7 things not to do when you first wake up



Scientists Get the Green Light to Resurrect the Dead With Stem Cells


How Food Can Improve or Worsen Your Thyroid Function.


20 things you can stop worrying about (because they won’t matter in the long run)

It’s easy to get sucked into the frustrations and annoyances of the day. We tend to get too easily offended by a friend or colleague or feel embarrassed about something because we care too much about what others think of us. 

However, when you take a moment to examine the causes of our daily anxieties, annoyances, and fears, it becomes clear that these things are momentary.

In 5, 10, or even 30 years, here are 20 things won’t matter at all.

1) Daily frustrations.

Not only will these not matter in 20 years, they likely won’t matter in 2 days. When you can recognize this, you can live above the daily drama of many other people and stay positive.

2) Failures that make you feel self-conscious.

Throughout life you realize that sometimes you succeed and sometimes you fail. Failure is a chance to learn. You can’t expect things to turn out perfectly all the time.

3) Fantasies about perfection.

By wasting this energy on striving to create something that is only an ideal, you’ll waste the time you have for actual things.

4) Being worried when you try something new.

By having confidence that you can do something new, you can start off on the right foot instead of spending time anticipating it anxiously.

5) Thinking about what’s in it for you.

As your life goes on, you will realize that giving to others actually helps you receive much more than if you’re doing things selfishly.

6) Not being part of your community.

You may think that supporting causes online is enough, but sooner or later you’ll realize that when you really care about something, supporting in person is a much better way to practice what you preach.

7) Pressure to make a big difference on the world.

You need patience to allow yourself time to learn, take baby steps, and make the right connections. You will make a difference, but it won’t happen overnight.

8) Thinking that quick-fixes will work.

When it comes to making big changes, or dealing with big challenges, you just need to put in hard work.

9) Packing your schedule.

Right now it might seem “lame” if you aren’t constantly doing exciting things. However, when you leave room for yourself, you leave room for spontaneity and rest.

10) Controlling things.

The longer you live, the more you realize how little you can control. Trust that things will happen as they should.

11) Being the victim.

By taking responsibility of your own life and happiness, you give yourself permission to make changes that will benefit you.

12) Making everyone like you.

The number of people you pander to and earn approval from will not help you to be successful. Your own persistence, conviction, and sense of self will.

13) Saving people.

While it’s important to be kind, enabling others who have a victim mentality will help neither you nor them. It’s not your job to tell them, but it’s also not your job to save them.

14) The selfishness of others.

People often put themselves first. Detaching from other’s selfish choices will keep you more realistic and liberated.

15) The importance of winning arguments.

Sometimes the best thing to do is take a step back and really look at if the argument is worth it or not. It’s mostly not.

16) Judging others.

Everyone does stupid things sometimes. You wouldn’t want another person to judge you for a mistake you made, so give them the benefit of the doubt.

17) Obsession with physical beauty.

Beauty ultimately has nothing to do with how we look physically. The way you make others feel is what will really make you beautiful.

18) Luxury.

Things are fun, but the real meaning in life comes from what can’t be bought.

19) Shallow relationships.

Our time on earth is limited and popularity because of shallow acquaintances doesn’t give much meaning to this short existence.

20) Fantasizing about the future.

At the end of life you won’t remember all the things you hoped it’d be, you’ll remember all the wonderful ways it was in the moment.

Reality is an illusion: The scientific proof everything is energy and reality isn’t real

Quantum physicists are discovering facts about the world that we would never have thought to be possible.

The scientific breakthroughs that have taken place in the last few years are as significant to our understanding of reality as Copernicus’s outline of the solar system.

The problem? Many of us simply do not understand quantum physics. And this all began roughly a hundred years ago, when physicists began challenging the assumption that the physical space and universe that we see around us is actually “real”.

Scientists decided that to prove that reality was not, in fact, simply an illusion, they had to discover the “point particle”, and this would be accomplished with innovations like the Large Hadron Collider.

This machine was initially built to smash particles into one another, and this is where they made the greatest discovery: the physical world is not as physical as we believe. Reality is an illusion as we see it.  Instead, everything around us is just energy.

How Reality Is Just Energy

We think of the atom as an organized group of electrons and protons zooming around a neutron, but this figure is completely wrong.

The particles that make up the atoms have no structure or size, no weight or physical presence.

