The rising prevalence of obesity has reached pandemic proportions, with an associated cost estimated at up to 7% of health expenditures worldwide. Bariatric surgery is currently the only effective long-term treatment for obesity and obesity-related co-morbidities in clinically severely obese patients. However, the precise physiological mechanisms underlying the postsurgical reductions in caloric intake and body weight are poorly comprehended. It has been suggested that changes in hormones involved in hunger, food intake and satiety via the neurohormonal network may contribute to the efficacy of bariatric procedures. In this review, we consider how gastrointestinal hormone concentrations, involved in appetite and body weight regulation via the gut–brain axis, are altered by different bariatric procedures. Special emphasis is placed on neurohormonal changes following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, which is the most common and effective procedure used today.
source: International journal of Obesity