The food industry is waging war on your cells with these 10 toxic ingredients.


Preservatives and synthetic food agents found in foods inhibit oxygen and delay the development of fungus and mold, creating a longer shelf-life for products. But after being consumed, these toxins deprive human cells of oxygenand rob them of nutrients, thus leading to cell mutation and the perfect breeding ground for cancer.

Just like humans, cells need oxygen to survive and thrive. “Fungus fighting” preservatives and man-made food agents choke out your body’s nutrients at the DNA level by deprivingmitochondrial cellsof oxygen, sometimes completely shutting them down. And if the body does not have enough essential nutrients, it becomes more susceptible to disease.
Longer shelf life, shorter human life

If you’re not a label-reader already, you better become one soon. You don’t have to be a chemist or a linguist either, just be able tosight read and spot the poisonsso you can live cancer-free. Most food toxins are followed by a phrase, often in parenthesis, to make them sound “safe” andin your best interest, like “as a preservative,” or “for added freshness,” or “to preserve flavor.” These catchy little phrases really meanfor the added choking of your cells to aid with cancer development.
The top 10 cell stranglers revealed

The United States has several major regulatory agencies and “cancer prevention” organizations which have not only been suppressing natural cancer cures for 70 years, but have been approving, supporting, endorsing and profiting from cancer-causing agents in food, beverages and cosmetics since World War II.

1.Sodium Benzoate: This stealthy killer flies under most people’s radar, and isfound in just about everything in jars and bottles, like salad dressing, pickles, sauces, mayonnaise, almost all soda and juice drinks, and even in foods labeled as “all natural.”

2.Canola Oil: This artificial, Canadian-exported GMO is super popular and is found in over 30% of all products. It chokes out your mitochondrial cells. Canola oil is really rapeseed oil and can cause emphysema and respiratory distress, eventually leading to cancer.

3.Monosodium Glutamate(MSG): The FDA allows 20 “pseudo” names for it including autolyzed yeast extract, free glutamate, glutamic acid, soy lecithin, calcium caseinate, hydrolyzed corn, hydrolyzed soy protein, and maltodextrin to name a few. Just because a product says “No MSG” doesn’t mean it’s not in there!

4.Sodium Nitrates(nitrosamines): Used for fertilizers and explosives, and as a solvent in the dry cleaning industry. This ingredient keeps hemoglobin molecules in your blood from carrying oxygen to your body tissues. It’s considered a “super salt” (like MSG) added to things like hot dogs, cold cuts and bacon for added shelf-life, color and flavor. Problems compound when microwaved.

5.Margarine: The body cannot incorporate trans-fatty acids into membranes, thus causing deformed cellular structures. Vegetable shortening and partially hydrogenated vegetable oils accelerate aging and degenerative changes in tissues.

6.Anti-foaming agents: (Dimethylpolysiloxane) An industrial chemical used in caulks and sealants. This component is mostly used in fast food chicken nuggets and eggs. Also watch for TBHQ, a petroleum derivative, used as a stabilizer in perfumes, resins, varnishes and oil field chemicals, and linked to stomach tumors and DNA damage.

7.Anti-caking agents: Chemicals that absorb moisture and prevent other compounds from sticking together. These are added to table salt and powdered food products. They are often composed of phosphate, carbonate, silicate and oxide compounds which contain aluminum. Watch for sodium alumino-silicate, alumino-calcium silicate and aluminium silicate. Aluminum is linked to Alzheimer’s and is also used in flu shots and vaccines.

8.Artificial colorings: Synthetic petrochemicals made from petroleum, antifreeze and ammonia. Blue #1 causes kidney tumors in mice. Red #2 and Blue #2 cause brain and bladder tumors in rats. Red #3 causes thyroid cancer in animals, and is banned in cosmetics, but still allowed in food. Red #40 debilitates the immune-system. Green #3 causes bladder and testes tumors. Yellow #5 and #6 cause adrenal tumors in animals.

9.Emulsifiers: Carrageenan, polysorbate 80 and brominated vegetable oil (BVO). These are stabilizing, smoothing and thickening agents. They are typically found in chocolate milk, cottage cheese, ice cream, infant formula and jelly. BVO remains in body fat for years. Polysorbate 80 is also found in most vaccines.