They have no height, length, width, or weight, and are nothing more than events in time. They have zero dimensions.

Electrons also do not have a singular presence—they are both a particle and a wave simultaneously, depending on how they are observed.

They are never in a single location at a single moment, and instead exist in several moments at the same time.

Scientists also discovered what is known as the “superposition”, in which several particles aside from electrons can be proven to exist in multiple places at a single moment.

What does all this mean?

It means that the more we discover about the subatomic world, the more we discover that we know nothing about the true nature of reality at all.

The Copenhagen Interpretation

Many scientists have come to the Copenhagen Interpretation as their conclusion for understanding reality.

The Copenhagen Interpretation comes from the school of quantum mechanics, and it believes that reality does not exist without an observer to observe it.

As reality is nothing more than energy (what gives us physicality if the smallest parts of us have no physical characteristics?), then the energy is conscious when consciousness is observing it.

This may be difficult to understand.

Think of it this way: since particles exist in several areas at the same time, then it must respond to an observation by choosing to exist in a singular location, allowing the observer to have an image to observe.

A growing number of researchers in this field believe that reality exists only because human consciousness wills it to exist, by interacting with the energy that makes up the universe.

Understanding the Universe as Information

Another mind-blowing discovery in quantum physics is entanglement.

Entanglement is when a pair of particles have interacted and have affected the spin of the other particle.

What’s strange is that once these two particles have become tangled with one another, they can never become untangled.

No matter how far apart they may stretch from the other, the spin of one particle will always affect the spin of the other.

Researchers have observed this in living cells, communicating over far distances. In one famous experiment, researchers grew algae cells in a petri dish. They then separated these cells into two halves, taking one half to another laboratory.

What they found was that no matter how much they separated the two dishes, a low-voltage current applied on one dish would always affect the cells in the other dish in the exact same way at the exact same moment.

How Is this possible?

Understanding this requires shifting the way we think of the universe. We can no longer think of the universe as a physical realm in which the things we observe and sense are all that exists.

Instead, as famous physicist Sir Roger Penrose theorized, we must envision the universe as nothing but information.

We must believe that the physical universe is just a product of an abstract universe, in which we are all connected in an unobservable way.

Information is simply embedded into the physical constructs of the physical universe, but is transmitted to our physical states from the abstract realm, first theorized by Greek philosopher, Plato.

As Erwin Schrodinger famously stated, “What we observe as material bodies and forces are nothing but shapes and variations in the structure of space. Particles are just appearances.”

Simply put, everything is nothing but energy.

Coping With A Different Reality

There are certain questions and realizations you must come to terms with after learning this true state of reality. You could obsess over the implications indefinitely, but here are a few to start you off:

  • You have never touched anything, and you never will. The electrons that make up your atoms repulse against the electrons of other physical entities, making it impossible for you to interact with other material at the subatomic level.
  • If we are not touching anything, then what is it that we feel when we “touch”?
  • How is the world physical when the building blocks that make it have no dimensions?
  • How is anything real, and what does real mean?
  • Is reality determined by physicality?

Early Puberty Mystery Linked to Family Exposure to Household Chemicals

“We are starting to have enough information about them to certainly be concerned.”

American girls are now going through puberty significantly earlier than in decades prior, a trend that’s been linked to physiological and psychological risks. The various factors thought to drive early puberty include obesity, toxic stress, and environmental elements. A landmark study published Monday looks at one particular type of environmental element — the chemicals in household items.

A long-running study on mothers and children published in Human Reproduction determined that the onset of female puberty is associated with exposure to chemicals like phthalates, parabens, and the antibacterial agent triclosan. These products in personal care products, like some brands of perfumes, cosmetics, and toothpaste. The same result was not found in populations of boys, whose timing of puberty was also examined in this study.

“We have known for the past 15 to 20 years that girls are entering puberty at an earlier age than they used to in the past,” lead author and University of California, Berkeley associate professor Kim Harley, Ph.D. tells Inverse. “We certainly know that obesity plays a role in that but now we also know that the hormone-disrupting chemicals that are in our homes and in our environment could be an additional factor that’s contributing to this.”

While it’s too soon to say conclusively whether these widely used chemicals are definitively causing early puberty, Harley believes that “we need to be paying attention to these chemicals and we are starting to have enough information about them to certainly be concerned.”

Pregnant mothers were evaluated during this study.

