in intestinal or mucosal disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome.“This discovery now cracks open a new field in immunology and we can expect many research groups to focus their attention on this system,” Professor Rossjohn said.

“The discovery also involved collaborators at Melbourne’s Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, Metabolomics Australia and the University of Queensland, reflecting the importance of collaboration between researchers to be globally competitive,” Professor McCluskey said.

Source: http://sciencealert.com.au


Dietary fibers and it’s preventive role in Colo Rectal carcinoma.

Fibre not only works as a ‘bowel scourer’, but may also help to protect the colon from cancer by transporting antioxidants to the large bowel, new Queensland research has found.

The world-first study discovered that fibre binds up to 80% of cancer-inhibiting antioxidant polyphenols in fruit and vegetables, thereby protecting the antioxidants from early digestion in the stomach and small intestine.

Dr Anneline Padayachee, who undertook the study through The University of Queensland (UQ) and CSIRO, found that fibre acts as an antioxidant trafficker by safely transporting antioxidant nutrients to the colon where they can provide protection against cancers such as colon cancer.

“Cells in fruits and vegetables are ‘opened’ allowing nutrients to be released when they are juiced, pureed or chewed,” Dr Padayachee said.

“In an unexpected twist, I found that after being released from the cell 80% of available antioxidant polyphenols bind to plant fibre with minimal release during the stomach and small intestinal phases of digestion.

“Fibre is able to safely and effectively transport polyphenols to the colon where these compounds may have a protective effect on colon health as they are released during plant fibre fermentation by gut bacteria.”

This finding also has implications for fresh juice lovers who are throwing out antioxidants along with the fibre-rich pulp they discard.

“In juicing, the fibrous pulp is usually discarded, which means you miss out on the health benefits of these antioxidants as well as the fibre,” Dr Padayachee said.

“As long as you consume everything – the raw or cooked whole vegetable or fruit, drink mainly cloudy juices and eat the fibrous pulp – you will not only have a clean gut, but also a healthy gut full of protective polyphenols.”

Dr Padayachee used black carrots, which are rich in two antioxidant polyphenols – anthocyanins and phenolic acids – as a model system in her research to assess why plant-based diets generally result in better gut health.

Black carrots are the original carrot from which the now more common orange carrot was bred. Still cultivated in southern Europe and Asia, black carrots are having a bit of a resurgence as a source of natural food colouring and also as a fresh vegetable in grocery stores, where they are often mislabelled as purple carrots.

Black carrots are one of the highest sources of anthocyanins – the antioxidant polyphenol that creates the purple-red pigment in blueberries and raspberries – and have been found to display potent antioxidant behaviour.

Dr Padayachee completed her PhD through UQ’s School of Agriculture and Foods Sciences and undertook her research at the ARC Centre of Excellence in Plant Cell Walls and the Centre for Nutrition and Food Sciences at UQ’s Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Science and CSIRO Food and Nutritional Sciences.

Further research to assess the mechanisms involved with fibre binding polyphenol antioxidants is currently being conducted at the Centre for Nutrition and Food Sciences.

Source: Cancer.net




The animal appearingin this photograph is a world’s longest domestic cat.His name is Stewie, a five-year-old feline from Nevada, US.He is 48.5in when fully stretched out.Stewie is of the Maine Coon variety – known as ‘the gentle giants’ of the cat world.

Source: http://www.mostbeautifulpages.com