10.Artificial Sweeteners: Aspartame, Acesulfame K, Sucralose, Sorbitol, Truvia, and of course, Saccharin. Because they taste sweet, these chemical sweeteners trick the body into ingesting them and holding on to them for extended periods of time, turning rancid in the body fat. Fake sugars are the “Trojan horses” of the cell-choking and mutating, food agent industry. Sorbitol is also found in many vaccines.
America has been breeding and treating cancer with chemicals for 70 years

How does a politician running for office or for a position with a United States Government regulatory agency guarantee winning that election or appointment? He or she simply supports theinsidious toxic foodand medicine industry by meeting with lobbyists, promising the approval of chemical food agents that strangulate human DNA cells, andfurthering legislationwhich supports cancer treatments to do more of the same.

Besides the wars in the Middle East, there’s aDomestic Wargoing on right now in our country, so pay very close attention to everything you eat, and every “medicine” your doctor recommends. Also, do some research of your own if you want toprotect your cells and keep them oxygenated, preventing cancer and other disease.
Source: Nature.

The food industry is waging war on your cells with these 10 toxic ingredients.


Preservatives and synthetic food agents found in foods inhibit oxygen and delay the development of fungus and mold, creating a longer shelf-life for products. But after being consumed, these toxins deprive human cells of oxygenand rob them of nutrients, thus leading to cell mutation and the perfect breeding ground for cancer.

Just like humans, cells need oxygen to survive and thrive. “Fungus fighting” preservatives and man-made food agents choke out your body’s nutrients at the DNA level by deprivingmitochondrial cellsof oxygen, sometimes completely shutting them down. And if the body does not have enough essential nutrients, it becomes more susceptible to disease.
Longer shelf life, shorter human life

If you’re not a label-reader already, you better become one soon. You don’t have to be a chemist or a linguist either, just be able tosight read and spot the poisonsso you can live cancer-free. Most food toxins are followed by a phrase, often in parenthesis, to make them sound “safe” andin your best interest, like “as a preservative,” or “for added freshness,” or “to preserve flavor.” These catchy little phrases really meanfor the added choking of your cells to aid with cancer development.
The top 10 cell stranglers revealed

The United States has several major regulatory agencies and “cancer prevention” organizations which have not only been suppressing natural cancer cures for 70 years, but have been approving, supporting, endorsing and profiting from cancer-causing agents in food, beverages and cosmetics since World War II.

1.Sodium Benzoate: This stealthy killer flies under most people’s radar, and isfound in just about everything in jars and bottles, like salad dressing, pickles, sauces, mayonnaise, almost all soda and juice drinks, and even in foods labeled as “all natural.”

2.Canola Oil: This artificial, Canadian-exported GMO is super popular and is found in over 30% of all products. It chokes out your mitochondrial cells. Canola oil is really rapeseed oil and can cause emphysema and respiratory distress, eventually leading to cancer.

3.Monosodium Glutamate(MSG): The FDA allows 20 “pseudo” names for it including autolyzed yeast extract, free glutamate, glutamic acid, soy lecithin, calcium caseinate, hydrolyzed corn, hydrolyzed soy protein, and maltodextrin to name a few. Just because a product says “No MSG” doesn’t mean it’s not in there!

4.Sodium Nitrates(nitrosamines): Used for fertilizers and explosives, and as a solvent in the dry cleaning industry. This ingredient keeps hemoglobin molecules in your blood from carrying oxygen to your body tissues. It’s considered a “super salt” (like MSG) added to things like hot dogs, cold cuts and bacon for added shelf-life, color and flavor. Problems compound when microwaved.

5.Margarine: The body cannot incorporate trans-fatty acids into membranes, thus causing deformed cellular structures. Vegetable shortening and partially hydrogenated vegetable oils accelerate aging and degenerative changes in tissues.

6.Anti-foaming agents: (Dimethylpolysiloxane) An industrial chemical used in caulks and sealants. This component is mostly used in fast food chicken nuggets and eggs. Also watch for TBHQ, a petroleum derivative, used as a stabilizer in perfumes, resins, varnishes and oil field chemicals, and linked to stomach tumors and DNA damage.