Discovering the cause of early puberty is important to scientists because the phenomenon is linked to a higher risk of developing depression, a greater risk for teen pregnancy, and an increased likelihood of developing diseases like breast cancer and heart disease.

The new study’s conclusions are based on data on pregnant women and the children they gave birth to who were enrolled in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas study between 1999 and 2000. When the women were at around 14 and 27 weeks’ gestation they gave the scientists consent to examine their urine samples for concentrations of phthalates, parabens, and phenols. After the women gave birth, the team collected urine samples and evaluated the pubertal development of the resulting 179 girls and 159 boys. Every nine months between the ages of 9 and 13, scientists checked in to see how puberty was affecting the children.

Overall, 90 percent of the urine samples showed concentrations of all the compounds they tested for. That was only detected in the 73 percent of the samples of pregnant mothers and 69 percent of samples taken from the nine-year old girls.

Mothers whose samples contained diethyl phthalate and triclosan had daughters that entered puberty earlier. For every doubling of triclosan in the mother’s urine, the timing of the girls’ first menstrual period shifted by just under a month and for every doubling in the samples for an indicator for phthalates, the development of girls’ pubic hair shifted by 1.3 months earlier. The urine samples taken from 9-year old girls revealed that, for every doubling in concentrations of parabens, the timing of the breast and pubic hair development, as well as their first period, happened one month earlier on average.

Some of these chemicals are found in cosmetics.

One reason these chemicals may affect puberty is because all of them are known endocrine disruptors. Previous studies on animals and humans have demonstrated that endocrine disruptors have the capacity to mimic, block, or otherwise interfere with the body’s hormones.

“They can bind to hormone receptors, such as estrogen receptors, and influence changes in our bodies,” explains Harley. “That’s what we are concerned about. We’ve known from animal studies that these chemicals can impact development in rats, particularly if the exposure is happening in utero, and now we’re starting to get research from human studies that they may also impact development.”

What’s difficult about sharing the results of this study, says Harley, is that for now all they can say is that these are “chemicals of concern.” The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention readily acknowledges that there’s widespread exposure to phthalates and parabens, with the majority of Americans who are tested containing evidence of these chemicals in their urine. However, the agency states that finding a measurable amount of these chemicals does “not imply that they cause an adverse health effect.”

Harley hopes that regulators look at studies like hers when they move forward in conducting policy decisions and regulations. As of now, she explains, there’s no established benchmark level that states when it’s no longer safe to be exposed to these chemicals. It’s not illegal to have them in personal care products because the science isn’t strong enough to say that they absolutely cause adverse health effects. They are controversial chemicals, and about 70 percent of Americans have them inside their bodies.

“These chemicals are basically ubiquitous,” says Harley. “The regulation isn’t really there and the science is still equivocal. But for people who are concerned, there are things you can do.”

The advice is simple: Reduce exposure to chemicals of concern by changing the personal care products that you use and by purchasing products that don’t contain them. Scientists can’t say for sure what will change for you if you do, but doing so certainly can’t hurt.

CDC Researchers Blame JUUL for Rise in Teen Vaping

“JUUL’s high nicotine concentration, discreet shape, and flavors could be particularly appealing to, and problematic for, youths.”

Science says vaping is cool. Okay, maybe science doesn’t directly say that, but evidence shows that more and more teens are using e-cigarettes, and teens are cool, so vaping must be cool, right? Unfortunately, public health officials at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention disagree. And they’re placing much of the blame for the rise in teen vaping on one company: the Silicon Valley e-cigarette startup JUUL Laboratories.

In a research letter published Tuesday in the Journal of the American Medical Association, researchers at the CDC and nonprofit RTI International’s Centers for Health Policy Science and Tobacco Research analyzed data from retailers across the country and outlined how JUUL’s meteoric rise in popularity may be accredited — at least in part — to its appeal among teenagers. While all e-cigarette brands increased in popularity between 2013 and 2017 because of marketing suggesting that they help people quit smoking, JUUL has become the most in-demand manufacturer of all.

“JUUL’s high nicotine concentration, discreet shape, and flavors could be particularly appealing to, and problematic for, youths,” wrote the study’s authors, led by Brian King, Ph.D., M.P.H., deputy director for research translation in the CDC’s Office on Smoking and Health.

Many teens may initially try e-cigarettes, like those manufactured by JUUL, because they’re seen as safer alternatives to traditional tobacco cigarettes. And JUUL’s sleek, compact design makes the device look like a USB drive, meaning it can easily be slipped into a pocket or concealed in the palm of the hand. Several reports suggest teens easily sneak it into classrooms. Its modular “pod” design also makes it easy for users to refill the nicotine-containing liquid by simply switching out a coin-sized cartridge. Compared to disposable devices with integrated batteries, JUUL’s rechargeable device offers several attractive qualities to many consumers, and the numbers bear this out.

According to the study’s authors, JUUL Laboratories sales increased by a whopping 641 percent from 2016 to 2017. This growth translated to a 515 percent increase in JUUL Laboratories’ share of the e-cigarette market, jumping from just 2 percent of the vape market when the company started to 13 percent in early 2017. The company’s hold on the vape market exploded after that, and as of December 2017, the company controlled 29 percent of e-cigarette sales. This means that almost one out of every three e-cigarettes purchased in the US is a JUUL.

Notably, the study only used purchasing data from retailers, so it was not possible for researchers to determine how old buyers were. The study’s authors did note, though, that previous research has suggested many of these purchases may have been made by consumers under the legal smoking age.

“These sales could reflect products purchased by adults to attempt smoking cessation or products obtained directly or indirectly by youths; a recent analysis found retail stores were the primary location where youths reported obtaining the JUUL device and refill pods,” they wrote.

JUUL podmod starter kit
A JUUL starter pack includes the device, a USB charger, and four pods of different flavored nicotine-containing e-liquid, all for less than $50.

In response to Inverse’s request for comment on the new paper, JUUL spokesperson Victoria Davis did not address the assertion that JUUL products are popular among young people. Davis did emphasize targeting “adult smokers” three times, though:

JUUL Labs is focused on its mission to improve the lives of the world’s one billion adult smokers. Like many Silicon Valley technology startups, our growth is the result of a superior product disrupting an archaic industry — in this case, one whose products are the number one cause of preventable death. When adult smokers find a satisfying alternative to cigarettes, they tell other adult smokers. JUUL Labs has helped more than 1 million Americans switch from cigarettes, and we’re excited about our continued expansion into markets outside of the United States such as the United Kingdom, Canada, and Israel.

This public relations tactic is becoming familiar territory for JUUL, whose official Instagram page is dominated by images of full-on adult adults, including testimonials from people like 68-year-old Kathy, a gray-haired woman named Barbara, and the rapper/actress Awkwafina, who, at 29 years old is young but no teen. The explicit focus on adults may be coming a little too late for the company, though, as it’s already in federal regulators’ crosshairs.

On September 13, Inverse reported that US Food and Drug Administration Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D., announced that vaping had become an “epidemic.” Gottlieb noted that the FDA had issued 56 warning letters to retailers who illegally sold the devices to kids under 18 years old, and JUUL was specifically mentioned in his announcement. This week, the FDA also announced it had raided JUUL’s headquarters on Friday, seizing thousands of pages of documents. The operation was part of an investigation into whether JUUL has been marketing its products to children.

Secret Philip Morris Files Show What the Tobacco Giant Knew About Addiction

It’s not all about nicotine.


As anyone who’s tried to quit smoking cigarettes knows, smoking is not just about the nicotine. Far from being strictly chemical, addiction is also social, emotional, and psychological. It’s something to do on your walk to work, a way to take some alone time during a stressful work day, and an excuse to step outside the bar to light up and chat with your friends. Now, a study in the journal PLOS Medicine shows just how well scientists and executives at Philip Morris understood this over the years — and used their understanding to keep people hooked.

In the paper, published Tuesday by researchers from the Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education at the University of California, San Francisco, an analysis of formerly secret documents dated from the Nineties to 2006 from tobacco giant Philip Morris reveals the discrepancy between the company’s public and private stances on addiction. While Philip Morris publicly acknowledged nicotine’s addictiveness in 2000, the study’s authors suggest that the company scapegoated the chemical as the solitary driver of addiction. By placing the blame on nicotine, company scientists drew attention away from a potential public health focus on biological, social, psychological, and environmental factors that could help people quit smoking.

Mann dreht Zigarette von Hand
Nicotine is an addictive chemical, but behavioral and environmental factors play major roles in smoking addiction. By citing nicotine as the primary driver of addiction, tobacco scientists were free to privately exploit these other factors.