7.Anti-caking agents: Chemicals that absorb moisture and prevent other compounds from sticking together. These are added to table salt and powdered food products. They are often composed of phosphate, carbonate, silicate and oxide compounds which contain aluminum. Watch for sodium alumino-silicate, alumino-calcium silicate and aluminium silicate. Aluminum is linked to Alzheimer’s and is also used in flu shots and vaccines.

8.Artificial colorings: Synthetic petrochemicals made from petroleum, antifreeze and ammonia. Blue #1 causes kidney tumors in mice. Red #2 and Blue #2 cause brain and bladder tumors in rats. Red #3 causes thyroid cancer in animals, and is banned in cosmetics, but still allowed in food. Red #40 debilitates the immune-system. Green #3 causes bladder and testes tumors. Yellow #5 and #6 cause adrenal tumors in animals.

9.Emulsifiers: Carrageenan, polysorbate 80 and brominated vegetable oil (BVO). These are stabilizing, smoothing and thickening agents. They are typically found in chocolate milk, cottage cheese, ice cream, infant formula and jelly. BVO remains in body fat for years. Polysorbate 80 is also found in most vaccines.

10.Artificial Sweeteners: Aspartame, Acesulfame K, Sucralose, Sorbitol, Truvia, and of course, Saccharin. Because they taste sweet, these chemical sweeteners trick the body into ingesting them and holding on to them for extended periods of time, turning rancid in the body fat. Fake sugars are the “Trojan horses” of the cell-choking and mutating, food agent industry. Sorbitol is also found in many vaccines.
America has been breeding and treating cancer with chemicals for 70 years

How does a politician running for office or for a position with a United States Government regulatory agency guarantee winning that election or appointment? He or she simply supports theinsidious toxic foodand medicine industry by meeting with lobbyists, promising the approval of chemical food agents that strangulate human DNA cells, andfurthering legislationwhich supports cancer treatments to do more of the same.

Besides the wars in the Middle East, there’s aDomestic Wargoing on right now in our country, so pay very close attention to everything you eat, and every “medicine” your doctor recommends. Also, do some research of your own if you want toprotect your cells and keep them oxygenated, preventing cancer and other disease.
Source: Nature.

Light bulb with 20-year life unveiled in US on Earth Day.


A prize-winning, super energy saving LED bulb from Dutch electronics giant Philips, said to last over 20 years, went on sale online and in stores Sunday to coincide with Earth Day.

The bulb that won the 2011 US Department of Energy’s “Bright Tomorrow Lighting Prize,” was available from retailers for $50, and the company said it was planning discounts to bring the cost down to as little as $25-$30.

The 10-watt light bulb was deemed an efficient alternative to the standard 60-wattincandescent bulb, and when used three hours a day, boasted an impressive 27.4 years maximum life span, the company said.

For consumers attentive to cost, Philips said the price tag was easily offset by energy savings of $165 over its lifetime.

“Because the new bulb is 83 percent more energy efficient than the standard 60-watt incandescent, consumers can now experience new savings for their pocketbooks,” Philips’ North America executive Ed Crawford said in announcing rebates.

International Earth Day, now in its 42nd year, was celebrated by environmentalists Sunday seeking to bring attention to climate change and pollution, and highlight ways to save energy.

President Barack Obama issued a US proclamation for the day to “reflect on the challenges that remain,” and confront the “most urgent environmental issues and rallied around a single message: the success of future generations depends upon how we act today.”

Source:  Phillips.

 

Arctic Ocean could be source of greenhouse gas.


The Arctic Ocean could be a significant contributor of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas, scientists reported on Sunday.

Researchers carried out five flights in 2009 and 2010 to measure atmospheric methane in latitudes as high as 82 degrees north.

They found concentrations of the gas close to the ocean surface, especially in areas where sea ice had cracked or broken up.

The study, published in the journal Nature Geoscience, wonders if this is a disturbing new mechanism that could accelerate global warming.

“We suggest that the surface waters of the Arctic Ocean represent a potentially important source of methane, which could prove sensitive to changes in sea-ice cover,” it says.