After decades of industry-backed science in which Big Tobacco showed that smoking was non-addictive, it was seen as a huge step for public health when Philip Morris finally admitted the truth. But the study’s authors say this move may have just opened the door for the tobacco giant to sell tobacco-free nicotine products, sold under the assumption that nicotine was the main driver of addiction. This chemical explanation for addiction, we now know, vastly undersells the other aspects of addiction.

“Despite [Philip Morris’s] apparent change-of-heart, this analysis suggests that the company’s current public framing of addiction is — at least as of 2006 — as opportunistic as its initial denial of nicotine’s addictiveness,” the authors write. “In reducing addiction treatment to exchanging ‘dirty’ nicotine (i.e., from a cigarette) with ‘clean’ (i.e., noncombustible), [Philip Morris International removes] the need for comprehensive public health interventions in favor of increasing the number of ‘choices’ available to individuals, thereby replacing the known harm of cigarettes with the unknown harms of new nicotine products.”

While the study’s authors had access to an unprecedented quantity of documents as a result of the numerous legal settlements against the tobacco industry, they acknowledge that some gaps in their understanding still exist since they couldn’t review all documents from Philip Morris. Nonetheless, the picture they paint is revealing.

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For addiction researchers, public health researchers, and smokers, it’s clear that smoking is about so much more than the nicotine. But this analysis suggests that a major tobacco company attempted to steer the focus toward only nicotine, decreasing the effectiveness of interventions that could help people quit. So while we might no longer believe studies that say smoking is good for you, it seems that the tobacco industry has continued to steer thinking on addiction into the twenty-first century.

Two Baboons With Pig Hearts Survived for an Unprecedentedly Long Time

“This is a very important achievement in the field of xenotransplantation.”

baboon, pig heart

Society is one step closer to a future in which humans have pig hearts, thanks to a landmark study published Wednesday in Nature. In the study, scientists report that two baboons survived for just over six months after receiving a heart transplant from a pig. Previously, baboons who had undergone the strange procedure only survived a maximum of 57 days.

Xenotransplantation — the transplantation of organs from one species to another — is a growing area of research because there simply aren’t enough human organs to transplant into human patients. Each day, ten Americans die while waiting for an organ transplant. The success of this baboon study suggests that humans might be able to survive this procedure as well.

“This is a very important achievement in the field of xenotransplantation in particular, and in the field of transplantation in general,” Muhammad Mohiuddin, M.D. tells Inverse. “We are losing hundreds of patients a month because we don’t have an organ to replace their diseased organ.”

Mohiuddin, who was not a part of this study, is the director of the Program in cardiac xenotransplantation at the University of Maryland and took part in a successful transplantation of a pig heart into a baboon abdomen for 945 days in 2016. The team behind the new study incorporated the drug therapy regime Mohiuddin’s team developed to keep the baboon’s body from rejecting the heart.Audio from an episode of TED Radio Hour discussing the importance of pig heart transplants.

The field of pig heart xenotransplantation has been developed extensively over the past 25 years. This new study’s success can partially be chalked up to previous research that established the necessary immunosuppression protocol as well as the ability to genetically modify pigs so their hearts won’t trigger the immune systems of other animals after transplantation.

The authors also developed an optimized process for preserving pig hearts during transplantation: Instead of storing the hearts only in cold storage solution, the team intermittently pumped the hearts, which were stored at 46.4 degrees Fahrenheit, with a fluid solution that contained nutrients, hormones, oxygen, and red blood cells.

An early version of this procedure kept four baboons alive for 40 days, the team writes. Modifying the procedure, the team tried it again on five new baboons, who were additionally given drugs to prevent their transplanted piglet hearts from growing too large and medication that lowered their blood pressure to match that of their donors.

From this group of five emerged the two that would live a respective 195 and 183 days. Two others in the group survived for three months, while one died soon after the transplant.

pig heart
A fetal pig heart.

These results make co-author and Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich professor Bruno Reichart, M.D. hopeful that clinical trials for humans can begin in about three years. In 2000, the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation suggested that human clinical trials could begin once 60 percent of primates — more specifically, at least 10 primates of those tested — given pig-hearts survived for at least three months.Original

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Before this happens, a Nature commentary points out, we’ll need to learn more about the potential for porcine viruses to be transmitted from pigs to humans, and doctors will need to devise a protocol to determine whether a patient needs a pig-heart or a mechanical support device.

Mohiuddin’s team is already doing similar experiments to replicate the new findings in hopes they will help bolster support for clinical trials, which the FDA has the power to approve.

The Best Movies of 2018

Harlem. South Korea. Mexico City. Wakanda. The finest films of the year went everywhere and showed us a new way to live.


Movies are changing rapidly. Superhero stories are evolving. Documentaries are booming. Netflix is democratizing—or destroying, depending on your point of view—the movie experience. But it’s also committing resources to some of the most unlikely, fascinating films of the year—one of which made this list, composed by Sean Fennessey and Adam Nayman. Here’s that and nine more. And for more about the Year in Movies, read Sean Fennessey’s essay about the movies’ many fallen men of 2018, Tom Breihan’s Best Action Movies of 2018, and Miles Surrey’s Best Superhero Movies of 2018.

10. If Beale Street Could Talk

Directed by Barry Jenkins (Annapurna)

For his follow-up to Moonlight, Jenkins went directly to the source of one of that film’s clearest and most fertile influences—the fiction of James Baldwin—and emerged with a faithful adaptation that’s also very much an expression of his own personal vision. Jenkins’s lush, expressive style reaches an apex at several points in If Beale Street Could Talk;in the probing, rapturous close-ups of stars KiKi Layne and Stephan James as they gaze at each other (and back at us); in the languorous tracking shot down a sunny summertime street in Harlem as old friends approach from both sides of the frame; in a ’70s-style split screen that evokes a period and its moviemaking. All this beauty, in turn, envelops but doesn’t overwhelm the hard, unsentimental (but still romantic) substance of Baldwin’s story of lovers trapped—but not defined or defeated—by a social context at once beyond their control and in their bones. No film I saw in 2018 improved more upon reflection, or thrives as strongly in memory; Jenkins’s extraordinary image-making hypnotizes the mind’s eye. —Adam Nayman

9. Support the Girls

Directed by Andrew Bujalski (Magnolia)

“I started this day off crying, so if you ask me, laughing is progress,” says embattled restaurant manager Lisa (Regina Hall) midway through Support the Girls;by the end of Bujalski’s film, she’ll be literally screaming into the void, which may not be progress but definitely seems to feel good. Like the director’s previous, gym-set Results, Support the Girls is a workplace comedy, and the sweet ensemble dynamics and myriad contradictions of Lisa’s highway-side establishment Double Whammies—an independently owned establishment that panders to sleazy truckers and harmlessly horny dads—remain in play even as the script gradually narrows into a character study of a woman at once determined and terrified of being defined by her job. Hall’s hugely appealing performance has already been honored by the New York Film Critics Circle, and she fully inhabits a character whose mix of pride, professionalism, and protectiveness makes her a heroine to the (mostly younger) women slinging drinks in low-cut shirts on her watch; the “girls” (including supporting-cast MVPs Haley Lu Richardson and Shayna McHayle) love her unconditionally, and so do we. —AN

8. Annihilation

Directed by Alex Garland (Paramount)

As science fiction goes, 2018 was not a banner year. Consumed by the trappings of adaptation (Ready Player One), intellectual property (The Predator), world-building (The Cloverfield Paradox), and sequelism (Pacific Rim: Uprising), just one film in the genre sought to tell a story individuated from our modern movie world. Garland’s loose adaptation of Jeff VanderMeer’s novel is an exceptionally strange film as studio fare goes, colorful and violent, but also opaque, elusive, and spiritual. The film follows an all-female team of emotionally unmoored scientists who travel to the center of an all-consuming ecological event that is devouring land and time at a terrifying rate. It’s called the Shimmer, and its appetite is cosmic. Garland, who plumbed the depths of artificial intelligence in 2015’s Ex Machina, takes a bolder risk here, attempting to tangle with the idea of the self while also having Natalie Portman fire an automatic weapon at a mutant alligator. It’s an odd, intoxicating film with a score that will invade your bloodstream, a breathtaking third act, and a puzzle-box ending that rewards multiple viewings. There is nothing else like it, mostly because no one else would try. —Sean Fennessey

7. Let the Sunshine In

Directed by Claire Denis (Curiosa)