If so, the Arctic Ocean would add to several identified “positive feedbacks” in Earth’s climate system which ramp up the greenhouse effect.

One such vicious circle is the release of methane from Siberian and North American permafrost.

The thawing soil releases methane that has been locked up for millions of years, which adds to global warming — which in turns frees more methane, and so on.

But this is the first evidence that points to a methane contribution from the ocean, not the land, in Arctic latitudes.

Levels of methane in the atmosphere are relatively low, but the gas is 20 times more effective that carbon dioxide (CO2) at trapping solar heat.

Scientists have been struggling to understand the movements of the methane curve.

There was a rapid increase in levels due to post-World War II industrialisation, followed by a period of relative stability in the 1990s and more recently, by another rise.

The new paper, led by Eric Kort at the California Institute of Technology Caltech), says measurements of methane over some parts of the ocean were comparable to coastal eastern Siberia where there has been permafrost thaw.

Noting that around 10 million square kilometres (3.86 million square miles) of the Arctic Ocean are subject to summer melting of sea ice, “the emissions rate we encountered could present a source of global consequence,” it says.

The source of the sea methane is unclear, it stresses.

The gas is unlikely to have been belched from sediment in the continental shelf as it was found at locations over the deep ocean. One idea is that it comes from microbes at the ocean surface.

Source: AFP

 

 

Chemists explain the molecular workings of promising fuel cell electrolyte.


 Researchers from New York University and the Max Planck Institute in Stuttgart reveal how protons move in phosphoric acid in a Nature Chemistrystudy that sheds new light on the workings of a promising fuel cell electrolyte.

 

Phosphoric acid fuel cells were the first modern fuel cell types to be used commercially and have found application as both stationary and automotive power sources. Their high efficiency as combined power and heat generators make them attractive targets for further development. In the cell, phosphoric acid functions as the medium (or “electrolyte”) that transports protons produced in the reaction that decomposes the fuel across the cell. Indeed, phosphoric acid has the highest proton conductivity of any known substance, but what makes it work so well as a proton conductor has remained a mystery.

Efficient proton transport across a fuel cell is just one of several technical challenges that must be tackled before this technology can be applied on a massive scale. The key to this problem is the identification of a suitable electrolyte material. Hydrated polymers are often employed, but these must operate at temperatures below the boiling point of water, which limits their utility. Phosphoric acid fuel cells and other phosphate-based cells, by contrast, can be operated at substantially higher temperatures.

 

Chemists have sought a molecular level understanding of proton conduction phenomena for more than 200 years. The earliest studies concerned water and can be traced back to a landmark paper in 1806 by the German chemist Theodor von Grotthuss. In this paper, Grotthuss suggested that excess protons in aqueous acids are not themselves transported, but rather it is the chemical bonding pattern they create that is transported via a series of short hops of protons between neighboringwater molecules. Such hops occur through the hydrogen bonds that connect water molecules into a network.

One can liken this process to an old-time fire brigade in which each fireman in a long line holds a bucket of water in his left hand. A fireman at the end of the line receives a new water bucket in his right hand, so in order to make the transport of water down the line as efficient as possible, he passes the bucket in his left hand to the right hand of his neighbor. The neighbor, who now holds buckets in his left and right hands, passes the bucket in his left hand to the right hand of the next fireman in the line, and the process continues like this until the person at the opposite end of the line holds two buckets. Overall, water is transported down the line, but it is not the same bucket being passed in each transfer.

 

Of course, the transport of excess protons in water is not this simple—it involves complex rearrangements of the hydrogen bonds at each transfer step to accommodate the diffusing chemical bonding pattern. Because of this, proton transport in water appears to be a step-wise process. Water faces other limitations—it cannot function as an intrinsic proton conductor but must have protons added to it to create aqueous acid solutions before any noticeable proton transport occurs.

The Nature Chemistry study contrasted proton conduction in phosphoric acid with excess protons in aqueous solutions. In their work, the researchers carried out a type of “computerized experiment” or “simulation” in which no prior knowledge of the chemical processes is required. The only input is the atomic composition of phosphoric acid (hydrogen, oxygen, and phosphorus). Based on this input, the atoms’ motion in time is determined from the fundamental laws of physics. In this way, the proton conduction mechanism can be allowed to unfold and be discovered directly from the simulation output.