Hopefully, 2019 will be the year of Claire Denis: The acquisition of the great French director’s new, stunning sci-fi movie High Life by hit-making distributor A24 means that her work will be more readily available to American audiences than ever. In the meantime, though, Denis had a minor box office success this spring with the deceptively accessible Let the Sunshine In,starring Juliette Binoche as a painter navigating the treacherous minefield of midlife dating (it doesn’t help that her art-world social circle is littered with exes). In the past, Denis has pushed both narrative structure and violence to the breaking point (and she does so again in High Life),but Let the Sunshine In looks and behaves like a conventional romantic comedy … until you realize that the emotions it’s dealing with, about companionship and loneliness, are completely unsanitized, and completely devastating. A scene where Binoche’s Isabelle is seduced on the dance floor by a tall, dark stranger to Etta James’s “At Last” is sublime, but despite the song’s title, it’s not a happy ending. The actual finale isn’t an ending either, and we know it. For a movie that may ultimately be about the need for compromise, Let the Sunshine In doesn’t make any—and that’s why it’s Denis at her best. —AN

6. First Reformed

Directed by Paul Schrader (A24)

”I know that nothing can change and I know there is no hope.” Good morning to Paul Schrader! In a world devoid of meaning, there is no greater joy than meeting an artist whose purview is even darker than your own. Schrader’s portrait of a pastor coming unglued from his faith and corporeal reality features one of the great performances of the century in Ethan Hawke’s forlorn Reverend Ernst Toller, an equal to Travis Bickle in Schrader’s canon of demoralized men. The filmmaker is riffing on the slow cinema of his youth, aping the painterly, patient ethical dramas of Ingmar Bergman and Yasujiro Ozu. But it’s remarkable to watch him wriggle away from his inspirations and back into the maddened, isolated masculine anxieties that have defined his career. By the time Hawke and a young, pregnant parishioner named Mary (Amanda Seyfried) find each other, it’s in an ecstatic, bizarre form of spiritual bliss. And by the time they are floating, so are we. —SF

5. Black Panther

Directed by Ryan Coogler (Marvel)

Black Panther does something that no other movie has done before. I’m not talking about crafting a cinematic superhero film that is both acclaimed and socially relevant, though that’s true. And I’m not talking about making a film with a primarily black cast an international sensation, though that is also true. Black Panther does something else extraordinary: It bends a world to its whims. The extended Marvel continuum is the center of the pop cultural universe, more dominant, demanding, and overexamined than anything else. But, in a clever bit of self-referentiality, Black Panther mimics its own core crisis of isolationism vs. globalism, zooming in to a localized fable of succession, kings, and factional warfare. Sure, it globe-trots like a James Bond flick and ponders the history of the fates. But it takes itself seriously and stays home in Wakanda, eyeing oppression and disenfranchisement within the walls of closed communities.

But this isn’t a turgid morality play. The composite parts of a rollicking comic book movie are all there: sharply drawn set pieces, exceptional costuming and production design, overqualified actors filling in bit-part gaps, adventurous photographic choices, meme-worthy gags. Evil threatens and ultimately falls. But Coogler’s sure-handed, empathic portrait of fathers and sons—what they give to each other and what they take away—is an uncommonly trenchant theme interwoven in a movie that also features CGI war rhinos. Black Panther is obviously great, but never greatly obvious. —SF

4. Zama

Directed by Lucrecia Martel (Strand)

The greatest movies make us experience them on their own terms. They go so far with their style that there’s no meeting them halfway. No narrative film released in 2018 asked more of its audience than Martel’s Zama,a slow-motion comedy about a Spanish diplomat wasting away in a remote Patagonian outpost in the 1700s; the line between the boredom of Don Diego de Zama (Daniel Giménez Cacho), who wants desperately to leave for better things, and that of the viewer is razor thin, but Martel—a genius of mood and atmosphere—stays on the right side in every precise, mesmerizing scene. Part existential horror movie, part colonial critique, part satire of deflated masculinity—and so fully realized on the levels of sound, image, and performance that comparisons to past masters are inevitable (I thought often of Stanley Kubrick’s Barry Lyndon)—Zama is challenging stuff and exists in a separate universe from some of the other titles on this list. But if cinema is about being transported to another place, Martel is unrivaled as a guide—which may be why, in its amazing final scenes, the film suggests that the solution (for the character and the audience) is to just sit back and enjoy the ride. —AN