Their results showed that proton motion in phosphoric acid is a highly cooperative process that can involve as many as five phosphoric acid molecules at a time serving as a kind of temporary “proton wire” or chain. The basic findings are:

  • In contrast to the step-wise mechanism that operates in water, phosphoric acid transfers protons in a more “streamlined” fashion, in which protons move in a concerted manner along one of these temporary wires.
  • Eventually, it becomes energetically unfavourable for this wire to sustain this proton motion. Hence, the system then seeks to resolve this unfavourable condition by breaking one of the hydrogen bonds in this temporary wire and forming a new wire arrangement with other nearby phosphoric acid molecules. New wire arrangements persist until they can no longer sustain the proton motion in them, at which point they break and new wires are formed. This process of forming and breaking the short wires allows for a steady proton current and overall high proton conductivity.

Although phosphoric acid has its advantages in fuel cell applications, phosphoric acid fuel cells still are not as powerful as other types of cells and, as pure power sources, are not as efficient. However, an understanding of the basic proton transport mechanism can help improve the design of such cells or suggest other phosphate based materials that could serve as the proton carrier.

Source: New York University

 

IBM research boosts long-range, air-powered electric battery project.


IBM announced that two industry leaders — Asahi Kasei and Central Glass — will join its Battery 500 Project team and collaborate on far-reaching research with the potential to accelerate the switch from gasoline to electricity as the primary power source for vehicles.

 

In 2009, IBM Research pioneered a sustainable mobility project to develop lithium-airbattery technology capable of powering a family-sized electric car for approximately 500 miles (800 km) on a single charge.

As partners in the Battery 500 Project, Asahi Kasei and Central Glass bring decades of materials innovation for the automotive industry to the team. They will expand the project’s scope and, although the scientific and engineering challenges to its practical implementation are extremely high, exploring several chemistries simultaneously increases the chance of success.

· Asahi Kasei, one of Japan’s leading chemical manufactures and a leading global supplier of separator membrane for lithium-ion batteries, will use its experience in innovative membrane technology to create a critical component for lithium-air batteries.

· Central Glass, a leading global electrolyte manufacturer for lithium-ion batteries, will use its chemical expertise in this field to create a new class of electrolytes and high-performance additives specifically designed to improve lithium-air batteries.

“These new partners share our vision of electric cars being critical components of building a cleaner, better world, which is far less dependent on oil,” said Dr. Winfried Wilcke, IBM’s Principle Investigator who initiated the Battery 500 Project. “Their compatible experience, knowledge and commitment to bold innovation in electric vehicle battery technology can help us transfer this research from the lab onto the road.”

 

Most electric vehicles can only travel about 100 miles before needing to recharge using today’s lithium-ion batteries. This is a significant barrier to electric car adoption unless a new battery technology can be developed that is affordable, lightweight, compact and has the capacity to power a typical family car several hundred miles or more on a single charge.

For a car running on today’s lithium-ion batteries to match the range provided by a tank of gasoline, car manufacturers would need a very large battery which would weigh down the car and take up too much space. Lithium-air batteries have higher energy density than lithium-ion batteries, due to their lighter cathodes and the fact that their primary “fuel” is the oxygen readily available in the atmosphere. To popularize electric cars, an energy density ten times greater than that of conventional lithium-ion batteries is needed, and these new partners to the project can help drive lithium-air technology towards that goal.

New materials development is vitally important to ensuring the viability of lithium-airbattery technology,” said Tatsuya Mori, Director, Executive Managing Officer, Central Glass. “As a long-standing partner of IBM and leader in developing high-performance electrolytes for batteries, we’re excited to share each other’s chemical and scientific expertise in a field as exciting as electric vehicles.”

 

“We are very focused on addressing environmental challenges and limitations with diverse technology to build a brighter future. This alliance allows us to explore a new path to developing an improved rechargeable battery performance that can not be met with conventional technologies,” said Tetsuro Ohta, Head of Advanced Battery Materials Development Center, Asahi Kasei.

This research will take place at IBM Research – Almaden in California.

Source:  IBM

 

 

 

 

 

 

Use of Ecstasy, Speed Linked to Increased Depression Risk in Teens .


Teens who use methamphetamine (“speed”) or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (“ecstasy”) face increased risk for depression, according to a prospective study in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health.

Nearly 4000 Canadian adolescents were asked about their use of speed or ecstasy in the 10th grade; slightly more than half were then were assessed for depression a year later. Overall, 12% reported using speed, and 8% ecstasy.

After adjustment for alcohol use, preexisting depressive symptoms, and other confounders, speed and ecstasy use in grade 10 were each independently associated with increased depression risk in grade 11 (odds ratios compared with nonuse, 1.6 and 1.7, respectively). Teens who used both substances faced even greater risk.

Source:Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health.

FDA: Precaution Needed to Prevent Pediatric Exposure to Fentanyl Patches.


The FDA is reminding clinicians and patients about precautions they need to take to prevent children from being exposed to fentanyl patches.

This follows 26 cases of unintentional pediatric exposure to fentanyl patches over 15 years. Ten children died and 12 were hospitalized. Over half of exposures occurred in children aged 2 years and younger.

Children can be exposed to fentanyl when a patch is improperly disposed of or when they are held by someone wearing a partially detached patch. For proper disposal, the FDA says, patches should be folded in half, sticky side in, and flushed down the toilet.

Source: FDA

NASA wants your help in finding asteroids.


 

If you are an amateur astronomer who likes a challenge, NASA has a new project and is looking for a little help from their amateur astronomers friends. Called called “Target Asteroids!” the project is part of the upcoming OSIRIS-REx mission to improve basic scientific understanding of Near Earth Objects. NASA is hoping amateur astronomers can help in the mission by discovering new asteroids and studying their characteristics to help better characterize the population of NEOs. NASA says amateur contributions will affect current and future space missions to asteroids.

Amateur astronomers can help determine the position, motion, rotation and changes in the intensity of light asteroids emit. Professional astronomers will use this information to refine theoretical models of asteroids, improving their understanding about asteroids similar to the one OSIRIS-Rex will encounter.

OSIRIS-REx (Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security – Regolith Explorer) is scheduled to launch 2016 and will be a sample return missionfrom an asteroid, 1999 RQ36. When it meets up with the asteroid in 2019, it will map the asteroid’s global properties, measure non-gravitational forces and provide observations that can be compared with data obtained by telescope observations from Earth. In 2023, OSIRIS-REx will return back to Earth at least 2.11 ounces (60 grams) of surface material from the asteroid.

Target Asteroids! data will be useful for comparisons with actual mission data. The project team plans to expand participants in 2014 to students and teachers.

“Although few amateur astronomers have the capability to observe 1999 RQ36 itself, they do have the capability to observe other targets,” said Jason Dworkin, OSIRIS-REx project scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md.

Previous observations indicate 1999 RQ36 is made of primitive materials. OSIRIS-REx will supply a wealth of information about the asteroid’s composition and structure. Data also will provide new insights into the nature of the early solar system and its evolution, orbits of NEOs and their impact risks, and the building blocks that led to life on Earth.

Amateur astronomers long have provided NEO tracking observations in support ofNASA’s NEO Observation Program. A better understanding of NEOs is a critically important precursor in the selection and targeting of future asteroid missions.

“For well over 10 years, amateurs have been important contributors in the refinement of orbits for newly discovered near-Earth objects,” said Edward Beshore, deputy principal investigator for the OSIRIS-REx mission at the University of Arizona in Tucson.

Source: Universe Today

Bits of the Future: First Universal Quantum Network Prototype Links 2 Separate Labs.


Physicists demonstrate a scalable quantum network that ought to be adaptable for all manner of long-distance quantum communication.

Quantum technologies are the way of the future, but will that future ever arrive?

Maybe so. Physicists have cleared a bit more of the path to a plausible quantum future by constructing an elementary network for exchanging and storing quantum information. The network features two all-purpose nodes that can send, receive and store quantum information, linked by a fiber-optic cable that carries it from one node to another on a single photon.