3. Roma

Directed by Alfonso Cuarón (Netflix)

Roma is practically defined by a humane grandeur, the swirling image of Mexico in a state of unrest in 1970, masses of people on the move through forests, deserts, beaches, city streets. But the image that has attached itself to my mind and refused to let go takes place inside the home of the middle-class family at the center of the film, on the floor of the living room, where a mother is clutching her young son, seated foot-to-foot, heads bowing toward one another, in tears. It’s one of the most profound, modest evocations of a family dissolving that I’ve ever seen. Alfonso Cuarón has rendered dystopian warfare, interstellar space travel, and a rousing round of Quidditch on screen. But he’s never made anything quite like Roma, a masterly work in which he is controlling all of the levers—writing, directing, producing, and physically shooting the film. If ever a movie demanded such a one-man-band approach, it’s this personal remembrance, a swatch of memory reprogrammed for the big screen. It’s also a staggering achievement, a rare occasion when the oft-overused word “vision” is worthy. It feels like something Cuarón has been seeing in his mind for years, decades. That we can see it now is a gift. —SF

2. Minding the Gap

Directed by Bing Liu (Hulu)

It has been an unpredictably massive year for the documentary form—as narrative podcasts grow, true crime has emerged as a core American genre and streaming services have built their unwieldy content plans around sprawling doc series. And yet, it was good ol’ feature documentaries that rose above a glut of “real” to tap into something urgent and sometimes even profound. They hit on something obvious but elusive in the culture, and audiences showed up. What RBG and Won’t You Be My Neighbor? accomplished with overt political and social gestures, Free Solo found in astonishing physical feats, and Three Identical Strangers captured in its shocking unbelievability, Liu’s Minding the Gap touched on the surface of the earth, gliding along the mortal remains of an abandoned American city. Tracing his friends and fellow skateboarders through adolescence and into uncertain adulthood in Rockford, Illinois, Liu doesn’t do anything fancy with the camera. He doesn’t try to announce a decree about his generation. He doesn’t even care much about narrative cohesion. But if you look closely at the credits, you’ll see a meaningful name that’s also a guidepost: Steve James. The same Steve James who made Hoop Dreams some 25 years ago, tracking a previous generation of hopeful and ignored young men seeking guidance in flawed role models. The connection is deep and earned. Liu’s film is autobiographical but timeless, a picture of how disenfranchised kids with no good idea of how to live make mistakes and wonder why they went wrong. It’s an unusually raw and upsetting movie made with grace and a seeming ease, across several years. Unlike so many in the genre, you can never feel it working or manipulating the viewer. The landing is hard, but the trick is worth it. —SF

1. Burning

Directed by Lee Chang-dong (CGV Arthouse)

“There is a difference between movies that refuse to fix their meanings for fear of exposing their essential vacuousness—that leave so much space for interpretation that they end up feeling legitimately empty, like a shell game without a marble—and movies that bristle with an ambiguity derived from the complex, irreconcilable nature of reality itself.” I wrote those words about Burning in October, the point being that Lee’s film was in the second category. They’ve only felt truer the more I’ve meditated on this wonderfully maddening thriller. The trope of the unreliable narrator is brilliantly realized in the character of Jong-su (Yoo Ah-in), an aspiring writer who sees himself as the hero in a tale of unrequited love. The question of whether his romantic rival, Ben (Steven Yeun, who should be nominated for an Oscar), is an embodiment of true evil or a hateful projection of the author remains as wide open as the fate of the woman who comes between them (Jeon Jong-seo, in a nuanced, thoughtful performance that’s being given predictably short shrift by critics who’ve misread the role as evidence of misogyny). As a story about class, money, sex, art, masculinity, and the fundamentally mysterious nature of all interpersonal exchange, Burning is as intricate and layered as the kind of novel Jong-su wants to write; it’s the cinematic equivalent of a page-turner where you can’t help but savor each poetically loaded passage. —AN

With Apologies To:

The Favourite
The Rider
A Star Is Born
First Man
The Ballad of Buster Scruggs
Cold War
Eighth Grade
The Old Man and the Gun
Game Night
Won’t You Be My Neighbor?
A Quiet Place
The Price of Everything
Leave No Trace
Infinite Football
The Death of Stalin
Sorry to Bother You