The network is only a prototype, but if it can be refined and scaled up, it could form the basis of communication channels for relaying quantum information. A group from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (M.P.Q.) in Garching, Germany, described the advance in the April 12 issue of Nature. (Scientific American is part of Nature Publishing Group.)

Quantum bits, or qubits, are at the heart of quantum information technologies. An ordinary, classical bit in everyday electronics can store one of two values: a 0 or a 1. But thanks to the indeterminacy inherent to quantum mechanics, a qubit can be in a so-called superposition, hovering undecided between 0 and 1, which adds a layer of complexity to the information it carries. Quantum computers would boast capabilities beyond the reach of even the most powerful classical supercomputers, and cryptography protocols based on the exchange of qubits would be more secure than traditional encryption methods.

Physicists have used all manner of quantum objects to store qubits—electrons, atomic nuclei, photons and so on. In the new demonstration, the qubit at each node of the network is stored in the internal quantum state of a single rubidium atom trapped in a reflective optical cavity. The atom can then transmit its stored information via an optical fiber by emitting a single photon, whose polarization state carries the mark of its parent atom’s quantum state; conversely, the atom can absorb a photon from the fiber and take on the quantum state imprinted on that photon’s polarization.

Because each node can perform a variety of functions—sending, receiving or storing quantum information—a network based on atoms in optical cavities could be scaled up simply by connecting more all-purpose nodes. “We try to build a system where the network node is universal,” says M.P.Q. physicist Stephan Ritter, one of the study’s authors. “It’s not only capable of sending or receiving—ideally, it would do all of the things you could imagine.” The individual pieces of such a system had been demonstrated—atoms sending quantum information on single emitted photons, say—but now the technologies are sufficiently advanced that they can work as an ensemble. “This has now all come together and enabled us to realize this elementary version of a quantum network,” Ritter says.

Physicists proposed using optical cavities for quantum networks 15 years ago, because they marry the best features of atomic qubits and photonic qubits—namely that atoms stay put, making them an ideal storage medium, whereas photons are speedy, making them an ideal message carrier between stationary nodes. But getting the photons and atoms to communicate with one another has been a challenge. “If you want to use single atoms and single photons, as we do, they hardly interact,” Ritter adds.

That is where the optical cavity comes in. The mirrors of the cavity reflect a photon past the rubidium atom tens of thousands of times, boosting the chances of an interaction. “During this time, there’s enough time to really do this information exchange in a reliable way,” Ritter says. “The cavity enhances the coupling between the light field and the atom.”

The M.P.Q. group put their prototype network through a series of tests—transferring a qubit from a single photon to a single atom and reversing the process to transfer information from an atom onto a photon. Combining those read/write operations, the physicists managed to transmit a qubit from one rubidium atom to another located in a separate laboratory 21 meters away, using a messenger photon as the carrier between nodes. (The actual length of optical fiber connecting the two nodes is 60 meters, because it snakes along an indirect route.)

A significant number of the photons get lost along the way, limiting the efficiency of the process. But in principle, optical fibers could connect nodes at greater distances. “We’re absolutely not limited to these 21 meters,” Ritter says. “This 21 meters is just the distance that we happened to have between the two labs.”

The researchers also demonstrated that their photonic link can be used to entangle the two distant atoms. Quantum entanglement is a phenomenon by which two particles share correlated properties—in other words, the quantum state of one particle depends on the state of its entangled partner. Manipulating one of the particles, then, affects the other particle’s state, even if it is located in another laboratory. Researchers hope that entanglement can be harnessed to circumvent the photon losses that come from passage through optical fibers. In a proposed application called a quantum repeater, a series of nodes, linked by entanglement, would extend the quantum connection down the line without depending on any one photon as the carrier.

Ritter acknowledges that the new work is simply a prototype, and one for which numerous improvements are possible. For instance, the transfer of a quantum state between labs succeeded only 0.2 percent of the time, owing to various inefficiencies and technical limitations. “Everything is at the edge of what can be done,” he says. “All these characteristics are good enough to do what we’ve done, but there are clear strategies to pursue to make them even better.”

Source: Scientific American.